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Intravesical Non-Alkalinized Lidocaine Instillation for Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome Patients  [PDF]
Teiichiro Aoyagi, Masaaki Tachibana
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2012.24040
Abstract: Purpose: The effectiveness of daily or weekly instillation of non-alkalinized lidocaine for patients suffering interstitial cystitis and/or bladder pain syndrome was evaluated retrospectively. Patients and methods: Five female patients (40 - 71 years old) diagnosed as interstitial cystitis by cystoscopic findings and a 68 year-old bladder pain syndrome patient were enrolled. All patients, having interstitial cystitis, had undergone hydrodistention therapy previously and had not improved their symptoms by empirical therapies. Daily or weekly (upon their severity of symptoms) intravesical instillation of 20 ml of 4% non-alkalinized (pH 6.0 - 7.0) lidocaine solution was performed for several times, and patients were asked to keep them in the bladder as long as two hours each time. Previous medications such as anti-cholinergic drugs and analgesics were continued according to patient's requirements and symptoms. The treatment effect was evaluated comparing O'Leary-Sant Symptom Index for interstitial cystitis patients and visual analog pain scale before and after the series of lidocaine therapies. Results: Instillation was made 6 to 16 times. Patients with interstitial cystitis improved their symptoms from O'Leary-Sant Symptom Index 17.5 to 10, Problem Index from 14.8 to 6 in an average. Crouching pain disappeared in all these patients after the instillation therapy. Severe interstitial cystitis findings on cystoscopy disappeared completely in one patient after the therapy. One patient having bladder pain syndrome reduced her analgesics use, and bladder-filling pain decreased from 7 to 3 as a visual analog scale score. One patient complained palpitation at 11th instillation and abandoned treatment thereafter, otherwise, none of these patients showed side effect concerning lidocaine toxicity. Conclusions: Intravesical non-alkalinized lidocaine instillation therapy for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome patients were an easy, safe and effective treatment.
Tips for Office-Based Transurethral Biopsy and Fulguration as a Treatment of Tiny Bladder Tumors  [PDF]
Teiichiro Aoyagi, Isao Kuroda, Masaaki Tachibana
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2013.36047

Among the patients who underwent outpatient cystoscopy as a follow up of bladder cancer, quite a few patients are observed tiny papillary lesions suspicious for tumor recurrence. Transurethral biopsy and/or resection under spinal or general anesthesia in a hospitalized setting are the usual procedures for this kind of patients, even though these procedures are simple and brief. We tried transurethral biopsy and fulguration as a treatment for very small bladder tumor in an outpatient setting and here describe tips for these procedures. Olympus CYF-VA flexible cystoscope, a 3 Fr. diathermy probe, monopolar electrosurgical unit were used. No additional anesthetics except for 10 ml of 2% Xylocaine gel applied to (male patient’s) urethra as an initial flexible cystoscopic procedure, was required for tumor treatment. Distilled water was used as an irrigation fluid. Experienced tips of the procedures to avoid tumor recurrence are as follows: tumor should be one location, size of the tumor should be less than 5 mm, bladder should be washed several times after the fulguration with hundreds ml of distilled water. We conclude that outpatient biopsy and fulguration for tiny bladder tumor is effective and less invasive procedure as a treatment of bladder cancer patients.

Sarcomatoid Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder  [PDF]
Kenji Shimodaira, Isao Kuroda, Naohiro Kamoda, Takuya Ishida, Teiichiro Aoyagi, Masaaki Tachibana
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2014.34044

The patient was a 62-year-old female with bladder carcinoma. TUR-BT was performed in March 2010, and the pathological finding was UC, G2 > G1, pTa. However, the cancer recurred in the urinary bladder 3 months after TUR-BT. Radical cystectomy was performed, and the disease was considered to have been cured, but metastasis developed in the skin, lung, liver, and bone several months after surgery. Chemotherapy was ineffective, and the patient died. On pathological examination at the time of radical cystectomy, the lesion was sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Although the prognosis associated with this carcinoma is known to be poor, the possibility of underestimation on preoperative staging cannot be ruled out from the cause, in addition to the insufficiency of the current therapeutic strategy.

