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Design of RLS Wiener Smoother and Filter for Colored Observation Noise in Linear Discrete-Time Stochastic Systems  [PDF]
Seiichi Nakamori
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2012.33041
Abstract: Almost estimators are designed for the white observation noise. In the estimation problems, rather than the white observation noise, there might be actual cases where the observation noise is modeled by the colored noise process. This paper examines to design a new estimation technique of recursive least-squares (RLS) Wiener fixed-point smoother and filter for colored observation noise in linear discrete-time wide-sense stationary stochastic systems. The observation y(k) is given as the sum of the signal z(k)=Hx(k) and the colored observation noise vc(k). The RLS Wiener estimators explicitly require the following information: 1) the system matrix for the state vector x(k); 2) the observation matrix H; 3) the variance of the state vector x(k); 4) the system matrix for the colored observation noise vc(k); 5) the variance of the colored observation noise; 6) the input noise variance in the state equation for the colored observation noise.
Sex Work, Motivations for Entry, and the Combined Impact of Both on Mental Health: A Case Report of Japanese Female Patients within Therapeutic Relationships  [PDF]
Masayo Uji
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.52026
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the motivations for entry into the sex industry. The narratives of four Japanese female psychiatric patients with a past experience of sex work were used for analysis. I identified not only practical factors such as financial difficulties or lack of job skills, but also various psycho-social factors, namely: weak emotional ties with their mothers since infancy, their mothers’ tendency to prioritize sons over daughters, unremitting needs for maternal care, fear of rejection and object-seeking behavior, desire to control others, envy and aggressive self-destructive behavior, difficulties in establishing female peer relationships during adolescence, proneness to dependency on male objects through sexual relationships, past histories of crime and delinquency, weak internal motivation, frequent acting out, and addictive behaviors. In this article I discussed whether their mental maladjustment was purely the product of their past experiences as sex workers, or whether in fact both the maladjustment and the motivations for entry were derived from personality characteristics developed since infancy. Although not applicable to every Japanese sex worker, this article presents a preliminary hypothesis regarding the contribution of the above multi-dimensional factors to the motivations for entry, and the following mental maladjustment.
Case Reports of Two Japanese Female Patients’ Reintegration into Society: Discussing the Interactions between a Patient’s Personality and Group Mentality  [PDF]
Masayo Uji
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.615198
Abstract: Based on the experiences of psychiatric patients who were in the process of rehabilitation after a significant period of rest and recuperation, the author aimed at analyzing the phenomena that facilitate as well as hinder patient maladjustment, in order to identify ways for clinical psychiatry to support patients’ rehabilitation processes. Two female patients with pathological personality traits who were in the process of rehabilitation were chosen. One attended a community center that offers employment for people with mental disorders, followed by a vocational rehabilitation center for the unemployed; the other returned to an ordinary job for which she was qualified. The author first investigated the interactions between their personalities and the group mentalities in their workplaces, and then analyzed these interactions using psychodynamic theories. The dynamic interactions between these patients’ personality pathologies and the group mentalities of the workplaces they chose for their rehabilitation seemed to play a crucial role in determining whether they experienced maladjustment or not. Various phenomena experienced by an individual in a community setting should not be ascribed solely to either the person’s personality or the community group mentality, but rather to the interaction between the two. Community centers for people with mental disorders must provide support that facilitates the accomplishment of the original purposes of the group, but also helps each group member improve their self-esteem. At the end of this article, the author argues that the narcissistic need for approval cannot be dismissed simply as pathological, but should be seen as a ubiquitous phenomenon in the contemporary Japanese ethos.
Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy of HIV infected and non-infected women in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia
Andargachew Mulu, Afework Kassu, Kahsay Huruy, Birhanemeskel Tegene, Gashaw Yitayaw, Masayo Nakamori, Nguyen Van Nhien, Assegedech Bekele, Yared Wondimhun, Shigeru Yamamoto, Fusao Ota
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-569
Abstract: In this cross-sectional study, blood samples were collected from 423 pregnant women and from 55 healthy volunteers who visited the University of Gondar Hospital. Serum concentration of vitamin A was measured by high performance liquid chromatography.After controlling for total serum protein, albumin and demographic variables, the mean ± SD serum vitamin A in HIV seropositive pregnant women (0.96 ± 0.42 μmol/L) was significantly lower than that in pregnant women without HIV infection (1.10 ± 0.45 μmol/L, P < 0.05). Likewise, the level of serum vitamin A in HIV seropositive non-pregnant women (0.74 ± 0.39) was significantly lower than that in HIV negative non-pregnant women (1.18 ± 0.59 μmol/L, P < 0.004). VAD (serum retinol < 0.7 μmol/L) was observed in 18.4% and 17.7% of HIV infected and uninfected pregnant women, respectively. Forty six percent of non-pregnant women with HIV infection had VAD while only 28% controls were deficient for vitamin A (P = 0.002).The present study shows that VAD is a major public health problem among pregnant women in the tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia. Considering the possible implications of VAD during pregnancy, we recommend multivitamin (which has a lower level of vitamin A) supplementation in the care and management of pregnant women with or without HIV infection.Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is known to be a significant public health problem around the world and it is particularly serious among women of reproductive age in South-East Asia and Africa [1-4]. It has now become evident that VAD in women has negative consequences on their health status as well as on their infants [3,4]. The link between VAD morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases [5] and non-infectious diseases [6-8] has been known for several years.VAD in pregnant women is associated with night blindness, severe anaemia, wasting, malnutrition, and reproductive and infectious morbidity [9], and increased risk of mortality 1-2 years following delivery [4].
RLS Wiener Smoother for Colored Observation Noise with Relation to Innovation Theory in Linear Discrete-Time Stochastic Systems
Seiichi Nakamori
International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Almost estimators are designed for the white observation noise. In the estimation problems, rather than the white observation noise, there might be actual cases where the observation noise is colored. This paper, from the viewpoint of the innovation theory, based on the recursive least-squares (RLS) Wiener fixed-point smoother and filter for the colored observation noise, newly proposes the RLS Wiener fixed-interval smoothing algorithm in linear discrete-time wide-sense stationary stochastic systems. The observation y(k) is given as the sum of the signal z(k)=Hx(k) and the colored observation noise (v_c)(k). The RLS Wiener fixed-interval smoother uses the following information: (a) the system matrix for the state vector x(k); (b) the observation matrix H; (c) the variance of the state vector; (d) the system matrix for the colored observation noise (v_c)(k); (e) the variance of the colored observation noise; (f) the input noise variance in the state equation for the colored observation noise.
Effects of Milling and Cooking Processes on the Deoxynivalenol Content in Wheat
Masayo Kushiro
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/ijms9112127
Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a natural-occuring mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium graminearum, a food-borne fungi widely distributed in crops and it is one of the most important mycotoxins in wheat and wheat-based foods and feeds. DON affects animal and human health causing diarrhea, vomiting, gastro-intestinal inflammation, and immunomodulation. Since the rate of the occurrence of DON in wheat is high, effective procedures to remove or eliminate DON from food products is essential to minimize exposures in those who consume large amounts of wheat. Cleaning prior to milling reduced to some extent the concentration of DON in final products. Since DON is distributed throughout the kernels, with higher content in the outer skin, milling is also effective in reducing the DON levels of wheat-based foods if bran and shorts are removed before thermal cooking. DON is water-soluble and cooking with larger amounts of water lowers DON content in products such as spaghetti and noodles. During baking or heating, DON is partially degraded to DON-related chemicals, whose toxicological effects are not studied well. This paper reviews the researches on the effects of milling and cooking on the DON level and discusses the perspectives of further studies.
Alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems: a brief review of epidemiological studies
Kojima Masayo
BioPsychoSocial Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0759-6-21
Abstract: The number of articles on alexithymia has been steadily increasing since the word “alexithymia” was coined in the 1970s to denote a common characteristic that is observed among classic psychosomatic patients in whom therapy was unsuccessful. Alexithymia, a disorder of affect regulation, has been suggested to be broadly associated with various mental and physical health problems. However, most available evidence is based on anecdotal reports or cross-sectional observations. To clarify the predictive value of alexithymia for health problems, a systematic review of prospective studies was conducted. A search of the PubMed database identified 1,507 articles on “alexithymia” that were published by July 31, 2011. Among them, only 7 studies examined the developmental risks of alexithymia for health problems among nonclinical populations and 38 studies examined the prognostic value of alexithymia among clinical populations. Approximately half of the studies reported statistically significant adverse effects, while 5 studies demonstrated favorable effects of alexithymia on health outcomes; four of them were associated with surgical interventions and two involved cancer patients. The studies that showed insignificant results tended to have a small sample size. In conclusion, epidemiological evidence regarding alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems remains un-established. Even though alexithymia is considered to be an unfavorable characteristic for disease control and health promotion overall, some beneficial aspects are suggested. More prospective studies with sufficient sample sizes and follow-up period, especially those involving life course analyses, are needed to confirm the contribution of alexithymia to health problems.
