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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1308 matches for " Masayuki Anzai "
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GSE Is a Maternal Factor Involved in Active DNA Demethylation in Zygotes
Yuki Hatanaka, Natsumi Shimizu, Satoshi Nishikawa, Mikiko Tokoro, Seung-Wook Shin, Takuji Nishihara, Tomoko Amano, Masayuki Anzai, Hiromi Kato, Tasuku Mitani, Yoshihiko Hosoi, Satoshi Kishigami, Kazuya Matsumoto
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060205
Abstract: After fertilization, the sperm and oocyte genomes undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming to form a totipotent zygote. The dynamic epigenetic changes during early embryo development primarily involve DNA methylation and demethylation. We have previously identified Gse (gonad-specific expression gene) to be expressed specifically in germ cells and early embryos. Its encoded protein GSE is predominantly localized in the nuclei of cells from the zygote to blastocyst stages, suggesting possible roles in the epigenetic changes occurring during early embryo development. Here, we report the involvement of GSE in epigenetic reprogramming of the paternal genome during mouse zygote development. Preferential binding of GSE to the paternal chromatin was observed from pronuclear stage 2 (PN2) onward. A knockdown of GSE by antisense RNA in oocytes produced no apparent effect on the first and second cell cycles in preimplantation embryos, but caused a significant reduction in the loss of 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) and the accumulation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) in the paternal pronucleus. Furthermore, DNA methylation levels in CpG sites of LINE1 transposable elements, Lemd1, Nanog and the upstream regulatory region of the Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1) gene were clearly increased in GSE-knockdown zygotes at mid-pronuclear stages (PN3-4), but the imprinted H19-differential methylated region was not affected. Importantly, DNA immunoprecipitation of 5 mC and 5 hmC also indicates that knockdown of GSE in zygotes resulted in a significant reduction of the conversion of 5 mC to 5 hmC on LINE1. Therefore, our results suggest an important role of maternal GSE for mediating active DNA demethylation in the zygote.
Combinational Optimization of Strut Placement for Intracranial Stent Using a Realistic Aneurysm  [PDF]
Hitomi Anzai, Bastien Chopard, Makoto Ohta
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization (JFCMV) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jfcmv.2014.22009
Abstract: Stent insertion for cerebral aneurysm has been studied using ideal and realistic aneurysms in recent years. Stent insertion aims at reducing the flow in an aneurysm. To minimize the average velocity in an aneurysm, we applied optimization to the strut position in a realistic aneurysm based on computational fluid dynamics. The result shows the effect on velocity reduction of strut placement in the inflow area.
Self Assembly of Honeycomb TiO2 Coatings by Tea-Leaf Extracts as the Dispersoids  [PDF]
Masayuki Kamei
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2011.13010
Abstract: Photo catalytic TiO2 coatings with well defined honeycomb structure were successfully self-assembled on glass substrates by a simple “dip and burn solgel method“. The crux of this new method is that the starting material for the sol-gel coating (the water solution of ammonium titanium citrate) was “doped” with “tea-leaf extracts”. Tea-leaf extracts were completely dissolved in the water solution of ammonium titanium citrate and nucleate uniformly during the drying procedure of the coating precursor formation. This uniformly dispersed nucleation of the “tea-leaf extracts (tannin, catechin…)” were extracted during calcinations and leaving honeycomb-cell like nano-structure in the TiO2 coatings. Self-assembled cells were uniformly distributed in the TiO2 coatings and the diameter of the cells was in the range of 200 - 1000 nm. Fine honeycomb structures were clearly observed with microscopic observations.
A Pure Theory of Aggregate Price Determination  [PDF]
Masayuki Otaki
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2011.13026
Abstract: This article considers aggregate price determination related to the neutrality of money. When the true cost of living can be defined as a function of prices in an overlapping generations (OLG) model, the marginal cost of a firm depends solely on the current and future prices. Thus, the sequence of equilibrium price becomes independent of the quantity of money. Hence, money becomes non-neutral. However, when people hold the extraneous belief that prices increases proportionately with money, this belief becomes self-fulfilling as long as the increment of money and true cost of living are low enough to guarantee full employment.
Sensitive and Reproducible Photocatalytic Activity Evaluation Instrument for Transparent Coatings  [PDF]
Masayuki Kamei
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2012.21008
Abstract: A new photocatalytic activity (PC) measurement instrument based on the measurement of the photo-induced reduction of Ag ions was proposed. The feature of this system is to perform “ultraviolet irradiation for PC activation” and “Ag film thickness determination for PC evaluation” simultaneously and automatically. Realizing a PC measurement system with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, easy operation and reproducibility, which is especially suited for the PC measurement of the coatings on transparent substrates.
