Aim: To evaluate the predictability of toxicity
analyzing the dose-volume histograms (DVHs) and to verify the effectiveness of
preventive measures limiting side toxicity considering the evolution of the
radiation techniques for prostate cancer treatment. Materials and Methods: 208 patients with localized prostate cancer
were treated with exclusive radiotherapy until 73.8 Gy (group A) or 79.2 Gy (group B) with the dose escalation technique.
Preventive measures to minimize the side effects were recommended in group B. Results: The assessment of
genitourinary toxicity was similar while gastrointestinal toxicity was better
in group B. Valuating the treatment plans, we found that most of the patients developing toxicity had “borderline”
DVHs. Conclusion: Our analysis led
to the establishment of a protocol for the management of patients with
“border-line” DVH.

Introduction: Skin toxicity is a frequent side
effect of radio and chemo-treatments in patients treated for breast cancer
after conservative surgery. The aim of this paper is to report our experience
in the management of skin toxicity evaluating radiotherapy planning and using
preventive local aids. Materials and Methods: We have observed 300 patients undergoing
radiotherapy. All received the prescription of a prophylactic moisturizing
cream. Skin toxicity was valuated according to Acute Radiation Morbidity
Scoring Criteria of the RTOG. Moreover, in a subgroup of 100 patients, we
correlated the study of breast volume and features of treatment plans, with the
addition of topic prophylactic treatment, using an oral therapy based on
Resveratrol, Lycopene, Vitamin C and Anthocyanins (Ixor^{}?). In
another subgroup, 100 patients were subjected to corneometry assessing
numerically skin hydration before, during and after radiotherapy. Results: In
all patients, we related skin toxicity and the type of cream used. All patients
completed the radiotherapy treatment, and G4 cutaneous toxicity was not observed
in any of them. In patients treated with topic treatment and therapy based on
Resveratrol, Lycopene, Vitamin C and Anthocyanins (Ixor^{}?), the
protective effect of (Ixor^{}?) is more detected in patients with PTV
(Planning Target Volume) <500 ml, when Dmax reaches values lower or equal to
107%, but not exceeding 110% of the prescribed dose, and in patients undergoing
adjuvant chemotherapy with anthracyclines and taxanes. The values of
corneometry allow us to evaluate the moisturizing

Abstract:
We study $N=2$ supersymmetric $SU(2)/U(1)$ and $SL(2,R)/U(1)$ gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten models. It is shown that the vector gauged model is transformed to the axial gauged model by a mirror transformation. Therefore the vector gauged model and the axial gauged model are equivalent as $N=(2,2)$ superconformal field theories. In the $SL(2,R)/U(1)$ model, it is known that axial-vector duality relates a background with a singularity to that without a singularity. Implications of the equivalence of these two models to space-time singularities are discussed.

Abstract:
Possible coexistence and/or competition of kaon condensation with hyperons are investigated in hyperonic matter, where hyperons are mixed in the ground state of neutron-star matter. The formulation is based on the effective chiral Lagrangian for the kaon-baryon interaction and the nonrelativistic baryon-baryon interaction model. First, the onset condition of the s-wave kaon condensation realized from hyperonic matter is reexamined. It is shown that the usual assumption of the continuous phase transition is not always kept valid in the presence of the negatively charged hyperons. Second, the equation of state (EOS) of the kaon-condensed phase in hyperonic matter is discussed. In the case of the stronger kaon-baryon attractive interaction, it is shown that a local energy minimum with respect to the baryon number density appears as a result of considerable softening of the EOS due to both kaon condensation and hyperon-mixing and recovering of the stiffness of the EOS at very high densities. This result implies a possible existence of self-bound objects with kaon condensates on any scale from an atomic nucleus to a neutron star.

