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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1979 matches for " Masaki Miyazaki "
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Antithrombin III injection via the portal vein suppresses liver damage
Masayuki Miyazaki,Masaki Kato,Masatake Tanaka,Kosuke Tanaka
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i16.1884
Abstract: AIM: To investigate the effects of antithrombin III (AT III) injection via the portal vein in acute liver failure. METHODS: Thirty rats were intraperitoneally challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (GalN) and divided into three groups: a control group; a group injected with AT III via the tail vein; and a group injected with AT III via the portal vein. AT III (50 U/kg body weight) was administrated 1 h after challenge with LPS and GalN. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and fibrin degradation products, hepatic fibrin deposition, and hepatic mRNA expression of hypoxia-related genes were analyzed. RESULTS: Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 decreased significantly following portal vein AT III injection compared with tail vein injection, and control rats. Portal vein AT III injection reduced liver cell destruction and decreased hepatic fibrin deposition. This treatment also significantly reduced hepatic mRNA expression of lactate dehydrogenase and heme oxygenase-1. CONCLUSION: A clinically acceptable dose of AT III injection into the portal vein suppressed liver damage, probably through its enhanced anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory activities.
Practical Use of Gemcitabine and Cisplatin Combination Therapy as First-Line Treatment for Japanese Patients with Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer  [PDF]
Hisato Kawakami, Isamu Okamoto, Wataru Okamoto, Masayuki Takeda, Shinya Ueda, Toshihiro Kudo, Shin-ichi Nishina, Yasuhito Fujisaka, Masaki Miyazaki, Junji Tsurutani, Takayasu Kurata, Kazuhiko Nakagawa
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.46121

Gemcitabine and cisplatin combination therapy (GC) is accepted as a standard treatment for advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC). However, little information is available regarding such treatment in the clinical practice setting in Japan. We retrospectively examined the clinical data of patients with unresectable or recurrent BTC who received GC as first-line treatment. The regimen consisted of cisplatin (25 mg/m2) and gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2) administered intravenously on days 1 and 8 of repeated 3-week cycles. Twenty patients were analyzed. A total of 148 cycles of GC was administered, with a median of 8 and a range of 1 to 18 cycles. Treatment delay and dose reduction were noted in 35 (24%) and 41 (28%) of the 148 cycles, respectively. The major adverse events of grade 3 or 4 included neutropenia (50%), leukopenia (45%), anemia (30%), and thrombocytopenia (15%). Nonhematologic toxicities included nausea (10%), appetite loss (10%), and fatigue (10%). Median progression-free and overall survival times were 6.9 and 12.3 months, respectively. Gallbladder cancer showed a significantly higher response rate than did other types of BTC (chi-squaretest, P = 0.002). GC was thus effective and well tolerated as first-line chemotherapy for Japanese patients with advanced BTC in the clinical practice setting.

Clinical Utility of Procalcitonin for Differentiating between Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia and Community-Acquired Pneumonia  [PDF]
Satoshi Takeda, Nobuhiko Nagata, Hiroyuki Miyazaki, Takanori Akagi, Taishi Harada, Masaru Kodama, Shinichiro Ushijima, Takashi Aoyama, Kentaro Wakamatsu, Masaki Fujita, Kentaro Watanabe
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2015.66048
Background: Differentiating cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) from community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) can be difficult in some cases. Objective: To clarify the clinical utility of procalcitonin (PCT) levels for differentiating between COP and CAP. Methods: Blood PCT levels, leukocyte count, C-reactive protein concentration, number of segments involved on computed tomography (CT) images, and pneumonia severity assessment scale were retrospectively investigated from clinical charts and chest CT images of COP and CAP patients who were admitted to our hospital from 2012 to 2014. The clinical characteristics of COP patients were compared to those of CAP patients for whom causative organisms were not detected. Results: There were 16 COP and 94 CAP patients for whom causative organisms were not detected. Blood PCT levels of all COP patients were less than 0.16 ng/dL, and significantly lower than those of CAP patients (p = 0.0004), while the number of involved segments was significantly higher than that of CAP patients (p = 0.0001). Blood PCT levels and the number of involved segments remained independently significant for differentiating between COP and CAP by multivariate analysis. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis revealed that 7 was the best cut-off number for involved segments to differentiate between COP and CAP patients with low PCT levels (sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 94.7%). Conclusion: A combination of PCT levels and number of involved segments on CT images is useful for differentiation between COP and CAP.
Therapy for pneumonitis and sialadenitis by accumulation of CCR2-expressing CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in MRL/lpr mice
Hitoshi Hasegawa, Atsushi Inoue, Masatake Muraoka, Jun Yamanouchi, Tatsuhiko Miyazaki, Masaki Yasukawa
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/ar2122
Abstract: CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells are critical for the regulation of host tolerance and are considered to have enormous potential for suppressing pathological immune responses in autoimmune disease, transplantation, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) [1,2]. These cells express a specific transcription factor, forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), which has been associated with their development and suppressive function [3-5]. The mechanism by which CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress immune responses is poorly understood, but these cells appear to suppress a variety of reactions, including CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses as well as B-cell responses [6,7]. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells have also been reported to act directly on natural killer (NK), natural killer T (NKT), and dendritic cells [8-10]. Therefore, the suppressive characteristics of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells have made them an attractive candidate for immunotherapy, and numerous studies using animal models have demonstrated their potential for the control of autoimmune diseases as well as transplant rejection and GVHD.CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells account for only 5% to 10% of the total CD4+ population in both mice and humans [1,2]. Therefore, administration of sufficient numbers of freshly isolated CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells is not therapeutically practical, and it is critically important to expand the number of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells to facilitate their accumulation in target organs for clinical immunotherapy. Recent studies have shown that suppressive properties and organ-specific tolerance are critically dependent on the antigen specificity of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and that antigen-specific CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells are more effective for disease protection than polyclonal CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, which means that lower numbers of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells are needed for therapy [11-16]. Thus, it seems likely that therapy using antigen-specific CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells has the most pote
Whole body counter surveys of Miharu-town school children for four consecutive years after the Fukushima NPP accident
Ryugo S. Hayano,Masaharu Tsubokura,Makoto Miyazaki,Hideo Satou,Katsumi Sato,Shin Masaki,Yu Sakuma
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.2183/pjab.91.92
Abstract: Comprehensive whole-body counter surveys of Miharu town school children have been conducted for four consecutive years, in 2011-2014. This represents the only long-term sampling-bias-free study of its type conducted after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident. For the first time in 2014, a new device called the Babyscan, which has a low $^{134/137}$Cs MDA of $< 50$ Bq/body, was used to screen the children shorter than 130 cm. No child in this group was found to have detectable level of radiocesium. Using the MDAs, upper limits of daily intake of radiocesium were estimated for each child. For those screened with the Babyscan, the upper intake limits were found to be <1 Bq/day for $^{137}$Cs. Analysis of a questionnaire filled out by the children's parents regarding their food and water consumption shows that the majority of Miharu children regularly consume local and/or home-grown rice and vegetables. This however does not increase the body burden.
A Comment on Reis  [PDF]
Kenji Miyazaki
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2011.13019
Abstract: This note gives a counterexample on Reis [1]. Using a certain family of utility functions, this note not only gives a sharper representation than that of Reis but also demonstrates that interest rate inelastic money demand does not lead to superneutrality. This implies that superneutrality does not exist when uncerinty is introduced.
Incentives in Public and Privatized Firms under Incomplete Contracting Situations  [PDF]
Takeshi Miyazaki
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.23059
Abstract: It is argued that incentives for employees in the public service agencies will necessarily be weak because of the multiple dimensions of products, multiple principals, incomplete contract, and socializing. Some empirical studies refer to incomplete contracting situations as part of the cause of the diminishing of the public sector. This work investigates the effects of privatization and ownership shares on incentive schemes for employees who work for public or privatized firms under incomplete contracting situations. Two main results are obtained. First, the incentive intensity of public firms decreases as the government has more ownership shares, and the social benefit declines. Second, privatized firms offer their employees higher-powered incentive contracts than do public firms.
Seismicity in the Antarctic Continent and Surrounding Ocean  [PDF]
Masaki Kanao
Open Journal of Earthquake Research (OJER) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojer.2014.31002

