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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11318 matches for " Matthew Law "
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Trends in detectable viral load by calendar year in the Australian HIV observational database
Law Matthew G,Woolley Ian,Templeton David J,Roth Norm
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-14-10
Abstract: Background Recent papers have suggested that expanded combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) through lower viral load may be a strategy to reduce HIV transmission at a population level. We assessed calendar trends in detectable viral load in patients recruited to the Australian HIV Observational Database who were receiving cART. Methods Patients were included in analyses if they had started cART (defined as three or more antiretrovirals) and had at least one viral load assessment after 1 January 1997. We analyzed detectable viral load (>400 copies/ml) in the first and second six months of each calendar year while receiving cART. Repeated measures logistic regression methods were used to account for within and between patient variability. Rates of detectable viral load were predicted allowing for patients lost to follow up. Results Analyses were based on 2439 patients and 31,339 viral load assessments between 1 January 1997 and 31 March 2009. Observed detectable viral load in patients receiving cART declined to 5.3% in the first half of 2009. Predicted detectable viral load based on multivariate models, allowing for patient loss to follow up, also declined over time, but at higher levels, to 13.8% in 2009. Conclusions Predicted detectable viral load in Australian HIV Observational Database patients receiving cART declined over calendar time, albeit at higher levels than observed. However, over this period, HIV diagnoses and estimated HIV incidence increased in Australia.
Quilt Plots: A Simple Tool for the Visualisation of Large Epidemiological Data
Handan Wand, Jenny Iversen, Matthew Law, Lisa Maher
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085047
Abstract: Background Graphical representation of data is one of the most easily comprehended forms of explanation. The current study describes a simple visualization tool which may allow greater understanding of medical and epidemiological data. Method We propose a simple tool for visualization of data, known as a “quilt plot”, that provides an alternative to presenting large volumes of data as frequency tables. Data from the Australian Needle and Syringe Program survey are used to illustrate “quilt plots”. Conclusion Visualization of large volumes of data using “quilt plots” enhances interpretation of medical and epidemiological data. Such intuitive presentations are particularly useful for the rapid assessment of problems in the data which cannot be readily identified by manual review. We recommend that, where possible, “quilt plots” be used along with traditional quantitative assessments of the data as an explanatory data analysis tool.
Effectiveness of a Patient-Specific Immobilization and Positioning System to Limit Interfractional Translation and Rotation Setup Errors in Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancers  [PDF]
Gilbert Law, Ronnie Leung, Frankle Lee, Hollis Luk, Ka Chai Lee, Frank Wong, Matthew Wong, Steven Cheung, Venus Lee, Wing Ho Mui, Mark Chan
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2016.53020
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a patient-specific immobilization and positioning device in prostate radiotherapy. Methods: Eighty patients were immobilized and positioned by a patient-specific device. Prostate translations and rotations were estimated from daily cone beam computed tomography scans using a contour-based approach assisted by auto-registration and quantified by the group mean GM, systematic Σ and random σ' errors. Dosimetric impacts of residual prostate rotations where the translation errors were corrected were evaluated by robustness plan analysis. Results: Using the patient-specific immobilization alone without online image-guidance, the GM, Σ and σ' of the prostate translations were 0.8, 1.7, and 1.5 mm (left-right; LR), 0.8, 2.1, and 1.9 mm (superior-inferior; SI), and 0.5, 1.7 and 1.5 mm (anterior-posterior; AP), while for the prostate rotations they were 0.0°, 0.6°, and 0.7° (pitch), 0.2°, 0.5°, and 0.6° (roll), and 0.2°, 0.5°, and 0.6° (yaw). The resulting van Herk’s margin was 5.8 (LR), 7.3 (SI) and 5.8 (AP) mm. With adaptive online image-guidance based on estimates from the first 5 fractions, Σ were reduced by 0.7 - 1.2 mm for the prostate translations, resulting in a margin reduction by 2 - 3.5 mm. Changes of Σ and
Trends in all cause and viral liver disease-related hospitalizations in people with hepatitis B or C: a population-based linkage study
Heather F Gidding, Gregory J Dore, Janaki Amin, Matthew G Law
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-52
