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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 210824 matches for " Matthew P Muller "
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Evaluation of Pneumonia Severity and Acute Physiology Scores to Predict ICU Admission and Mortality in Patients Hospitalized for Influenza
Matthew P. Muller,Allison J. McGeer,Kazi Hassan,John Marshall,Michael Christian
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009563
Abstract: The demand for inpatient medical services increases during influenza season. A scoring system capable of identifying influenza patients at low risk death or ICU admission could help clinicians make hospital admission decisions.
Efficacy of Admission Screening for Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Enterobacteriaceae
Christopher F. Lowe, Kevin Katz, Allison J. McGeer, Matthew P. Muller, for the Toronto ESBL Working Group
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062678
Abstract: Objective We hypothesized that admission screening for extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) reduces the incidence of hospital-acquired ESBL-E clinical isolates. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting 12 hospitals (6 screening and 6 non-screening) in Toronto, Canada. Patients All adult inpatients with an ESBL-E positive culture collected from 2005–2009. Methods Cases were defined as hospital-onset (HO) or community-onset (CO) if cultures were positive after or before 72 hours. Efficacy of screening in reducing HO-ESBL-E incidence was assessed with a negative binomial model adjusting for study year and CO-ESBL-E incidence. The accuracy of the HO-ESBL-E definition was assessed by re-classifying HO-ESBL-E cases as confirmed nosocomial (negative admission screen), probable nosocomial (no admission screen) or not nosocomial (positive admission screen) using data from the screening hospitals. Results There were 2,088 ESBL-E positive patients and incidence of ESBL-E rose from 0.11 to 0.42 per 1,000 inpatient days between 2005 and 2009. CO-ESBL-E incidence was similar at screening and non-screening hospitals but screening hospitals had a lower incidence of HO-ESBL-E in all years. In the negative binomial model, screening was associated with a 49.1% reduction in HO-ESBL-E (p<0.001). A similar reduction was seen in the incidence of HO-ESBL-E bacteremia. When HO-ESBL-E cases were re-classified based on their admission screen result, 46.5% were positive on admission, 32.5% were confirmed as nosocomial and 21.0% were probable nosocomial cases. Conclusions Admission screening for ESBL-E is associated with a reduced incidence of HO-ESBL-E. Controlled, prospective studies of admission screening for ESBL-E should be a priority.
Crystal growth and elasticity
P. Muller
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1051/epjap:2008071
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to review some elasticity effects in epitaxial growth. We start by a description of the main ingredients needed to describe elasticity effects (elastic interactions, surface stress, bulk and surface elasticity, thermodynamics of stressed solids). Then we describe how bulk and surface elasticity affect growth mode and surface morphology by means of stress-driven instability. At last stress-strain evolution during crystal growth is reported.
Finite size effects on surface excess quantities: application to crystal growth and surface melting of epitaxial layers
P. Muller
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: From a macroscopic point of view phase transitions as surface melting or two dimensional (2D) towards three dimensional (3D) growth mode (Stranski-Krastanov transition) can be described in terms of Gibbs excess quantity duly amended by size effects (since usual Gibbs excess quantities are only well defined for semi-infinite systems). The aim of this study is to consider such amended quantities to describe surface melting and Stranski-Krastanov transition of epitaxial layers. the so-introduced size effects allows us to predict the equilibrium thickness of the wetting layer of the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode and to describe and classify two different melting cases: the incomplete melting relayed by a first order transition and the continuous premelting relayed by continuous overheating
Critical care resource allocation: trying to PREEDICCT outcomes without a crystal ball
Michael D Christian, Robert Fowler, Matthew P Muller, Charles Gomersall, Charles L Sprung, Nathaniel Hupert, David Fisman, Andrew Tillyard, David Zygun, John C Marshal, PREEDICCT Study Group
Critical Care , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/cc11842
Abstract: The International Forum of Acute Care Trialists (InFACT) was formed in 2009 and provided a platform for international critical care research collaboration during the 2009/10 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic [12]. Over the past 2 years, a number of working groups have emerged from InFACT focused upon improving the investigation and care of patients with severe respiratory illness. Arising from these efforts, in June 2012 an inter-national group of clinicians convened the first meeting of the Providing Resources for Effective and Ethical Decisions In Critical Care Triage (PREEDICCT) Study Group. The study group's aim is to develop decision support tools appropriate for triaging critically ill adult patients during epidemics, mass-casualty scenarios or other resource-limited settings. This meeting identified a number of knowledge gaps and research priorities in this area, and suggested a revised framework for the requirements of an adequate triage decision support tool.While purpose-built triage protocols focus on specific events (for example, pandemics), resource allocation decisions are part of everyday practice for critical care physicians worldwide. Several PREEDICCT members work in settings where there are chronically insufficient critical care resources to meet the demand [13]. Critical care physicians also make resource allocation decisions every day in high-income countries, as they decide who might benefit from ICU care, when to accept outside transfers and when insufficient capacity dictates external transfer of patients. Yet intensivists lack objective tools to support these decision-making processes. Further, practices and specific decisions are likely to vary widely by country, by hospital and by individual provider.The first significant shift in direction advocated by our group is to move away from attempting to use a physiologic score alone to predict outcomes. The rationale for basing triage tools on a physiologic score is that all critically ill patients com
Surface melting of nanoscopic epitaxial films
P. Muller,R. Kern
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1016/S0039-6028(03)00055-4
Abstract: By introducing finite size surface and interfacial excess quantities, interactions between interfaces are shown to modify the usual surface premelting phenomenon. It is the case of surface melting of a thin solid film s deposited on a planar solid substrate S. More precisely to the usual wetting condition of the solid s by its own melt l, necessary for premelting (wetting factor F<0), is adjoined a new quantity G describing the interactions of the l/s interface with the s/S interface. When G>0 this interface attraction boosts the premelting so that a two stage boosted surface premelting is foreseen: a continuous premelting, up to roughly half the deposited film, is followed by an abrupt first order premelting. When G<0 these interfaces repell each other so that premelting is refrained and the film remains partly solid above the bulk melting point (overheating) what is called astride melting. Elastic stress modifies both types of melting curves. Bulk and surface stresses have to be distinguished.
