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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10558 matches for " Matthew "
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The SMS Chaum Mix  [PDF]
Matthew Rothmeyer, Dale R. Thompson, Matthew Moccaro
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2014.24010
Abstract:

Mobile devices such as smartphones are prime candidates for the application of mixing techniques to provide anonymity for small groups of individuals numbering 30 to 40 members. In this work, a Chaum mix inspired, smartphone based network that uses the Short Message Service (SMS) is proposed. This system leverages both techniques used by current anonymity networks as well as knowledge gained from current and past research to make messages private and untraceable. Previously published attacks to anonymous systems are addressed as well as mitigation techniques.

pHluorin2: an enhanced, ratiometric, pH-sensitive green florescent protein  [PDF]
Matthew John Mahon
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2011.23021
Abstract: Green florescent protein (GFP) variants that are sen-sitive to changes in pH are invaluable reagents for the analysis of protein dynamics associated with both endo- and exocytotic vesicular trafficking. Ratiomet-ric pHluorin is a GFP variant that displays a bimodal excitation spectrum with peaks at 395 and 475 nm and an emission maximum at 509 nm. Upon acidi-fication, pHluorin excitation at 395 nm decreases with a corresponding increase in the excitation at 475 nm. GFP2, a GFP variant that contains mammalian-ized codons and the folding enhancing mutation F64L, displays ~8-fold higher florescence compared to pHluorin upon excitation at 395 nm. Using GFP2 as a template, an enhanced ratiometric pHluorin (pHluorin2) construct was developed to contain fully mammalianized codons, the F64L mutation and ten of the thirteen pHluorin-specific mutations. As a result, pHluorin2 displays markedly higher flores-cence when compared to pHluorin while maintaining the ratiometric pH-sensitivity. Unlike native pHluorin, pHluorin2 expressed in the ligand-binding domain of the parathyroid hormone 1 receptor is readily detectable by confocal microscopy and dis-plays a marked increase in florescence upon ligand-induced endocytosis to intracellular vesicles. Thus, pHluorin2 displays enhanced florescence while sustaining ratiometric pH-sensitivity, representing a significant improvement for this methodological ap-proach.
Internet of Things: Services and Applications Categorization  [PDF]
Matthew Gigli, Simon Koo
Advances in Internet of Things (AIT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ait.2011.12004
Abstract: In this paper we attempt to categorize the services provided by the Internet of Things (IoT) in order to help application developers build upon a base service. First we introduce the four main categories of services, and then follow by providing a number of examples of each of the service categories so as to provide an example of how each type of service might be implemented, and how it can be used to build an IoT application.
Bias of the Random Forest Out-of-Bag (OOB) Error for Certain Input Parameters  [PDF]
Matthew W. Mitchell
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2011.13024
Abstract: Random Forest is an excellent classification tool, especially in the –omics sciences such as metabolomics, where the number of variables is much greater than the number of subjects, i.e., “n << p.” However, the choices for the arguments for the random forest implementation are very important. Simulation studies are performed to compare the effect of the input parameters on the predictive ability of the random forest. The number of variables sampled, m-try, has the largest impact on the true prediction error. It is often claimed that the out-of-bag error (OOB) is an unbiased estimate of the true prediction error. However, for the case where n << p, with the default arguments, the out-of-bag (OOB) error overestimates the true error, i.e., the random forest actually performs better than indicated by the OOB error. This bias is greatly reduced by subsampling without replacement and choosing the same number of observations from each group. However, even after these adjustments, there is a low amount of bias. The remaining bias occurs because when there are trees with equal predictive ability, the one that performs better on the in-bag samples will perform worse on the out-of-bag samples. Cross-validation can be performed to reduce the remaining bias.
Happiness as Surplus or Freely Available Energy  [PDF]
Matthew T. Gailliot
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.39107
Abstract: This paper presents a literature review that indicate happiness as a state of freely available or surplus energy. Happiness is associated with good metabolism and glucose levels, fewer demands (from parenting, work, difficult social relationships, or personal threats), and goal achievement, as well as increased ease of processing, mental resources, social support, and monetary wealth. Each of these either provide or help conserve energy.
