oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 923 matches for " Masaru Mimura "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /923
Display every page Item
Dysthymia and Apathy: Diagnosis and Treatment
Junko Ishizaki,Masaru Mimura
Depression Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/893905
Abstract: Dysthymia is a depressive mood disorder characterized by chronic and persistent but mild depression. It is often difficult to be distinguished from major depression, specifically in its partially remitted state because “loss of interest” or “apathy” tends to prevail both in dysthymia, and remitted depression. Apathy may also occur in various psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, stroke, Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, Huntington's disease, and dementias such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia. It is symptomatologically important that apathy is related to, but different from, major depression from the viewpoint of its causes and treatment. Antidepressants, especially noradrenergic agents, are useful for depression-related apathy. However, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be less effective for apathy in depressed elderly patients and have even been reported to worsen apathy. Dopaminergic agonists seem to be effective for apathy. Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors, methylphenidate, atypical antipsychotics, nicergoline, and cilostazol are another choice. Medication choice should be determined according to the background and underlying etiology of the targeting disease. 1. Dysthymia Dysthymia is a depressive mood disorder that is characterized by chronic, persistent but mild depression, affecting 3–6% of individuals in the community [1, 2] and as many as 36% of outpatients in mental health settings [3]. Although by definition, the depressed mood of dysthymia is not severe enough to meet the criteria for major depressive disorder, it is accompanied by significant subjective distress or impairment of social, occupational, or other important activities as a result of mood disturbance [4]. Dysthymia manifests as a depressed mood persisting for at least two years (one year for children or adolescents) that lasts for most of the day, occurs on more days than not, and is accompanied by at least two of the following symptoms:(1)poor appetite or overeating,(2)insomnia or hypersomnia,(3)low energy or fatigue,(4)low self-esteem,(5)poor concentration or difficulty making decisions,(6)feelings of hopelessness. To diagnose dysthymia, major depressive episodes must not have occurred during the first two years of the illness (one year in children or adolescents), and there should be no history of mania. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) [5] states that transient euthymic episodes lasting for up to two months
Relationship between Social Capital and Cognitive Functions among Community-Based Elderly  [PDF]
Sayuri Takechi, Kimio Yoshimura, Yuko Oguma, Yoshinobu Saito, Masaru Mimura
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aad.2017.62004
Abstract: The concept of social capital encompasses all relationships and networks among people in a local community or society as a whole. It has been found to be associated with the health and daily living status of people. Furthermore, an association between social capital and cognitive functions among the elderly has been suggested in recent years. However, the number of such reports is very few. Hence, the present study aims to evaluate the relationship between social capital and cognitive functions among the elderly living in a local community in Japan. A questionnaire survey was administered to 192 elderly individuals belonging to 10 neighborhood elderly groups. A regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between cognitive functions and the level of engagement with the local community, after adjusting for age, gender, and symptoms of depression. Valid responses were collected from 145 participants (mean age: 75.3 years). An analysis of the data concerning the level of engagement with the local community revealed a significant difference in the cognitive function scores between the group of people who indicated that they had someone they could consult (n = 69) and the group that indicated they had no one to consult (n = 76) (regression coefficient: -0.61, p = 0.0038, 95% confidence interval: -1.02 to -0.20). This result indicates the existence of a significant correlation between social capital and cognitive functions of the elderly living in a local community. In future studies, we need to investigate the same with a larger number of participants from a wider geographical area, and by incorporating more indicators for a comprehensive evaluation of social capital.
Effectiveness of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Based Exercise Program for Healthy Employees  [PDF]
Sayuri Takechi, Toshiaki Kikuchi, Shiori Horisawa, Atsuo Nakagawa, Kimio Yoshimura, Masaru Mimura
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2015.54031
Abstract: Psychological distress has a negative impact on employee health and work performance. However, there is a paucity of studies examining the effects of exercise on the psychological well-being of workers in the field of occupational health. In this study, we evaluated the benefits of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based exercise program in reducing psychological distress among employees. A 10-week single-group study was conducted with employees aged 20 to 65 years who had no present or past serious medical illness. Eighty-one subjects participated in a 30-minute health education class instructed by a health-exercise teacher and psychologist, and subsequently completed a 10-week CBT-based exercise program developed by the authors. Post-intervention improvement of psychological distress on the Kessler psychological distress scale (K6) was the primary outcome. Forty-four subjects (54.3%) completed the program. For the subjects who completed the program, the mean total score on K6 significantly reduced from 4.39 to 3.53, with a mean change of 0.86 (p = 0.044). In addition, the total amount of weekly physical exercise significantly increased (p = 0.043) and daily amount of time spent sitting significantly decreased (p = 0.023). These findings suggest that a CBT-based exercise program may reduce the level of psychological distress and increase the amount of daily physical activity of healthy employees. In addition, self-help CBT-based exercise programs may have the potential to cause both positive mental and physical effects among non-clinical samples. Future studies including a control group and with higher completion rate among participants should be performed.
