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Mechanisms of haplotype divergence at the RGA08 nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat gene locus in wild banana (Musa balbisiana)
Franc-Christophe Baurens, Stéphanie Bocs, Mathieu Rouard, Takashi Matsumoto, Robert NG Miller, Marguerite Rodier-Goud, Didier MBéguié-A-MBéguié, Nabila Yahiaoui
BMC Plant Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-10-149
Abstract: Sequence comparison revealed two regions of contrasting features. The first is a highly colinear gene-rich region where the two haplotypes diverge only by single nucleotide polymorphisms and two repetitive element insertions. The second corresponds to a large cluster of RGA08 genes, with 13 and 18 predicted RGA genes and pseudogenes spread over 131 and 152 kb respectively on each haplotype. The RGA08 cluster is enriched in repetitive element insertions, in duplicated non-coding intergenic sequences including low complexity regions and shows structural variations between haplotypes. Although some allelic relationships are retained, a large diversity of RGA08 genes occurs in this single M. balbisiana genotype, with several RGA08 paralogs specific to each haplotype. The RGA08 gene family has evolved by mechanisms of unequal recombination, intragenic sequence exchange and diversifying selection. An unequal recombination event taking place between duplicated non-coding intergenic sequences resulted in a different RGA08 gene content between haplotypes pointing out the role of such duplicated regions in the evolution of RGA clusters. Based on the synonymous substitution rate in coding sequences, we estimated a 1 million year divergence time for these M. balbisiana haplotypes.A large RGA08 gene cluster identified in wild banana corresponds to a highly variable genomic region between haplotypes surrounded by conserved flanking regions. High level of sequence identity (70 to 99%) of the genic and intergenic regions suggests a recent and rapid evolution of this cluster in M. balbisiana.Comparative genomics studies at the interspecies and intraspecies levels have revealed the dynamics of genome evolution and the plasticity of plant genomes. Within monocotyledons, the grass species of the order Poales have been extensively studied for their genome structure and evolution [1], but little is known about monocotyledon plants outside this group. Musa species are giant herbs from the
Cell therapy of hip osteonecrosis with autologous bone marrow grafting
Hernigou Philippe,Poignard Alexandre,Zilber Sebastien,Rouard Helene
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics , 2009,
Abstract: Background: One of the reasons for bone remodeling leading to an insufficient creeping substitution after osteonecrosis in the femoral head may be the small number of progenitor cells in the proximal femur and the trochanteric region. Because of this lack of progenitor cells, treatment modalities should stimulate and guide bone remodeling to sufficient creeping substitution to preserve the integrity of the femoral head. Core decompression with bone graft is used frequently in the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. In the current series, grafting was done with autologous bone marrow obtained from the iliac crest of patients operated on for early stages of osteonecrosis of the hip before collapse with the hypothesis that before stage of subchondral collapse, increasing the number of progenitor cells in the proximal femur will stimulate bone remodeling and creeping substitution and thereby improve functional outcome. Materials and Methods: Between 1990 and 2000, 342 patients (534 hips) with avascular osteonecrosis at early stages (Stages I and II) were treated with core decompression and autologous bone marrow grafting obtained from the iliac crest of patients operated on for osteonecrosis of the hip. The percentage of hips affected by osteonecrosis in this series of 534 hips was 19% in patients taking corticosteroids, 28% in patients with excessive alcohol intake, and 31% in patients with sickle cell disease. The mean age of the patients at the time of decompression and autologous bone marrow grafting was 39 years (range: 16-61 years). The aspirated marrow was reduced in volume by concentration and injected into the femoral head after core decompression with a small trocar. To measure the number of progenitor cells transplanted, the fibroblast colony forming unit was used as an indicator of the stroma cell activity. Results: Patients were followed up from 8 to 18 years. The outcome was determined by the changes in the Harris hip score, progression in radiographic stages, change in volume determined by digitizing area of the necrosis on the different cuts obtained on MRI, and by the need for hip replacement. Total hip replacement was necessary in 94 hips (evolution to collapse) among the 534 hips operated before collapse (Stages I and II). Sixty-nine hips with stage I osteonecrosis of the femoral head at the time of surgery demonstrated total resolution of osteonecrosis based on preoperative and postoperative MRI studies; these hips did not show any changes on plain radiographs. Before treatment, these 69 osteonecrosis had only a marginal band
Locally refined discrete velocity grids for stationary rarefied flow simulations
Céline Baranger,Jean Claudel,Nicolas Hérouard,Luc Mieussens
Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcp.2013.10.014
Abstract: Most of deterministic solvers for rarefied gas dynamics use discrete velocity (or discrete ordinate) approximations of the distribution function on a Cartesian grid. This grid must be sufficiently large and fine to describe the distribution functions at every space position in the computational domain. For 3-dimensional hypersonic flows, like in re-entry problems, this induces much too dense velocity grids that cannot be practically used, for memory storage requirements. In this article, we present an approach to generate automatically a locally refined velocity grid adapted to a given simulation. This grid contains much less points than a standard Cartesian grid and allows us to make realistic 3-dimensional simulations at a reduced cost, with a comparable accuracy.
Levetiracetam-Associated Acute Kidney Injury and Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) Syndrome  [PDF]
Mathieu Leblanc, Martin Plaisance
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2014.44022
DRESS syndrome is a severe drug induced reaction. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is sometimes present in the form of an acute interstitial nephritis. We present the case of a 75-year-old man with glioblastoma who developed a DRESS two months after starting levetiracetam and a few days after stopping dexamethasone. His skin and kidneys improved after removing levetiracetam and introducing again corticosteroids. DRESS has been reported more frequently with other antiepileptics, rarely with levetiracetam. Clinicians should add this drug to the list of potential causes of AKI.
