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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1860 matches for " Masahiro Ishiyama "
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Voluntary Thigh Muscle Strength with Resection Stump-Dependent Blood Flow and Vasodilation in an Amputated Lower Leg with Total Surface Bearing Prosthesis during Dynamic Knee Extensor: A Case Trial  [PDF]
Takuya Osada, Masahiro Ishiyama, Ryuichi Ueno
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2019.74011
Abstract: Background: The magnitude of the hyperemic response due to repeated thigh stump exercise on incremental contraction intensity might be useful information in localized exercise tolerance for devising cardiovascular physical therapy for amputees. The effect of exercise on amputated leg blood flow (LBF) may potentially be altered due to voluntary muscle contractions after loss of the lower leg compared with the healthy leg. Case Presentation: A 57-year-old male patient with Burger disease attempted 3 min unilateral repeat/dynamic knee extensor exercise at a target muscle contraction frequency (1 s thigh muscle contraction and 1 s relaxation, 90 repetitions) with each leg at six different contraction intensities (rubber resistance belt). Simultaneous measurement of blood velocity/flow (Doppler ultrasound) in the femoral artery, blood pressure, leg vascular conductance (LVC), and peak muscle strength (PMS) were performed during the 3 min exercise period. The maximum voluntary contraction by one-legged isometric knee muscle contraction was 14.7 kg in non-AL and 7.9 kg in the AL with prosthesis. The relative PMS was defined as “PMS/maximum voluntary contraction × 100 (%)”. Pre-exercise LBF was lower in the AL (200 ± 25 ml/min) than the non-AL (275 ± 74 ml/min). Both the non-AL and AL showed good positive linear relationships between absolute-/relative-PMS and LBF or LVC during 30 s at steady-state before the end of the exercise period. Furthermore, there was also similarity seen in the increase rate in LBF and/or LVC for the incremental relative PMS compared with the absolute PMS.
Deterministic Parsing Model of the Compound Biological Effectiveness (CBE) Factor for Intracellular 10Boron Distribution in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy  [PDF]
Shintaro Ishiyama
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.514140
Abstract:

Purpose: In defining the biological effects of the 10B(n, α)7Li neutron capture reaction, we have previously developed a deterministic parsing model to determine the Compound Biological Effectiveness (CBE) factor in Borono-Phenyl-Alanine (BPA)-mediated Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In present paper, we demonstrate that the CBE factor is directly and unambiguously derivable by the new formula for any case of intracellular 10Boron (10B) distribution, which is founded on this model for tissues and tumor. Method: To determine the

Anti-hierarchical evolution of the Active Galactic Nucleus space density in a hierarchical universe
Motohiro Enoki,Tomoaki Ishiyama,Masakazu A. R. Kobayashi,Masahiro Nagashima
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/69
Abstract: Recent observations show that the space density of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) peaks at higher redshifts than that of faint AGNs. This downsizing trend in the AGN evolution seems to be contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario. In this study, we present the AGN space density evolution predicted by a semi-analytic model of galaxy and AGN formation based on the hierarchical structure formation scenario. We demonstrate that our model can reproduce the downsizing trend of the AGN space density evolution. The reason for the downsizing trend in our model is a combination of the cold gas depletion as a consequence of star formation, the gas cooling suppression in massive halos and the AGN lifetime scaling with the dynamical timescale. We assume that a major merger of galaxies causes a starburst, spheroid formation, and cold gas accretion onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH). We also assume that this cold gas accretion triggers AGN activity. Since the cold gas is mainly depleted by star formation and gas cooling is suppressed in massive dark halos, the amount of cold gas accreted onto SMBHs decreases with cosmic time. Moreover, AGN lifetime increases with cosmic time. Thus, at low redshifts, major mergers do not always lead to luminous AGNs. Because the luminosity of AGNs is correlated with the mass of accreted gas onto SMBHs, the space density of luminous AGNs decreases more quickly than that of faint AGNs. We conclude that the anti-hierarchical evolution of the AGN space density is not contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario.