Abstract:
Thermodynamic properties of a class of black $p$-branes in $D$-dimensions considered by Duff and Lu are investigated semi-classically. For black $(d-1)$-brane, thermodynamic quantities depend on $D$ and $d$ only through the combination $\tilde d \equiv D-d-2$. The behavior of the Hawking temperature and the lifetime vary with $\tilde d$, with a critical value $\tilde d=2$. For $\tilde d>2$, there remains a remnant, in which non-zero entropy is stored. Implications of the fact that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black $(d-1)$-brane depend only on $\tilde d=D-d-2$ is discussed from the point of view of duality.

Abstract:
We consider the effects of self-gravity on the hydrostatic balance in the vertical direction of a gaseous disk and discuss the possible signature of the self-gravity that may be captured by the direct imaging observations of protoplanetary disks in future. In this paper, we consider a vertically isothermal disk in order to isolate the effects of self-gravity. The specific disk model we consider in this paper is the one with a radial surface density gap, at which the Toomre's $Q$-parameter of the disk varies rapidly in the radial direction. We calculate the vertical structure of the disk including the effects of self-gravity. We then calculate the scattered light and the dust thermal emission. We find that if the disk is massive enough and the effects of self-gravity come into play, a weak bump-like structure at the gap edge appears in the near-infrared (NIR) scattered light, while no such bump-like structure is seen in the sub-mm dust continuum image. The appearance of the bump is caused by the variation of the height of the surface in the NIR wavelength. If such bump-like feature is detected in future direct imaging observations, with the combination of sub-mm observations, it will bring us useful information about the physical states of the disk.

Abstract:
The structure of $K^-$-condensed hypernuclei, which may be produced in the laboratory in strangeness-conserving processes, is investigated using an effective chiral Lagrangian for the kaon-baryon interaction, combined with a nonrelativistic baryon-baryon interaction model. It is shown that a large number of negative strangeness is needed for the formation of highly dense and deeply bound state with kaon condensates and that part of the strangeness should be carried by hyperons mixed in the nucleus. The properties of kaon-condensed hypernuclei such as the ground state energy and particle composition are discussed. Such a self-bound object has a long lifetime and may decay only through weak interaction processes. Comparison with other possible nuclear states is also made, such as kaon-condensed nuclei without mixing of hyperons and noncondensed multistrange hypernuclei. Implications of kaon-condensed hypernuclei for experiments are mentioned.

Abstract:
We study D-branes on abelian orbifolds C^d/Z_N for d=2, 3. The toric data describing the D-brane vacuum moduli space, which represents the geometry probed by D-branes, has certain redundancy compared with the classical geometric description of the orbifolds. We show that the redundancy has a simple combinatorial structure and find analytic expressions for degrees of the redundancy. For d=2 the structure of the redundancy has a connection with representations of SU(N) Lie algebra, which provides a new correspondence between geometry and representation theory. We also prove that non-geometric phases do not appear in the Kahler moduli space for d=2.

Abstract:
Kaon excitations (kaonic modes) are investigated in hyperonic matter, where hyperons ($\Lambda$, $\Sigma^-$, $\Xi^-$) are mixed in the ground state of neutron-star matter. $P$-wave kaon-baryon interactions as well as the s-wave interactions are taken into account within chiral effective Lagrangian, and the nonrelativistic effective baryon-baryon interactions are incorporated. When the hyperon $\Lambda$ is more abundant than the proton at high baryon density, a proton-particle-$\Lambda$-hole mode, which has the $K^+$ quantum number, appears in addition to other particle-hole modes with the $K^-$ quantum number. It is shown that the system becomes unstable with respect to a spontaneous creation of a pair of the particle-hole modes with $K^+$ and $K^-$ quantum numbers, stemming from the p-wave kaon-baryon interaction. The onset density of this p-wave kaon condensation may be lower than that of the s-wave $K^-$ condensation.

Abstract:
We consider D-branes on an orbifold $C^3/Z_n$ and investigate the moduli space of the D-brane world-volume gauge theory by using toric geometry and gauged linear sigma models. For $n=11$, we find that there are five phases, which are topologically distinct and connected by flops to each other. We also verify that non-geometric phases are projected out for $n=7,9,11$ cases as expected. Resolutions of non-isolated singularities are also investigated.