SUP: an extension to SLINK to allow a larger number of marker loci to be simulated in pedigrees conditional on trait values
Mathieu Lemire
BMC Genetics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-7-40
Abstract: I describe the implementation of a two-step algorithm to be used in conjunction with SLINK to enable the simulation of a large number of marker loci linked to a trait locus and conditional on trait values in families, with the possibility for the loci to be in linkage disequilibrium. SLINK is used in the first step to simulate genotypes at the trait locus conditional on the observed trait values, and also to generate an indicator of the descent path of the simulated alleles. In the second step, marker alleles or haplotypes are generated in the founders, conditional on the trait locus genotypes simulated in the first step. Then the recombination process between the marker loci takes place conditionally on the descent path and on the trait locus genotypes. This two-step implementation is often computationally faster than other software that are designed to generate marker data linked to, and possibly associated with, a trait locus.Because the proposed method uses SLINK to simulate the segregation process, it benefits from its flexibility: the trait may be qualitative with the possibility of defining different liability classes (which allows for the simulation of gene-environment interactions or even the simulation of multi-locus effects between unlinked susceptibility regions) or it may be quantitative and normally distributed. In particular, this implementation is the only one available that can generate a large number of marker loci conditional on the set of observed quantitative trait values in pedigrees.In recent literature, algorithms and software were developed to simulate the segregation process of marker loci that are in linkage disequilibrium (LD), some allowing for the possibility for the markers to also be associated with a trait [1-3]. These tools were developed to answer important methodological questions and to help determine empirically the properties of family-based statistical tests, and they should be well received especially now that whole genome as
Interactions between worms and malaria: Good worms or bad worms?
Mathieu Nacher
Malaria Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-259
Abstract: In 1977, it was reported that malnourished patients heavily infected with Ascaris lumbricoides were free of malaria [1]. In 1978, the same team reported that piperazine treatment of patients with a heavy worm burden of Ascaris was followed by an increase in malaria attacks [2]. For the following 20 years, there were no other studies on the subject, perhaps for lack of connections between the fields of nutrition and malaria epidemiology or immunology. In the past decade, the topic was rediscovered, this time from an immunological angle. Depending on which publication one reads, it is not clear if the outcome of this interaction is beneficial [3], neutral [4] or harmful [5]. The studies on the interactions between worms and malaria in humans have been very different in design, in the age groups sampled, in the way the malaria outcome and the exposure to helminths were considered. It is, therefore, impossible to conduct a meta-analysis to settle the matter. Despite these difficulties, the present review aims to synthesize the growing number of studies that have explored the interactions between worms and malaria. Pubmed and google scholar searches were performed for malaria and any of the keywords worms, helminth, Ascaris, hookworm, Trichuris, or Strongyloides. This search identified published papers which were then studied for additional references.When it comes to coinfections between worms and malaria, Ascaris lumbricoides has been the most cited worm. Eight studies found that Ascaris was associated with a reduction of malaria (incidence, prevalence or reduction of parasitemia)[1,2,6-11], two studies found that Ascaris was associated with an increase in malaria prevalence [12,13], and two studies found no relation to malaria [4,14]. For cerebral malaria or renal failure, two studies identified Ascaris lumbricoides as the only individual worm associated with protection from severe malaria in adults [3,15]. One study observed an increase of severe malaria in Ascaris-i
La revolución del agua en Maracaibo: ?radicalización democrática o instrumentalización política?
Cuadernos del Cendes , 2010,
Abstract: from its inception, the bolivarian revolution incorporated the water sector in its project of changing the domination structure of the country and improving its citizens′ living conditions. with the aim of facilitating the organizational and decisional capacity of the users to gain access or to improve water services, the technical tables of waters (ttw) were created in 2001 through the new organic law for the supply of water and sanitation services. the purpose of the article is to question the exercise of the participatory democracy in the water services field in maracaibo. more accurately: how does the reform of the political local space take place? what power relations are established between the ttw and the hydraulic bureaucracy, in process of ?bolivarianization?? what are the concrete achievements of the ?revolution of water??.
Ester Boserup: naturaleza y cultura en los procesos de desarrollo
Poblaci?3n y sociedad , 2010,
Abstract: the pair of opposites "nature"/"culture" belongs to the fundamental coordinates of social orientation and is important in many scientific fields. from the use of these notions by different authors one can infer their general position and the background of their arguments. on condition, however, that one looks carefully at the context, since the notions are large and carry many meanings. this article deals with the economist ester boserup (1910-1999) who has made herself known in the scientific community through the book on the conditions of agricultural growth and other important studies. the article shows how she worked with "nature" from the start, and very much later, within a new framework, discovered "culture".
Jurisprudencia sociológica y sociología del derecho
Revista Opinión Jurídica , 2006,
Abstract: the sociology of law in the united states is intellectually rooted in the foundational works of max weber and emile durkheim. institutionally, however, the sociological study of law has grown out of developments within legal scholarship that were part of the education in law offered by professional law schools, specifically the perspective of sociological jurisprudence. the decisive turning point towards the development of a distinctly sociological approach to law, rooted in the sociological classics, was offered by talcott parsons, whose critical role as a founder of the sociology of law has not been sufficiently recognized.
Vniversitas , 2008,
Abstract: this paper outlines and reviews the legal theory of jürgen habermas in the context of habermas's general social theory, known as the theory of communicative action. first explained are the central concepts of system in lifeworld around which habermas has developed his theory of modern society. subsequently attention is paid to the dual role of law as an institution and a medium in habermas's theory, after which the latest developments of habermas's legal theory are reviewed. finally, the paper discussed the influence and criticisms of habermas's perspective on law in the secondary literature.
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