Seismicity in the Antarctic and surrounding ocean is evaluated based on the compiling data by the International Seismological Centre (ISC). The Antarctic continent and surrounding ocean have been believed to be one of the aseismic regions of the Earth for many decades. However, according to the development of Global Seismic Networks and local seismic arrays, the number of tectonic earthquakes detected in and around the Antarctic continent has been increased. A total of 13 seismicity areas are classified into the Antarctic continent (3 areas) and oceanic regions within the Antarctic Plate (10 areas). In general, seismic activity in the continental areas is very low in Antarctica. However, a few small earthquakes are identified. Wilkes Land in East Antarctica is the most tectonically active area in the continent, with several small earthquake events having been detected during the last four decades. In the oceanic region, in contrast, seismic activity in the area of 120?-60? W sector is three times higher than that in the other oceanic areas. This may be considered to be involved in a tectonic stress concentration toward the Easter Island Triple Junction between the Antarctic Plate, the Pacific Plate and the Nazu- ca micro-Plate. Three volcanic areas, moreover, the Deception Island, the Mts. Erebus and Melbourn, are also found to be high seismic activities in contrast with surrounding vicinity areas.

Statistics of Seismic Tremors with Harmonic Overtones Recorded at Syowa Station, Antarctica: October 2014-March 2015  [PDF]
Masaki Kanao
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2017.86046
Abstract: During the period from October 2014 to March 2015, a total number of 82 seismic tremors and 66 ice-quakes were identified in both three-component short-period seismographs (HES) and broadband seismographs (STS-1) at Syowa Station (SYO), Antarctica. Statistics of the number of these tremors indicated that many tremors were likely to occur when large increases in temperature and/or wind speed during the period. This implied that the rapid increase in temperature enhanced a melting speed of cryosphere environment with generating seismic energy; the tremors were also excited by stormy conditions, associated with interactive resonance between sea-ices and oceanic swells. The characteristic tremors of harmonic overtones with strong amplitudes were explained by repetitive sources, suggesting inter-glacial asperities such as the collision of icebergs and fast sea-ice, calving of glaciers/ice-streams at the coastal environment of Antarctica. These high amplitude tremors occurred independently from other majority types of events, characterized by non-linear, small amplitude and weak signals at the stormy condition and rapid increase in temperature.
The Sustainability of Japan’s Government Debt: A Review  [PDF]
Tomomi Miyazaki, Kazuki Onji
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.76110
Abstract: This paper reviews the literature on the sustainability of Japanese government debt/deficit. First, we offer an overview of the approaches and the key findings on the sustainability analysis. Second, we introduce the arguments of Hoshi and Ito [1], which they predict that foreign investors’ share of JGBs could exceed beyond domestic ownership. Finally, we discuss the coordination problem in the JGB market based on the findings of Onji et al. [2] that examine how government withdrawal from the JGBs could roil the market.
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