The Role of Money: Credible Asset or Numeraire?  [PDF]
Masayuki Otaki
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.22031
Abstract: It is well known that money is neutral if 1) people hold the extraneous belief that it is an only numeraire and does not possess intrinstic value, and 2) new money is injected into an economy as its own interest in the OLG model under perfect information (Lucas [1] Theorem (2)). We find that whenever 1) is not satisfied and money is rationally held to have substance value, money becomes non-neutral even if we use the same model as Lucas [1].
Economic Station-Centered Network and Invisible Collaboration: A Cyclic vs. Semi-Cyclic View  [PDF]
Masayuki Matsui
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.23063
Abstract: By our past review, this paper will verify the hypothesis that the autonomous (invisible) body balancing would be better under changeable demand speed and a leading principle in the collaborative networks. This hypothesis was first utilized in the Conveyor-Serviced Production System (CSP System) with cycle time by a Station-Centered Approach to the physical networks. Recently, we are ascertaining this hypothesis in cost/profit balancing under demand speed (invisible hand) at the economic body chain networks. Generally, it becomes simpler at series (cyclic) type, but would not be so at parallel (semi-cyclic) type. Throughout this paper, we will point out the principle of autonomous (invisible) body ba-lancing by demand speed (cycle time), and would extend to a parallel (semi-cyclic) supply chain by the Station-Centered Approach. This thing would bring the invisible merit that the profit maximization occurs at the relative cost balancing of each enterprise in a series-parallel body network.
A Keynesian Model of a Small Open Economy under a Flexible Exchange Rate  [PDF]
Masayuki Otaki
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.23051
Abstract: This article considers the international diffusion of business cycles on the basis of a rigorous dynamic microeconomic foundation. The seminal work of Laursen and Metzler [1] suggests that the employment-isolation effect under the flexible exchange rate system is imperfect even if international capital mobility is completely prohibited. Assuming a small country model rather than the two-country model of Laursen and Metzler [1], we obtain the following results. (i) The business fluctuation of the world economy diffuses to the small country through a change in the inflation rate caused by the change in the real exchange rate. In this sense, the employment isolation is imperfect. (ii) Domestic monetary expansion has only an effect weaker than that of Mundell [2]-Fleming [3]. This is because a monetary expansion, which always accompanies a fiscal expansion, raises the current domestic price and lowers the inflation rate as long as the purchasing power of money (the inverse of future price) is kept intact. Such disinflation reduces the consumption demand in addition reducing the expansionary multiplier effect.
A Macroeconomic Consequence of Foreign Direct Investment: The Welfare Economics of Industrial Hollowing  [PDF]
Masayuki Otaki
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.24076
Abstract: This article considers macro and welfare economic implications concerning foreign direct investment under a flexible exchange rate system. There are serious conflicts between foreign-invested firms and their home country as a whole. Although lower wages incentivize firms to obtain foreign direct investment, such a movement harms the welfare of the home-country’s economy in the following ways. First, an increase in unemployment in the home country worsens the economy’s welfare as proved by Otaki [1]. Second, an appreciation in the real exchange rate, which is induced by the transfer of earned profits in foreign countries to the home country, reduces the value of profits in terms of domestic goods. We prove that such an appreciation entirely cancels the benefit from the cost reduction that originates from the foreign direct investment in lower-wage countries. In the end, only the downturn in employment circumstance remains. In this sense, the glut of foreign direct investment is harmful and, some coordination is required between firms and the government of the home country.
A Microeconomic Foundation for Optimum Currency Areas: The Case for Perfect Capital Mobility and Immobile Labor Forces  [PDF]
Masayuki Otaki
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.24073
Abstract: This article provides a microeconomic foundation for Mundell’s optimum currency area theory. We consider twin countries where labor forces are fixed to each country although the real capital moves internationally. When the central bank in each country behaves non-cooperatively, it will raise the domestic interest rate to attract more real capital and increase the rent of her residences. However, the fierce competition between the central banks ultimately exacerbates the disparity in income distribution. Moreover, when the real capital or the financial intermediary as its agent does not have a nationality, the worsened income distribution also results in the inefficient resource allocation. Thus, such twin countries should unify their central banks and coordinate their monetary and interest policies. In other words, these countries constitute an optimum currency area.
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