Discourse Coherence and Shifting Centers in Japanese Texts
Masayo Iida
Computer Science , 1996,
Abstract: In languages such as Japanese, the use of {\it zeros}, unexpressed arguments of the verb, in utterances that shift the topic involves a risk that the meaning intended by the speaker may not be transparent to the hearer. However, this potentially undesirable conversational strategy often occurs in the course of naturally-occurring discourse. In this chapter, I report on an empirical study of 250 utterances with {\it zeros} in 20 Japanese newspaper articles. Each utterance is analyzed in terms of centering transitions and the form in which centers are realized by referring expressions. I also examine lexical subcategorization information, and tense and aspect in order to test the hypothesis that the speaker expects the hearer to use this information in determining global discourse structure. I explain the occurrence of {\it zeros} in {\sc retain} and {\sc rough-shift} centering transitions, by claiming that a {\it zero} can only be used in these cases when the shift of centers is supported by contextual information such as lexical semantics, tense and aspect, and agreement features. I then propose an algorithm by which centering can incorporate these observations to integrate centering with global discourse structure, and thus enhance its ability for non-local pronoun resolution.
Presenteeism among Japanese IT Employees: Personality, Temperament and Character, Job Strain and Workplace Support, and Mental Disturbance  [PDF]
Yuko Kono, Masayo Uji, Eisuke Matsushima
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.615195
Abstract: To study correlates of presenteeism among Japanese IT employees, a cross-sectional study in 440 employees of four IT companies were studied with a net-based questionnaire survey. A structural regression analysis revealed that presenteeism was directly associated with common mental symptoms and job strain, common mental symptoms mediated the effects of job strain and poor workplace social support as well as high Harm Avoidance and low Self-directedness and Cooperativeness upon presenteeism. IT company workers presenteeism may be a result of complicated effects of common mental symptoms, job strain and poor workplace social support, and personality traits.
Yaws in the Western Pacific Region: A Review of the Literature
Corinne Capuano,Masayo Ozaki
Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/642832
Abstract: Until the middle of the 20th century, yaws was highly endemic and considered a serious public health problem in the Western Pacific Region (WPR), leading to intensive control efforts in the 1950s–1960s. Since then, little attention has been paid to its reemergence. Its current burden is unknown. This paper presents the results of an extensive literature review, focusing on yaws in the South Pacific. Available records suggest that the region remains largely free of yaws except for Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Many clinical cases reported recently were described as “attenuated”; advanced stages are rare. A single intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin is still effective in curing yaws. In the Pacific, yaws may be amenable to elimination if adequate resources are provided and political commitment revived. A mapping of yaws prevalence in PNG, Solomon, and Vanuatu is needed before comprehensive country-tailored strategies towards yaws elimination can be developed. 1. Introduction Yaws is a nonvenereal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue. It is mainly transmitted from person to person through direct contact with exudates from early skin lesions of infected people [1]. Yaws is considered a disease of poverty occurring in tropical regions throughout the world with heavy rainfall and high humidity [2]. It is more common in rural and isolated populations where access to health care is often limited [3]. Crowded environments and poor hygiene are also considered as factors facilitating transmission [4, 5]. The disease affects predominantly children younger than 15 years (the peak incidence of clinical manifestations is 2 to 10 years), who serve as the primary reservoir of the disease. The current knowledge is that transmission is by direct contact with infected lesions [2] and that flies, including nonbiting haematophagous ones, can infect skin breaches through their dejecta or regurgitation [6, 7]. Perine et al. [2] reported that a yaws-like treponema was identified in African monkeys and baboons, and more recently Robed et al. [8] mentioned that the genetic analysis of a strain collected from a Guinean baboon demonstrated a close relation to the human strains of yaws. Furthermore, yaws-like infections have been identified in nonhuman primates in Africa, in particular in the Republic of Congo where 17% of a wild gorilla population have been found with typical yaw lesions [7] leading the authors to speculate that yaws infections in gorillas and humans living in tropical rain forests might be
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