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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11581 matches for " Matthew McDonald "
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Corrigendum: Nanocrystalline diamond surfaces for adhesion and growth of primary neurons, conflicting results and rational explanation
Matthew Mcdonald
Frontiers in Neuroengineering , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fneng.2014.00037
Abstract: The article "Nanocrystalline diamond surfaces for adhesion and growth of primary neurons, conflicting results and rational explanation" was published 11 June 2014, with myself as the second author. It came to my attention through a friend that my name is spelled incorrectly, which I did not notice during the review process. On the paper, currently my name is spelled as: Mathew McDonald. The correct spelling is: Matthew McDonald
Facebook in Vietnam: Uses, Gratifications & Narcissism  [PDF]
Brian McCauley, Sarah Gumbley, Giovanni Merola, Matthew McDonald, Truc Do
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.411006
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to create a conceptual framework and to collect some pilot data in order to underpin future research on how the Vietnamese use Facebook in their day-to-day lives. A number of key points were observed in this study, which informed the framework. Firstly, there is a paucity of research on this topic, that Facebook users in Vietnam (population 90 million) rank as some of the heaviest consumers in the world, and Vietnamese cultural traditions and values need to be acknowledged given these differences when compared to other nations and how this might influence Facebook use. Given the studies focus on users, the theory on “uses and gratifications” was employed in order to understand how Facebook satisfies the needs of its Vietnamese users. An important component in this theory is the way in which Facebook allows posting of material related to the enhancement of the “self”, which has the potential to satisfy ego driven needs in the form of narcissism. However, narcissism and its links with Facebook have only recently been systematically studied in Asian countries, predominately in China. In conclusion, the conceptual framework and analysis of the pilot data produced a number of interrelated constructs (e.g. socializing, social enhancement, entertainment) that provide a baseline or foundation from which a longer-term program of empirical research can be conducted on Facebook use in Vietnam1.
Exploring cross-sectional associations between common childhood illness, housing and social conditions in remote Australian Aboriginal communities
Ross Bailie, Matthew Stevens, Elizabeth McDonald, David Brewster, Steve Guthridge
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-147
Abstract: Hierarchical multi-level analysis of association between carer report of common childhood illnesses and functional and hygienic state of housing infrastructure, socio-economic, psychosocial and health related behaviours using baseline survey data from a housing intervention study.Multivariate analysis showed a strong independent association between report of respiratory infection and overall functional condition of the house (Odds Ratio (OR) 3.00; 95%CI 1.36-6.63), but no significant association between report of other illnesses and the overall functional condition or the functional condition of infrastructure required for specific healthy living practices. Associations between report of child illness and secondary explanatory variables which showed an OR of 2 or more included: for skin infection - evidence of poor temperature control in the house (OR 3.25; 95%CI 1.06-9.94), evidence of pests and vermin in the house (OR 2.88; 95%CI 1.25-6.60); for respiratory infection - breastfeeding in infancy (OR 0.27; 95%CI 0.14-0.49); for diarrhoea/vomiting - hygienic state of food preparation and storage areas (OR 2.10; 95%CI 1.10-4.00); for ear infection - child care attendance (OR 2.25; 95%CI 1.26-3.99).These findings add to other evidence that building programs need to be supported by a range of other social and behavioural interventions for potential health gains to be more fully realised.Children in remote Australian Aboriginal communities experience exceptionally high rates of common childhood infections including otitis media, skin and respiratory infections and gastroenteritis [1-4]. These infections have serious consequences, including high rates of chronic suppurative otitis media [3], bronchiectasis [5], rheumatic heart disease [6,7] and impaired growth and development [2,8] permanent hearing loss [9] and consequent poor educational outcomes [10]. These infections in childhood contribute to high rates and early onset of chronic disease in adulthood [11] and to the 1
Dystrophic Changes in Extraocular Muscles after Gamma Irradiation in mdx:utrophin+/? Mice
Abby A. McDonald, Matthew D. Kunz, Linda K. McLoon
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086424
Abstract: Extraocular muscles (EOM) have a strikingly different disease profile than limb skeletal muscles. It has long been known that they are spared in Duchenne (DMD) and other forms of muscular dystrophy. Despite many studies, the cause for this sparing is not understood. We have proposed that differences in myogenic precursor cell properties in EOM maintain normal morphology over the lifetime of individuals with DMD due to either greater proliferative potential or greater resistance to injury. This hypothesis was tested by exposing wild type and mdx:utrophin+/? (het) mouse EOM and limb skeletal muscles to 18 Gy gamma irradiation, a dose known to inhibit satellite cell proliferation in limb muscles. As expected, over time het limb skeletal muscles displayed reduced central nucleation mirrored by a reduction in Pax7-positive cells, demonstrating a significant loss in regenerative potential. In contrast, in the first month post-irradiation in the het EOM, myofiber cross-sectional areas first decreased, then increased, but ultimately returned to normal compared to non-irradiated het EOM. Central nucleation significantly increased in the first post-irradiation month, resembling the dystrophic limb phenotype. This correlated with decreased EECD34 stem cells and a concomitant increase and subsequent return to normalcy of both Pax7 and Pitx2-positive cell density. By two months, normal het EOM morphology returned. It appears that irradiation disrupts the normal method of EOM remodeling, which react paradoxically to produce increased numbers of myogenic precursor cells. This suggests that the EOM contain myogenic precursor cell types resistant to 18 Gy gamma irradiation, allowing return to normal morphology 2 months post-irradiation. This supports our hypothesis that ongoing proliferation of specialized regenerative populations in the het EOM actively maintains normal EOM morphology in DMD. Ongoing studies are working to define the differences in the myogenic precursor cells in EOM as well as the cellular milieu in which they reside.