Bactericidal Action of Photogenerated Singlet Oxygen from Photosensitizers Used in Plaque Disclosing Agents
Kirika Ishiyama, Keisuke Nakamura, Hiroyo Ikai, Taro Kanno, Masahiro Kohno, Keiichi Sasaki, Yoshimi Niwano
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037871
Abstract: Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been suggested as an efficient clinical approach for the treatment of dental plaque in the field of dental care. In PDT, once the photosensitizer is irradiated with light of a specific wavelength, it transfers the excitation energy to molecular oxygen, which gives rise to singlet oxygen. Methodology/Principal Findings Since plaque disclosing agents usually contain photosensitizers such as rose bengal, erythrosine, and phloxine, they could be used for PTD upon photoactivation. The aim of the present study is to compare the ability of these three photosensitizers to produce singlet oxygen in relation to their bactericidal activity. The generation rates of singlet oxygen determined by applying an electron spin resonance technique were in the order phloxine > erythrosine ≒ rose bengal. On the other hand, rose bengal showed the highest bactericidal activity against Streptococcus mutans, a major causative pathogen of caries, followed by erythrosine and phloxine, both of which showed activity similar to each other. One of the reasons for the discrepancy between the singlet oxygen generating ability and bactericidal activity was the incorporation efficiency of the photosensitizers into the bacterial cells. The incorporation rate of rose bengal was the highest among the three photosensitizers examined in the present study, likely leading to the highest bactericidal activity. Meanwhile, the addition of L-histidine, a singlet oxygen quencher, cancelled the bactericidal activity of any of the three photoactivated photosensitizers, proving that singlet oxygen was responsible for the bactericidal action. Conclusions It is strongly suggested that rose bengal is a suitable photosensitizer for the plaque disclosing agents as compared to the other two photosensitizers, phloxine and erythrosine, when used for PDT.
The $ν^2$GC Simulations : Quantifying the Dark Side of the Universe in the Planck Cosmology
Tomoaki Ishiyama,Motohiro Enoki,Masakazu A. R. Kobayashi,Ryu Makiya,Masahiro Nagashima,Taira Oogi
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psv021
Abstract: We present the evolution of dark matter halos in six large cosmological N-body simulations, called the $\nu^2$GC (New Numerical Galaxy Catalog) simulations on the basis of the LCDM cosmology consistent with observational results obtained by the Planck satellite. The largest simulation consists of $8192^3$ (550 billion) dark matter particles in a box of $1.12 \, h^{-1} \rm Gpc$ (a mass resolution of $2.20 \times 10^{8} \, h^{-1} M_{\odot}$). Among simulations utilizing boxes larger than $1 \, h^{-1} \rm Gpc$, our simulation yields the highest resolution simulation that has ever been achieved. A $\nu^2$GC simulation with the smallest box consists of eight billions particles in a box of $70 \, h^{-1} \rm Mpc$ (a mass resolution of $3.44 \times 10^{6} \, h^{-1} M_{\odot}$). These simulations can follow the evolution of halos over masses of eight orders of magnitude, from small dwarf galaxies to massive clusters. Using the unprecedentedly high resolution and powerful statistics of the $\nu^2$GC simulations, we provide statistical results of the halo mass function, mass accretion rate, formation redshift, and merger statistics, and present accurate fitting functions for the Planck cosmology. By combining the $\nu^2$GC simulations with our new semi-analytic galaxy formation model, we are able to prepare mock catalogs of galaxies and active galactic nuclei, which will be made publicly available in the near future.
The Impact of Dust in Host Galaxies on Quasar Luminosity Functions
Hikari Shirakata,Takashi Okamoto,Motohiro Enoki,Masahiro Nagashima,Masakazu A. R. Kobayashi,Tomoaki Ishiyama,Ryu Makiya
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slv035
Abstract: We have investigated effects of dust attenuation on quasar luminosity functions using a semi-analytic galaxy formation model combined with a large cosmological N-body simulation. We estimate the dust attenuation of quasars self-consistently with that of galaxies by considering the dust in their host bulges. We find that the luminosity of the bright quasars is strongly dimmed by the dust attenuation, about 2 mag in the B-band. Assuming the empirical bolometric corrections for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by Marconi et al., we find that this dust attenuation is too strong to explain the B-band and X-ray quasar luminosity functions simultaneously. We consider two possible mechanisms that weaken the dust attenuation. As such a mechanism, we introduce a time delay for AGN activity, that is, gas fueling to a central black hole starts some time after the beginning of the starburst induced by a major merger. The other is the anisotropy in the dust distribution. We find that in order to make the dust attenuation of the quasars negligible, either the gas accretion into the black holes has to be delayed at least three times the dynamical timescale of their host bulges or the dust covering factor is as small as 0.1.