Improved Visualization of the Anterior Thalamic Radiation in Bipolar Disorder by Diffusion Tensor Tractography  [PDF]
Richi Niida, Akihiko Uechi, Akira Niida, Hiroshi Matsuda, Bun Yamagata, Masaru Mimura
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2018.79044
Abstract: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a method for noninvasively measuring and imaging the diffusion of water molecules using MRI. Diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) can be used to presume macroscopic nerve fascicle distribution by determining, based on information obtained by DTI, whether the diffusion anisotropy vectors of adjacent voxels are continuous or not. We prepared a DTT map of the cerebral white matter nerve fascicles and investigated its usefulness for differentiation between Alzheimer’s disease and bipolar disorder (BD), a major depressive disorder, based on the nerve fiber depiction, in addition to the fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient values. We encountered two cases of BD in which the DTT image of the anterior thalamic radiation (ATR) improved following effective treatment with lamotrigine. Lamotrigine increases the synaptic strength due to its effect of promoting the traffic of the α-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor on the neuronal membrane. Downregulation of postsynaptic AMPA receptor expression can reportedly be observed during depressive episodes in BD. We consider that visualization of improvement of the ATR in response to treatment with lamotrigine (related to its pharmacological effect on the AMPA receptor) is valuable, as it suggests reversibility of the damage of the nerve fibers in this disease condition.
Emotion recognition from stimuli in different sensory modalities in post-encephalitic patients
Yayoi Hayakawa,Masaru Mimura,Hidetomo Murakami,et al
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2010,
Abstract: Yayoi Hayakawa1, Masaru Mimura2, Hidetomo Murakami3, Mitsuru Kawamura31Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Neurology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Emotion recognition from facial and non-facial stimuli was investigated in two post-encephalitic patients a few months after the onset of the disease. One patient who had a lesion relatively restricted to the amygdala and hippocampus experienced difficulty in recognizing fear from facial expressions. In contrast, the other patient who had a lesion that extended beyond the amygdala experienced difficulty in recognizing fear from non-facial (prosodic and written verbal) stimuli. We showed that impairment of emotion recognition was evident within a short duration after encephalitis and that recognizing emotion from different sensory modalities relies partly on integration of different neural systems.Keywords: limbic encephalitis, emotion recognition, facial and non-facial stimuli
Effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Herbal Medicine) for Antipsychotic-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Male Patients with Schizophrenia: A Description of Two Cases
Tsuboi Takashi,Hiroyuki Uchida,Takefumi Suzuki,Masaru Mimura
Case Reports in Psychiatry , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/784671
Abstract: Antipsychotics sometimes cause sexual dysfunction in people with schizophrenia. The authors report the effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Japanese traditional herbal medicine, Chai-Hu-Jia-Long-Gu-Mu-Li-Tang in Chinese) for antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction in two male patients with schizophrenia. The first patient was a 28-year-old man with schizophrenia who suffered erectile dysfunction induced by olanzapine 10?mg/day; the erectile dysfunction significantly improved following the treatment of Saikokaryukotsuboreito 7.5?g/day. The other case was a 43-year-old man with schizophrenia who was receiving fluphenazine decanoate at 50?mg/month and had difficulties in ejaculation; add-on of Saikokaryukotsuboreito 7.5?g/day recovered his ejaculatory function. There has been no report on the effectiveness of Japanese herbal medicine formulations for antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction. Although the effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito needs to be tested in systematic clinical trials, this herbal medicine may be a treatment option to consider for this annoying side effect. 1. Introduction Antipsychotic drugs sometimes cause sexual dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia; the incidence rate has been reported to be as high as 50% in male patients [1]. Among sexual side effects, disturbances of erection and ejaculation are frequent with reported incidence rates being as high as 30–60% [2]. These adverse events can cause substantial subjective burden and are expected to result in an impaired quality of life, potentially leading to poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment [3]. Kampo, or Japanese traditional herbal medicine, has been used in Japan for more than 1300 years as an alternative treatment or sometimes combined adjunctively with the Western modern medicine. Today, 148 Kampo formulations have been approved for use in clinical practice by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare; some of them have been reported to improve psychotropic side effects as well as psychiatric symptoms [4, 5]. Here we report on two male patients with schizophrenia in whom a Kampo prescription, Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Chai-Hu-Jia-Long-Gu-Mu-Li-Tang in Chinese), which has often been used for sexual dysfunction in general, successfully diminished antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction. 2. Case Presentation 2.1. Case 1 A 28-year-old single man who did not have any past history of psychiatric or physical illnesses visited our hospital because of psychotic symptoms characterized with delusions, conceptual disorganization, and hallucinations. He was
The Efficacy and Safety of Yokukansankachimpihange for Treating Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease: An Open-Label Pilot Study  [PDF]
Ryutaro Arita, Tetsuhiro Yoshino, Miwako Ohgishi, Takuya Hamaguchi, Yuko Horiba, Kaori Sawai, Kei Funaki, Hajime Tabuchi, Mizuki Oka, Takahito Yoshizaki, Kenji Watanabe, Masaru Mimura
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aad.2018.74010