HoloHands: Kinect Control of Optical Tweezers
Craig McDonald,Matthew McPherson,Craig McDougall,David McGloin
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/2040-8978/15/3/035708
Abstract: The increasing number of applications for holographic manipulation techniques has sparked the development of more accessible control interfaces. Here, we describe a holographic optical tweezers experiment that is controlled by gestures which are detected by a Microsoft Kinect. We demonstrate that this technique can be used to calibrate the tweezers using the Stokes Drag method and compare this to automated calibrations. We also show that multiple particle manipulation can be handled. This is a promising new line of research for gesture-based control that could find applications in a wide variety of experimental situations.
Skin infection, housing and social circumstances in children living in remote Indigenous communities: testing conceptual and methodological approaches
Ross S Bailie, Matthew R Stevens, Elizabeth McDonald, Stephen Halpin, David Brewster, Gary Robinson, Steven Guthridge
BMC Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-5-128
Abstract: Participation was negotiated in three communities with community councils and individual participants. Data were collected by survey of dwelling condition, interviews, and audit health centre records of children aged under seven years. Community feedback comprised immediate report of items requiring urgent repair followed by a summary descriptive report. Multivariate models were developed to calculate adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) for skin infections and their association with aspects of household infrastructure.There was a high level of participation in all communities. Health centre records were inadequate for audit in one community. The records of 138 children were available for development of multivariate analytic models. Rates of skin infection in dwellings that lacked functioning facilities for removing faeces or which had concrete floors may be up to twice as high as for other dwellings, and the latter association appears to be exacerbated by crowding. Younger children living in older dwellings may also be at approximately two-fold higher risk. A number of socioeconomic and socio-demographic variables also appear to be directly associated with high rates of skin infections.The methods used in the pilot study were generally feasible, and the analytic approach provides meaningful results. The study provides some evidence that new and modern housing is contributing to a reduction in skin infections in Aboriginal children in remote communities, particularly when this housing leads to a reduction in crowding and the effective removal of human waste.Bacterial skin infections are a common and important cause of morbidity in disadvantaged populations. In Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory the prevalence has been reported at between 10 and 70% [1-4]. Pyoderma is important not only because of its local effects as a skin infection, but more importantly because the primary pathogen underlying skin infection in Aboriginal children is a Group A Strepto
Aging impacts isolated lymphoid follicle development and function
Keely G McDonald, Matthew R Leach, Conway Huang, Caihong Wang, Rodney D Newberry
Immunity & Ageing , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4933-8-1
Abstract: We observed that aged mice have increased numbers of ILFs and increased numbers of structures corresponding to an early stage of CPs transforming into ILFs. The cellular composition of ILFs in aged mice is altered with a smaller B-lymphocyte population and an increased T-lymphocyte population. The ILF T-lymphocyte population is notable by the presence of CD4+ CD8αα+ T-lymphocytes, which are absent from the systemic compartment. The smaller B-lymphocyte population in ILFs from aged mice is directly correlated with decreased mRNA and protein expression of CCL20 and CXCL13, two chemokines that play crucial roles in recruiting B-lymphocytes into ILFs. Aged mice had elevated levels of serum and fecal immunoglobulins and despite the decreased B-lymphocyte population, ILFs from aged mice displayed increased IgA production. The immunoglobulin repertoire was skewed in aged mice, and ILFs demonstrated a repertoire usage similar to that of the systemic pool in both young and aged mice.Here we observed that ILF development, cellular composition, and immunoglobulin production are altered with aging suggesting that ILF dysfunction contributes to mucosal immunosenescence.Immunosenescence is the age-related decline and dysfunction in protective immunity with serious clinical consequences [1-4]. With aging, bacterial and viral infections in the lungs, skin, and urinary tract become more common [5-7]. Compounding this susceptibility to infection, the rates of seroconversion after prophylactic vaccination decrease proportionally with advancing age [8,9]. Related to the decreased ability to mount effective immune responses to pathogens, immunosenescence also leads to a decline in effective immune surveillance potentiating an increased incidence of malignancy [10]. Finally, immunosenescence is not only associated with declining host immune competence, but also with immune dysregulation manifested by an increased incidence in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders with increasing
