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Hexagonal Nano-Crystalline BCN Films Grown on Si (100) Substrate Studied by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy  [PDF]
Md. Abdul Mannan, Yuji Baba, Norie Hirao, Tetsuya Kida, Masamitsu Nagano, Hideyuki Noguchi
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2013.45A003

Hexagonal nano-crystalline boron carbonitride (h-BCN) films grown on Si (100) substrate have been precisely investigated. The films were synthesized by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using tris-dimethylamino borane as a single-source molecular precursor. The deposition was performed by setting RF power at 400 - 800 W. The reaction pressure was at 2.6 Pa and the substrate temperature was recorded at 700°C - 800°C. Formation of the nano-crystalline h-BCN compound has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The diffraction peaks at 26.3° together with a small unknown peak at 29.2° were elucidated due to the formation of an h-BCN structure. The films composed of B, C, and N atoms with different B-N, B-C, C-N chemical bonds in forming the sp2-BCN atomic configuration studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Orientation and local structures of the h-BCN hybrid were studied by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) measurements. The dominant presence of p* and s* resonance peaks of the sp2

Synthesis of Hexagonal Boron Carbonitride without Nitrogen Void Defects  [PDF]
Md. Abdul Mannan, Yuji Baba, Tetsuya Kida, Masamitsu Nagano, Hideyuki Noguchi
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.65041
Abstract: The synthesis and structure of hexagonal boron carbonitride (h-BCN) film on polycrystalline diamond surface were reported. Polycrystalline diamond and/or diamond-like carbon were first fabricated on Si (100) and then diamond like carbon was used as substrate. The deposition was performed by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. In order to reduce the content of nitrogen void defects, the deposition was performed at the high temperature of 950°C under the working pressure of 2.6 Pa. The typical sample with atomic composition of B31 C37 N26 O6 in the h-BCN lattice was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The fine structure of the film was studied by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) measurements. The B K-edge and N K-edge of NEXAFS spectra revealed that the synthesized h-BCN film had the ideal honeycomb- like BN3 configuration without nitrogen void defects.
Orientation of One-Dimensional Silicon Polymer Films Studied by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy
Md. Abdul Mannan,Yuji Baba,Tetsuhiro Sekiguchi,Iwao Shimoyama,Norie Hirao,Masamitsu Nagano,Hideyuki Noguchi
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/528256
Abstract: Molecular orientations for thin films of one-dimensional silicon polymers grown by vacuum evaporation have been assigned by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) using linearly polarized synchrotron radiation. The polymer investigated was polydimethylsilane (PDMS) which is the simplest stable silicon polymer, and one of the candidate materials for one-dimensional molecular wire. For PDMS films deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), four resonance peaks have been identified in the Si K-edge NEXAFS spectra. Among these peaks, the intensities of the two peaks lower-energy at 1842.0 eV and 1843.2 eV were found to be strongly polarization dependent. The peaks are assigned to the resonance excitations from the Si 1s to   and px orbitals localized at the Si–C and Si–Si bonds, respectively. Quantitative evaluation of the polarization dependence of the NEXAFS spectra revealed that the molecules are self-assembled on HOPG surface, and the backbones of the PDMS are oriented nearly parallel to the surface. The observed orientation is opposite to the previously observed results for PDMS on the other surfaces such as oxide (indium tin oxide) and metal (polycrystalline copper). The flat-lying feature of PDMS observed only on HOPG surface is attributed to the interaction between CH bonds in PDMS and π orbitals in HOPG surface.
Structural Implications of Universal Complementarities in Translation—High Accuracy at the Decoding Site  [PDF]
Kozo Nagano
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2015.52012
Abstract: X-ray structures of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) bound to the whole ribosome do not fully explain the mechanism of translation. The cause of the failure seems to come mainly from a high Mg2+ ion concentration compared to that in the living cells. There exists a wide range of nucleotide sequence conservation in tRNA and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) of small and large subunits as well as sequence complementarities, that seems to explain how high accuracy in translation can be achieved at the decoding site. Conformational transition between U33-folded and U33-extended forms of anticodon loops of tRNAs and G-C pair formation and disruption between C1399 and G1504 of 16S rRNA, etc. play the central role in explaining why E-site tRNA can automatically be expelled when an aminoacyl-tRNA at the A site turns out to be cognate.
Optimal Execution in Illiquid Market with the Absence of Price Manipulation  [PDF]
Seiya Kuno, Masamitsu Ohnishi
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2015.51001
Abstract: This article shows the execution performance of the risk-averse institutional trader with constant absolute risk aversion (CARA) type utility by using the condition of no price manipulation defined in the risk neutral sense. From two linear price impact models both satisfying that condition, we have derived the unique explicit optimal execution strategy calculated backwardly with dynamic programming equations. And our study shows that the optimal execution strategy exists in the static class. The derived solution can be decomposed into mainly two components, each giving an explanation of the property of optimal execution volume. Moreover we propose two conditions in order to compare the performance of these two price models, and illustrate that the performances of the two models are surprisingly different under certain conditions.
Valuation of Game Option Bonds under the Generalized Ho-Lee Model: A Stochastic Game Approach  [PDF]
Natsumi Ochiai, Masamitsu Ohnishi
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2015.54035

We propose a valuation for the bond in which an issuer and a holder are simultaneously granted the right to exercise a call and put options. As the term structure model of interest rate, we use the Generalized Ho-Lee model that is an arbitrage-free binomial lattice interest rate model. The issuer and the holder play a series of stage games in each exercisable node on the lattice whose payoff structure is dependent on the nodes. We formulate the valuation problem as a stochastic game or a Markov game. Our stochastic games possess saddle points in pure strategies for each stage game. We derive the optimality equation to solve backwardly the bond values and the exercise strategies from the maturity to the initial time. Our numerical results are useful to intuitively understand the risk to a change of interest rates for options embedded in bond.