Abstract: Previous clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of yokukansan, a traditional Japanese medicine, for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). However, less evidence is available for the treatment of BPSD with yokukansankachimpihange (YKSCH), which consists of yokukansan and two additional herbal ingredients. The present study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of YKSCH for treating BPSD in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We enrolled outpatients with mild-to-moderate AD who exhibited BPSD and obtained a Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) score of >3 including subscale scores for “agitation”, “anxiety”, “irritability”, and “sleep and night-time behavior change”. A daily YKSCH dose of 7.5 g was administered for 12 weeks with concomitant administration of anti-dementia medication. BPSD was evaluated using the NPI at baseline and every 4 weeks during the intervention. We also examined apathy using the Japanese translation of the Apathy Scale, the short version of the Japanese version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, and the Modified Crichton Rating Scale for Predicting Activities of Daily Living. Cognitive dysfunction was evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination and the AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive (Japanese version). Five participants were enrolled. The NPI total score tended to decrease between the baseline and 8-week evaluations during the YKSCH intervention (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.063). In terms of the NPI subscale scores, “apathy”, “agitation”, “delusion
Asymptomatic Deep Vein Thrombosis in a Patient with Major Depressive Disorder
Takuto Ishida,Takeshi Katagiri,Hiroyuki Uchida,Takefumi Suzuki,Koichiro Watanabe,Masaru Mimura
Case Reports in Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/261251
Abstract: Pulmonary embolism is a serious, life-threatening condition and most commonly derives from deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities. Once deep vein thrombosis (DVT) reaches a proximal vein (i.e., popliteal vein or higher), pulmonary embolism reportedly occurs in up to 50% of patients. Case Presentation. We report on an inpatient with major depressive disorder in a catatonic state in whom an asymptomatic proximal deep vein thrombosis of 11 × 70 mm was detected through routine screening, using doppler ultrasound scanning. Anticoagulant therapy was immediately started and continued for three months, which resulted in resolution of the deep vein thrombosis. Discussion. To our knowledge, this is the first description of asymptomatic proximal DVT that was detected in a psychiatric inpatient setting. In light of the reported causal relationship between DVT and pulmonary embolism, screening for DVT can be of high clinical value in patients with psychiatric disorders, especially when their physical activity is highly compromised.
Magnetoencephalography Study of Right Parietal Lobe Dysfunction of the Evoked Mirror Neuron System in Antipsychotic-Free Schizophrenia
Yutaka Kato, Taro Muramatsu, Motoichiro Kato, Yoshiyuki Shibukawa, Masuro Shintani, Masaru Mimura
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028087
Abstract: Introduction Patients with schizophrenia commonly exhibit deficits of non-verbal communication in social contexts, which may be related to cognitive dysfunction that impairs recognition of biological motion. Although perception of biological motion is known to be mediated by the mirror neuron system, there have been few empirical studies of this system in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Using magnetoencephalography, we examined whether antipsychotic-free schizophrenia patients displayed mirror neuron system dysfunction during observation of biological motion (jaw movement of another individual). Results Compared with normal controls, the patients with schizophrenia had fewer components of both the waveform and equivalent current dipole, suggesting aberrant brain activity resulting from dysfunction of the right inferior parietal cortex. They also lacked the changes of alpha band and gamma band oscillation seen in normal controls, and had weaker phase-locking factors and gamma-synchronization predominantly in right parietal cortex. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that untreated patients with schizophrenia exhibit aberrant mirror neuron system function based on the right inferior parietal cortex, which is characterized by dysfunction of gamma-synchronization in the right parietal lobe during observation of biological motion.
It’s Not My Fault: Postdictive Modulation of Intentional Binding by Monetary Gains and Losses
Keisuke Takahata, Hidehiko Takahashi, Takaki Maeda, Satoshi Umeda, Tetsuya Suhara, Masaru Mimura, Motoichiro Kato
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053421
Abstract: Sense of agency refers to the feeling that one’s voluntary actions caused external events. Past studies have shown that compression of the subjective temporal interval between actions and external events, called intentional binding, is closely linked to the experience of agency. Current theories postulate that the experience of agency is constructed via predictive and postdictive pathways. One remaining problem is the source of human causality bias; people often make misjudgments on the causality of voluntary actions and external events depending on their rewarding or punishing outcomes. Although human causality bias implies that sense of agency can be modified by post-action information, convincing empirical findings for this issue are lacking. Here, we hypothesized that sense of agency would be modified by affective valences of action outcomes. To examine this issue, we investigated how rewarding and punishing outcomes following voluntary action modulate behavioral measures of agency using intentional binding paradigm and classical conditioning procedures. In the acquisition phase, auditory stimuli were paired with positive, neutral or negative monetary outcomes. Tone-reward associations were evaluated using reaction times and preference ratings. In the experimental session, participants performed a variant of intentional binding task, where participants made timing judgments for onsets of actions and sensory outcomes while playing simple slot games. Our results showed that temporal binding was modified by affective valences of action outcomes. Specifically, intentional binding was attenuated when negative outcome occurred, consistent with self-serving bias. Our study not only provides evidence for postdictive modification of agency, but also proposes a possible mechanism of human causality bias.
Page 1 /923
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.