Abstract: HBV and HCV notifications were linked to their hospital (July 2000-June 2006), HIV and death records. Standardized hospitalization ratios (SHRs) were calculated using rates for the NSW population. Random effects Poisson regression was used to examine temporal trends.The SHR for all causes and non alcoholic liver disease was two-fold higher in the HCV cohort compared with the HBV cohort (SHRs 1.4 (95%CI: 1.4-1.4) v 0.6 (95%CI: 0.6-0.6) and 14.0 (95%CI: 12.7-15.4) v 5.4 (95%CI: 4.5-6.4), respectively), whilst the opposite was seen for primary liver cancer (SHRs 16.2 (95%CI: 13.8-19.1) v 29.1 (95%CI: 24.7-34.2)). HIV co-infection doubled the SHR except for primary liver cancer in the HCV/HIV cohort. In HBV and HCV mono-infected cohorts, all cause hospitalization rates declined and primary liver cancer rates increased, whilst rates for non alcoholic liver disease increased by 9% in the HCV cohort but decreased by 14% in the HBV cohort (P < 0.001).Hospital-related morbidity overall and for non alcoholic liver disease was considerably higher for HCV than HBV. Improved treatment of advanced HBV-related liver disease may explain why HBV liver-related morbidity declined. In contrast, HCV liver-related morbidity increased and improved treatments, especially for advanced liver disease, and higher levels of treatment uptake are required to reverse this trend.Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Several data linkage studies have reported an excess burden of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and mortality, particularly from advanced liver disease [1-5]. They also highlight an increased disease burden associated with HBV/HIV, HCV/HIV and HBV/HCV co-infection [2-4,6]. These population-based studies outline the relative incidence of cancer and mortality, but there are limited data comparing the impact of HBV and HCV infection on hospitalization rates. The one published study compared the average
Reproducibility of adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance in multi-vessel symptomatic coronary artery disease
Sharon Chih, Peter S Macdonald, Michael P Feneley, Matthew Law, Robert M Graham, Jane A McCrohon
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1532-429x-12-42
Abstract: Twenty patients (10 with CAD, 10 low risk CAD) underwent two CMR scans 8 ± 2 days apart. Basal, mid and apical left ventricular short axis slices were acquired using gadolinium 0.05 mmol/kg at peak stress (adenosine, 140 μ/kg/min, 4 min) and rest. Myocardial perfusion was evaluated qualitatively by assessing the number of ischemic segments, and semi-quantitatively by determining the myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRi) using a normalized upslope method. Inter-study and observer reproducibility were assessed--the latter being defined by the coefficient of variation (CoV), which was calculated from the standard deviation of the differences of the measurements, divided by the mean. Additionally, the percentage of myocardial segments with perfect agreement and inter- and intra-observer MPRi correlation between studies, were also determined.The CoV for the number of ischemic segments was 31% with a mean difference of -0.15 ± 0.88 segments and 91% perfect agreement between studies. MPRi was lower in patients with CAD (1.13 ± 0.21) compared to those with low risk CAD (1.59 ± 0.58), p = 0.02. The reproducibility of MPRi was 19% with no significant difference between patients with CAD and those with low risk CAD (p = 0.850). Observer reproducibility for MPRi was high: inter-observer CoV 9%, r = 0.93 and intra-observer CoV 5%, r = 0.94. For trials using perfusion CMR as an endpoint, an estimated sample size of 12 subjects would be required to detect a two-segment change in the number of ischemic segments (power 0.9, α 0.05).Adenosine stress CMR, by qualitative and semi-quantitative normalized upslope analyses are reproducible techniques in both patients with multi-vessel CAD and those without known CAD. The robust inter-study reproducibility of perfusion CMR supports its clinical and research application.First-pass perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) allows non-invasive, rapid and ionizing-radiation-free evaluation of myocardial perfusion and, in combinatio
Failure to prescribe pneumocystis prophylaxis is associated with increased mortality, even in the cART era: results from the Treat Asia HIV observational database
Lim Poh-Lian,Zhou Jialun,Ditangco Rossana A,Law Matthew G
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-15-1
Abstract: Background Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis is recommended for patients with CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/mm3. This study examines the proportion of patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) receiving PCP prophylaxis, and its effect on PCP and mortality. Methods TAHOD patients with prospective follow up had data extracted for prophylaxis using co-trimoxazole, dapsone or pentamidine. The proportion of patients on prophylaxis was calculated for each calendar year since 2003 among patients with CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/mm3. The effect of prophylaxis on PCP and survival were assessed using random-effect Poisson regression models. Results There were a total of 4050 patients on prospective follow up, and 90% of them were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. Of those with CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/mm3, 58% to 72% in any given year received PCP prophylaxis, predominantly co-trimoxazole. During follow up, 62 patients developed PCP (0.5 per 100 person-years) and 169 died from all causes (1.36/100 person-years). After stratifying by site and adjusting for age, CD4 count, CDC stage and antiretroviral treatment, those without prophylaxis had no higher risk of PCP, but had a significantly higher risk of death (incident rate ratio 10.8, p < 0.001). PCP prophylaxis had greatest absolute benefit in patients with CD4 counts of less than 50 cells/mm3, lowering mortality rates from 33.5 to 6.3 per 100 person-years. Conclusions Approximately two-thirds of TAHOD patients with CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/mm3 received PCP prophylaxis. Patients without prophylaxis had significantly higher mortality, even in the era of combination ART. Although PCP may be under-diagnosed, these data suggest that prophylaxis is associated with important survival benefits.