Equilibrium nano-shape changes induced by epitaxial stress (generalised Wulf-Kaishew theorem)
P. Muller,R. Kern
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1016/S0039-6028(00)00371-X
Abstract: A generalised Wulf-Kaishew theorem is given describing the equilibrium shape (ES) of an isolated 3D crystal A deposited coherently onto a lattice mismatched planar substrate. For this purpose a free polyhedral crystal is formed then homogeneously strained to be accommodated onto the lattice mismatched substrate. During its elastic inhomogeneous relaxation the epitaxial contact remains coherent so that the 3D crystal drags the atoms of the contact area and produces a strain field in the substrate. The ES of the deposit is obtained by minimising at constant volume the total energy (bulk and surface energies) taking into account the bulk elastic relaxation. Our main results are: (1) Epitaxial strain acts against wetting (adhesion) so that globally it leads to a thickening of the ES. (2) Owing to strain the ES changes with size. More precisely the various facets extension changes, some facets decreasing, some others increasing. (3) Each dislocation entrance, necessary for relaxing plastically too large crystals abruptly modifies the ES and thus the different facets extension in a jerky way. (4) In all cases the usual self-similarity with size is lost when misfit is considered. We illustrate these points in case of box shaped and truncated pyramidal crystals. Some experimental evidences are discussed.
Introduction to quantum groups
P. Podles,E. Muller
Mathematics , 1997, DOI: 10.1142/S0129055X98000173
Abstract: We give an elementary introduction to the theory of algebraic and topological quantum groups (in the spirit of S. L. Woronowicz). In particular, we recall the basic facts from Hopf (*-) algebra theory, theory of compact (matrix) quantum groups and the theory of their actions on compact quantum spaces. We also provide the most important examples, including the classification of quantum SL(2)-groups, their real forms and quantum spheres. We also consider quantum SL_q(N)-groups and quantum Lorentz groups.
A configuration interaction analysis of exchange in double quantum dots
Erik Nielsen,Richard P. Muller
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We describe in detail a full configuration interaction (CI) method designed to analyze systems of quantum dots. This method is capable of exploring large regions of parameter space, like more approximate approaches such as Heitler London and Hund Mulliken, though it is not limited to weakly coupled dots. In particular, this method is well-suited to the analysis of solid state quantum-dot-based qubits, and we consider the case of a double quantum dot (DQD) singlet-triplet qubit. Past analyses have used techniques which are either substantially restricted in the regimes they can be used, or device specific and unsuited to exploration of a large regions of parameter space. We analyze how the DQD exchange energy, which is central to the operation of qubit rotation gates, depends on a generic set of system parameters including magnetic field, DQD detuning, dot size, and dot separation. We discuss the implications of these results to the construction of real devices. We provide a benchmark of the CI by directly comparing results from the CI method with exact results for two electrons in a single parabolic potential (dot).
Casimir Effect in $E^3$ closed spaces
Mariana P. Lima,Daniel Muller
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/24/4/010
Abstract: As it is well known the topology of space is not totally determined by Einstein's equations. It is considered a massless scalar quantum field in a static Euclidean space of dimension 3. The expectation value for the energy density in all compact orientable Euclidean 3-spaces are obtained in this work as a finite summation of Epstein type zeta functions. The Casimir energy density for these particular manifolds is independent of the type of coupling with curvature. A numerical plot of the result inside each Dirichlet region is obtained.
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