Flexibility of Older Adults Aged 55–86 Years and the Influence of Physical Activity
Liza Stathokostas,Matthew W. McDonald,Robert M. D. Little,Donald H. Paterson
Journal of Aging Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/743843
Abstract: Cross-sectional age-related differences in flexibility of older adults aged 55–86 years of varying activity levels were examined. Shoulder abduction and hip flexion flexibility measurements were obtained from 436 individuals (205 men, years; 231 women, years). Total physical activity was assessed using the Minnesota Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Shoulder abduction showed a significant decline averaging 5?degrees/decade in men and 6?degrees/decade in women. Piecewise linear regression showed an accelerated decline in men starting at the age of 71 years of 0.80?degrees/year, whereas in women the onset of decline (0.74?degrees/year) was 63 years. Men and women showed a significant decline in hip flexion (men: 6?degrees/decade; women: 7?degrees/decade). Piecewise linear regression revealed a rate of decline of 1.16?degrees/year beginning at 71 years in men and in women a single linear decline of 0.66?degrees/year. Multiple regression analysis showed that age and physical activity accounted for only 9% of the variance in hip flexion in women and 10% in men, with age but not physical activity remaining significant. Similarly for shoulder abduction, age was significant but not physical activity, in a model that described 8% of the variance for both sexes. 1. Introduction As indicated in a recent systematic review by our group [1], there is conflicting information regarding both the relationship between flexibility training interventions and functional outcomes and the relationship between improved flexibility and daily functioning; health benefits have not yet been established. The comparison of studies in this area to provide a prescription of the flexibility is complicated by the variety of limb ranges of motion studied, testing procedures utilized, and methods of assessing physical activity levels. Furthermore, this component of physical health has been somewhat neglected or forgotten in the current literature despite the lack of evidence for recommendations of the amount and type of flexibility needed for health in older adults. Further, despite this lack of a synthesis of the literature to support the recommendation of the inclusion of a flexibility component to older adult exercise programs, many older adult activity programs place a considerable emphasis on flexibility. The present study attempts to add additional insight to this area by presenting the relationship between declines in flexibility across age and functional outcomes in a large sample of individuals representing the older adult age range. Joint flexibility may decrease
Is the Measurement Based Quantum Computing Search Algorithm Really Grover's Algorithm?
A. Matthew Smith,P. M. Alsing,J. R. McDonald,D. B. Uskov
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: We question whether the measurement based quantum computing algorithm is in fact Grover's algorithm or simply a similar oracular search method. The two algorithms share several qualitative features especially in the case of the trivial 4 element search, which is the largest size photonic search algorithm that has been experimentally implemented to date. This has led some to refer to both substantiations as Grover's algorithm. We compare multiple features of the two algorithms including the behavior of the oracle tags and the entanglement dynamics, both qualitatively and quantitatively. We find significant and fundamental differences in the operation of the two algorithms, particularly in cases involving searches on more than four elements.
The Modigliani-Miller Theorem with Financial Intermediation  [PDF]
John F. McDonald
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.22022
Abstract: This paper shows that, if firms borrow at an interest rate that is greater than the rate at which they can lend, the value of a firm declines with the amount borrowed. The model assumes the possibility that a firm may go bankrupt, which introduces the need for financial intermediation. A modified version of the homemade lev-erage examples introduced by Modigliani and Miller [2] is used to introduce the concept. A state-preference model is used for a more formal proof.
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