The Significance of HIV ‘Blips’ in Resource-Limited Settings: Is It the Same? Analysis of the Treat Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) and the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD)
Rupa Kanapathipillai, Hamish McManus, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Poh Lian Lim, David J. Templeton, Matthew Law, Ian Woolley
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086122
Abstract: Introduction Magnitude and frequency of HIV viral load blips in resource-limited settings, has not previously been assessed. This study was undertaken in a cohort from a high income country (Australia) known as AHOD (Australian HIV Observational Database) and another cohort from a mixture of Asian countries of varying national income per capita, TAHOD (TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database). Methods Blips were defined as detectable VL (≥ 50 copies/mL) preceded and followed by undetectable VL (<50 copies/mL). Virological failure (VF) was defined as two consecutive VL ≥50 copies/ml. Cox proportional hazard models of time to first VF after entry, were developed. Results 5040 patients (AHOD n = 2597 and TAHOD n = 2521) were included; 910 (18%) of patients experienced blips. 744 (21%) and 166 (11%) of high- and middle/low-income participants, respectively, experienced blips ever. 711 (14%) experienced blips prior to virological failure. 559 (16%) and 152 (10%) of high- and middle/low-income participants, respectively, experienced blips prior to virological failure. VL testing occurred at a median frequency of 175 and 91 days in middle/low- and high-income sites, respectively. Longer time to VF occurred in middle/low income sites, compared with high-income sites (adjusted hazards ratio (AHR) 0.41; p<0.001), adjusted for year of first cART, Hepatitis C co-infection, cART regimen, and prior blips. Prior blips were not a significant predictor of VF in univariate analysis (AHR 0.97, p = 0.82). Differing magnitudes of blips were not significant in univariate analyses as predictors of virological failure (p = 0.360 for blip 50–≤1000, p = 0.309 for blip 50–≤400 and p = 0.300 for blip 50–≤200). 209 of 866 (24%) patients were switched to an alternate regimen in the setting of a blip. Conclusion Despite a lower proportion of blips occurring in low/middle-income settings, no significant difference was found between settings. Nonetheless, a substantial number of participants were switched to alternative regimens in the setting of blips.
Zooming into the coexisting regime of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in ErRh4B4 single crystals
Ruslan Prozorov,Matthew D. Vannette,Stephanie A. Law,Sergey L. Bud'ko,Paul C. Canfield
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.100503
Abstract: High resolution measurements of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility are reported for ferromagnetic re-entrant superconductor, ErRh$_{4}$B$_{4}$. Detailed investigation of the coexisting regime reveals unusual temperature-asymmetric and magnetically anisotropic behavior. The superconducting phase appears via a series of discontinuous steps upon warming from the ferromagnetic normal phase, whereas the ferromagnetic phase develops via a gradual transition. A model based on local field inhomogeneity is proposed to explain the observations.
A Qualitative Study of the Internal Audit Functions of Two Leading Gaming Corporations: Macau Evidence  [PDF]
Philip Law, Desmond Yuen
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2013.24016
Abstract: As the authors’ request, the paper \"A Qualitative Study of the Internal Audit Functions of Two Leading Gaming Corporations: Macau Evidence\" published in Vol.2, No.4, 110-114, 2013 has been withdrawn from the website.
Disease Prevention and Alleviation by Human Myoblast Transplantation  [PDF]
Peter K. Law
Open Journal of Regenerative Medicine (OJRM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojrm.2016.52003
Abstract: Myoblast implantation is a unique, patented technology of muscle regeneration being tested in Phase III clinical trials of muscular dystrophy, ischemic cardiomyopathy, Phase II trial of cancer, and Phase I trial of Type II diabetes. Differentiated and committed, myoblasts are not stem cells. Implanted myoblasts fuse spontaneously among themselves, replenishing genetically normal myofibers. They also fuse with genetically abnormal myofibers of muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, or Type II diabetes, transferring their nuclei containing the normal human genome to provide stable, long-term expression of the missing gene products. They develop to become cardiomyocytes in the infracted myocardium. Myoblasts transduced with VEGF165 allow concomitant regeneration of blood capillaries and myofibers. They are potent biologics for treating heart failure, ischemic cardiomyopathy, diabetic ischemia, erectile dysfunction, and baldness. Myoblasts, because of their small size, spindle shape, and resilience, can grow within wrinkles and on skin surfaces, thus enhancing the color, luster and texture of the skin “plated” with them. They can be injected subcutaneously as a cellular filler to reduce wrinkles. Intramuscular injection of myoblasts can augment the size, shape, consistency, tone and strength of muscle groups, improving the lines, contours and vitality to sculpt a youthful appearance. This highly promising technology has great social economic values in treating hereditary, fatal and debilitating disease conditions.
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