Direct Visualisation of the Depth-Dependent Mechanical Properties of Full-Thickness Articular Cartilage  [PDF]
Matthew Szarko, Yang Xia
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2012.22007
Abstract: Objective: The structural anisotropy of articular cartilage controls its deformation response. As proteoglycans and collagen vary with depth, simple uniaxial compression results in inhomogeneous deformation with distinct depth-dependent mechanical properties. Investigations into depth-dependent mechanical properties of articular cartilage have previously required tissue modification after specimen isolation. Such modifications include histological processes, freezing, subchondral bone removal, and fluorescent staining that may alter the tissue, limiting in vivo applicability. Design: Using a custom tissue-sectioning device, 0.1 mm thick unfixed, unstained, osetochondral samples were obtained. A customized apparatus loaded samples to 12.5%, 24%, and 29% compression in under a microscope with 10× magnification. Equilibrium load was measured after stress relaxation. Intra-tissue displacement was measured by tracing groups of cells between the different compression levels using a digital imaging program. Cell distance from the subchondral bone was measured to identify intratissue displacement and calculate strain. Results: The results reveal that stress levels and intratissue displacement increased with greater tissue compression (p < 0.05). Intra-tissue displacement decreased as depth from the articular surface increased (p < 0.01). This occurred for each level of tissue compression. Overall compressive resistance is seen to increase with depth from the articular surface. Conclusions: The current study identifies a method directly visualising and assessing the depth-dependent structural response to compression. The ability to avoid tissue modification after specimen isolation, allows this procedure to more closely approximate in vivo conditions and may provide an important method for analyzing the coordinated changes in cartilage composition and function due to ageing and disease.
Emerging technology in acute resuscitation monitoring  [PDF]
Matthew Tichauer, Jonathan McCoy
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2012.223048
Abstract: Fluid optimization in the resuscitation of shock became the mainstay of treatment following the advent of Early Goal-Directed Therapy (EGDT) by Rivers et al. in 2001 [1]. Patients presenting in shock require prompt optimization of volume status and cardiac out- put to ensure adequate perfusion. Poor optimization may be associated with prolonged hospital and intensive care unit stays. The prior gold standard, pulmonary artery catheterization, is rarely available in the emergency department setting and its invasive nature has led to recent re-evaluation of its clinical utility. However, there are new monitoring technologies that are being studied in the intensive care unit setting that may soon be available in emergency departments to aid in nursing and physician decision making to improve acute resuscitation.
Truth, Narrative, and Opening Space  [PDF]
Matthew Z. Donnelly
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.24032
Abstract: This paper identifies the difficulties in confronting novel history from both a rigorous scientific and artistic literary perspectives and suggests a practical reconciliation—in the form of a discussion and metaphorical opening space—between the two apparent poles of historical understanding and their accompanying genres, types, and tropes.
Mortality Salience and Metabolism: Glucose Drinks Reduce Worldview Defense Caused by Mortality Salience  [PDF]
Matthew T. Gailliot
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.311149
Abstract: The current work tested the hypothesis that a glucose drink would reduce worldview defense following mortality salience. Participants consumed either a glucose drink or placebo, wrote about either death or dental pain, and then completed a measure of worldview defense (viewing positively someone with pro-US views and viewing negatively someone with anti-US views). Mortality salience increased world- view defense among participants who consumed a placebo but not among participants who consumed a glucose drink. Glucose might reduce defensiveness after mortality salience by increasing the effectiveness of the self-controlled suppression of death-related thought, by providing resources to cope with mortality salience and reducing its threatening nature, or by distancing the individual from actual physical death.
Improved Self-Control Associated with Using Relatively Large Amounts of Glucose: Learning Self-Control Is Metabolically Expensive  [PDF]
Matthew T. Gailliot
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.311148
Abstract: The current study examined whether changes in glucose during a self-control task would predict changes in self-control performance later on. Participants attended two experimental sessions, spaced two weeks apart. During each session, they had their glucose measured, completed the Stroop task as a measure of self-control, and then had their glucose measured again. Larger decreases in glucose (from before to after the Stroop task) during the first session predicted larger increases in improvement on the Stroop task dur- ing the second session, in the form of increased speed. Learning self-controlmight benefit from using lar- ger amounts of glucose. Learning self-control is metabolically expensive. These findings raise the possi- bility that self-control fatigue occurs because metabolic energy is depleted during the learning of self- control.
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