Quasar clustering in a galaxy and quasar formation model based on ultra high-resolution N-body simulations
Taira Oogi,Motohiro Enoki,Tomoaki Ishiyama,Masakazu A. R. Kobayashi,Ryu Makiya,Masahiro Nagashima
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slv169
Abstract: We investigate clustering properties of quasars using a new version of our semi-analytic model of galaxy and quasar formation with state-of-the-art cosmological N-body simulations. In this study, we assume that a major merger of galaxies triggers cold gas accretion on to a supermassive black hole and quasar activity. Our model can reproduce the downsizing trend of the evolution of quasars. We find that the median mass of quasar host dark matter haloes increases with cosmic time by an order of magnitude from z=4 (a few 1e+11 Msun) to z=1 (a few 1e+12 Msun), and depends only weakly on the quasar luminosity. Deriving the quasar bias through the quasar--galaxy cross-correlation function in the model, we find that the quasar bias does not depend on the quasar luminosity, similar to observed trends. This result reflects the fact that quasars with a fixed luminosity have various Eddington ratios and thus have various host halo masses that primarily determine the quasar bias. We also show that the quasar bias increases with redshift, which is in qualitative agreement with observations. Our bias value is lower than the observed values at high redshifts, implying that we need some mechanisms that make quasars inactive in low-mass haloes and/or that make them more active in high-mass haloes.
The New Numerical Galaxy Catalog ($ν^2$GC): An Updated Semi-analytic Model of Galaxy and AGN with Large Cosmological N-body Simulations
Ryu Makiya,Motohiro Enoki,Tomoaki Ishiyama,Masakazu A. R. Kobayashi,Masahiro Nagashima,Takashi Okamoto,Katsuya Okoshi,Taira Oogi,Hikari Shirakata
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We present a new cosmological galaxy formation model, $\nu^2$GC, as the updated version of our previous model $\nu$GC. We adopt the so-called "semi-analytic" approach, in which the formation history of dark matter halos is computed by N-body simulations, while the baryon physics such as gas cooling, star formation and supernova feedback are simply modeled by phenomenological equations. Major updates of the model are as follows: (1) the merger trees of dark matter halos are constructed in state-of-the-art N-body simulations, (2) we introduce the formation and evolution process of supermassive black holes and the suppression of gas cooling due to active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity, (3) we include heating of the intergalactic gas by the cosmic UV background, and (4) we tune the parameters using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Our N-body simulations of dark matter halos have unprecedented box size and mass resolution (the largest simulation contains 550 billion particles in a 1.12 Gpc/h box), enabling the study of much smaller and rarer objects. The model was tuned to fit the luminosity functions of local galaxies and mass function of neutral hydrogen. Local observations, such as the Tully-Fisher relation, size-magnitude relation of spiral galaxies and scaling relation between the bulge mass and black hole mass were well reproduced by the model. Moreover, the model also well reproduced the cosmic star formation history and the redshift evolution of rest-frame K-band luminosity function. The numerical catalog of the simulated galaxies and AGNs is publicly available on the web.
Hierarchical Formation of Dark Matter Halos and the Free Streaming Scale
Tomoaki Ishiyama
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/788/1/27
Abstract: The smallest dark matter halos are formed first in the early universe. According to recent studies, the central density cusp is much steeper in these halos than in larger halos and scales as $\rho \propto r^{-(1.5-1.3)}$. We present results of very large cosmological $N$-body simulations of the hierarchical formation and evolution of halos over a wide mass range, beginning from the formation of the smallest halos. We confirmed early studies that the inner density cusps are steeper in halos at the free streaming scale. The cusp slope gradually becomes shallower as the halo mass increases. The slope of halos 50 times more massive than the smallest halo is approximately $-1.3$. No strong correlation exists between inner slope and the collapse epoch. The cusp slope of halos above the free streaming scale seems to be reduced primarily due to major merger processes. The concentration, estimated at the present universe, is predicted to be $60-70$, consistent with theoretical models and earlier simulations, and ruling out simple power law mass-concentration relations. Microhalos could still exist in the present universe with the same steep density profiles.
Theory on the Stability of the Ferromagnetic Double Layer Structure and on the Peak Structure of the Magneto-Optical Spectra of CeSb
F. Ishiyama,O. Sakai
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.72.2071
Abstract: We propose the pf+pd mixing model for CeSb to explain the stability of the ferromagnetic double layer structure in the magnetic ordering. The pd mixing causes the saddle type singular points, neighboring the $\Delta$ axis, for the bands which gain energy through the pf hybridization with the occupied f state. The peak of the density of states due to this combined effect of the pf mixing and the pd mixing enhances the stability of the double layer structure. The same combined effect also causes the saddle type singular points in the joint density of states of the optical transition. The peak structure of the magneto-optical spectra which has been observed in experiments is explained by the present model.
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