Experimental Investigation on the Effection of Flow Regulator in a Multiple Evaporators/Condensers Loop Heat Pipe with Plastic Porous Structure  [PDF]
Xinyu Chang, H. Nagano
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2014.29008

Multiple loop heat pipes which have two evaporators and two condensers in one loop are a kind of active heat transfer device. Since they have two evaporators and two condensers, the operating mode also becomes multiple. This work discusses the cases that multiple loop heat pipes were operated with one condenser at high temperature and the other at low temperature. To avoid the high temperature returning liquid and keep the multiple loop heat pipes work properly, the flow regulator which was made of polyethylene was designed, fabricated and applied in this test. The effect of flow regulator was confirmed and analyzed. In the test that large temperature difference existed between two sinks, it can be found according to the result that the flow regulator worked effectively and prevented the high temperature vapor to enter the inlet of common liquid line, which can keep the evaporators and returning liquid to operate at low temperature. With the increment of heat loads and the temperature difference between two sinks, the pressure difference between two condensers became larger and larger. When the pressure difference was larger than the flow regulator’s capillary force, the flow regulator could not work properly because the high temperature vapor began to flow through the flow regulator. According to the test data, the flow regulator can work properly within the sinks’ temperature 0°C/60°C and the two evaporators’ heat load 30/30 W.

Anisotropic Thermal Diffusivity Measurements in High-Thermal-Conductive Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Composites  [PDF]
Masaya Kuribara, Hosei Nagano
Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control (JECTC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jectc.2015.51002
Abstract: This paper presents the temperature dependence of in-plane thermal diffusivity and anisotropy distribution for pitch-based carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs). The measurement was performed using the laser-spot periodic heating method. The samples were unidirectional (UD) and crossply (CP) CFRPs. All carbon fibers of the UD samples ran in one direction, while those of the CP samples ran in two directions. In both UD and CP CFRPs, from -80°;C to +80°;C, temperature dependence of thermal diffusivity values increased as temperature decreased. In this temperature range, the anisotropic ratio between the fiber direction and its perpendicular direction of the UD CFRP was 106 - 124. During the anisotropy distribution measurement, it was found that thermal anisotropy can be visualized by scanning the laser in a circle on the sample. The thermal diffusivity of the UD CFRP in the fiber direction was 17 times larger than that in the 15°; direction, and the thermal diffusivity in the other directions was lower than that in the 15°; direction. The anisotropy distribution for the CP CFRP reflected its inhomogeneous structure.
Experimental Investigation of Loop Heat Pipe with Two Evaporators/Two Condensers under Thermal Vacuum Condition  [PDF]
Xinyu Chang, Hosei Nagano
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.48151
Multiple loop heat pipe is a high-functional thermal transport device. This work was conducted to confirm the working performance of Multiple loop heat pipe under thermal vacuum ambience with the working fluid ammonia. Asmall multiple loop heat pipe with two evaporators and two ra- diators was designed and fabricated. Then thermal vacuum test was conducted. The heaters were fasten on both evaporators, both radiators, both compensation chambers. In the case that both evaporators were heated, the multiple loop heat pipe can transport 120/120 W for 1.5 m, in the case that only one evaporator was heated, evaporator 1 can transport 80 W for 1.5 m, while eva- porator 2 can transport 120 W for 1.5 m. Two flow regulators were installed near the confluence of liquid line to prevent uncondensed vapor penetrating into returning liquid when the tempera- ture difference exists between two radiators. In the case that the heat load at both evaporators were 40/40 W and one radiator was heated, the flow regulator1 can tolerate the 160 W of heat load which was supplied to radiator1 while the flow regulator2 can tolerate the 100 W of heat load which was supplied to radiator2. To demonstrate the multiple loop heat pipe’s startup behavior at lowheat load, each of the compensation chamber was preheated to change the initial distribution of liquid and vapor in the evaporator and compensation chamber, in the result, each evaporator can start up at 5W through preheating.
Catastrophe Risk Derivatives: A New Approach  [PDF]
Mehdi Bekralas Abdessalem, Masamitsu Ohnishi
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2014.41003

The multiplication of disasters during the last two decades beside the urbanism expansion has made catastrophe claims grow dramatically. Against a priced reinsurance, catastrophe derivative products became ever more attractive to insurance companies. A robust pricing of these derivatives is based on an appropriate modeling of the loss index. The current study proposes a unique model that takes into account the statistical characteristics of the loss amounts tails to assess its real distribution. Thus, unlike previous models, we elaborately do not make any assumption regarding the probability of jump sizes to facilitate the calculation of the option price but deduct it instead of using Extreme Value Theory. The core of our model is a jump process that allows later for loss amounts re-estimation. Using both the Esscher transform and the martingale approach, we present the price of a call option on the loss index in a closed form. Finally, to confirm the underpinning theory of the model, numerical examples are presented as well as an algorithm that can be used to derive the option prices in real time.

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