Problems in Japan’s Aging Society from the Perspective of Lichen Sclerosus  [PDF]
Naohiro Kamoda, Isao Kuroda, Kenji Shimodaira, Issei Takizawa, Masaaki Tachibana, Teiichiro Aoyagi
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2015.42016
We encountered 12 elderly patients with lichen sclerosus (LS), a relatively high percentage of whom were living with their families. There is a tendency to assume that elderly people living alone or older facility users with paralysis are more likely to require social care, but we note that elderly people living with their families are also likely to develop LS.
Pathologic and Prognostic Outcomes of Very Low- and Low-Risk Prostate Cancer According to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines in Japanese Patients with Radical Prostatectomy  [PDF]
Issei Takizawa, Makoto Ohori, Yoshio Ohno, Jun Nakashima, Rie Inoue, Toshitaka Nagao, Masaaki Tachibana
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2016.74025
Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to validate the treatment strategy for a cohort of Japanese patients with very low-risk (VLR) and low-risk (LR) prostate cancer according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. Methods: We studied 751 patients with T1- 3N0M0 prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy at our institution between 2000 and 2012. Patients with neoadjuvant treatments were excluded. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and pathological outcomes for patients with VLR or LR prostate cancers that were classified by NCCN guidelines. Results: We identified 45 patients with VLR and 137 with LR prostate cancer. Non-biochemical recurrence rate at 5-year for 45 patients with VLR was 86.9% and 81.2% for 137 patients with LR (p = 0.56). However, none of the 19 patients >65 years old with VLR progressed, while 19% of 26 patients ≤65 years old with VLR cancer, 14% of patients >65 years old with LR cancer, and 17% of patients ≤65 years old with LR cancer progressed during the follow-up period (p = 0.04, p = 0.04 and p = 0.05, respectively). In analyses of prostatectomy specimens, both VLR and LR had similarly favorable outcomes, but patients >65 years old with VLR had the smallest tumors, with a mean of 5 mm in diameter. Conclusions: Our results support the treatment strategy of the NCCN that patients with VLR cancer and age >65 years old are good candidates for active surveillance, and that other treatment options—including active surveillance and aggressive treatments—can be applied to the remaining patients with VLR or LR cancers.
Decrease Rate of the Renal Diameter in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients
Teiichiro Aoyagi,Masaaki Tachibana,Shinji Naganuma
ISRN Nephrology , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/521949
Abstract: We here present the results of ultrasonographic (US) evaluations on the alteration of renal diameter of chronic HD patients. Of 109 outpatient HD patients who had neither severe acquired cystic disease of the kidney nor hereditary polycystic kidney disease, we performed US two or three times to measure their maximum renal diameter (mean of both kidneys), and the yearly alteration rate was calculated. The average interval of the two measurements was 35.9 months, and the average HD duration from the HD induction to the first measurement was 29.5 months. The average decrease rate of renal diameter was (SE) mm/year. No statistical difference was seen on the decrease rate in relation to gender, age and original disease (among three groups, glomerulonephritis and IgA nephropathy, diabetes, and others including hypertension). However, the decrease rate was large when the first measurement was close to the induction of hemodialysis, suggesting that the alteration rate reduced according to the hemodialysis vintage ( ?mm/year, first measurement not more than 10 months after induction of HD and ?mm/year, first measurement more than 80 months after induction of HD). Renal diameter decreased approximately 4.3?mm each year, and the decrease rate slowed as the length of time on dialysis increased. 1. Introduction It is well known that the kidney size of the patient undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD) gradually decreases [1]. However, only a few reports are there on the study of the actual decrease rate [2–4]. On the other hand, scheduled ultrasonographic (US) examination of kidney after induction of HD is important to check the progression of acquired cystic disease of kidney (ACDK) and renal cancer which may arise in ACDK [5, 6]. We examined the renal longest diameter of chronic HD patient at the scheduled US kidney checkup [7], calculated the alteration rate of the size in the same patients, and studied the difference of the alteration rate among the factors such as gender, age, and original diseases. 2. Subjects and Methods Of 229 outpatient chronic hemodialysis patients, 109 patients, who had neither hereditary polycystic disease nor severe acquired cystic disease of kidney, were selected; we performed ultrasonography (US) twice or three times to measure their maximum renal diameter (mean of both kidneys), and the yearly alteration rate of the diameter was calculated. The US study was performed by a sole medical examiner. The largest caliber of the imaged kidney was measured using the measurement tool loaded in the US machine (Aroca SSD-280, Toshiba Nemio 30,
Adaptive Parallel Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Based on Dynamic Exchange of Control Parameters  [PDF]
Masaaki Suzuki
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2016.65037
Abstract: Updating the velocity in particle swarm optimization (PSO) consists of three terms: the inertia term, the cognitive term and the social term. The balance of these terms determines the balance of the global and local search abilities, and therefore the performance of PSO. In this work, an adaptive parallel PSO algorithm, which is based on the dynamic exchange of control parameters between adjacent swarms, has been developed. The proposed PSO algorithm enables us to adaptively optimize inertia factors, learning factors and swarm activity. By performing simulations of a search for the global minimum of a benchmark multimodal function, we have found that the proposed PSO successfully provides appropriate control parameter values, and thus good global optimization performance.
A Study on Flow Structure around a Bridge Beam and Behavior of Sea Water Mist  [PDF]
Masaaki Ishikawa
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2017.73022
Abstract: Okinawa in the subtropical islands enclosed in the ocean has a problem that corrosion of structures progresses quickly because of high temperature, high humidity and adhesion of sea-water mists flying from sea. Author is interested in corrosion of bridge made of weatherability steel. Therefore, it needs to investigate the flow structure around bridge beams and behavior of sea-water mist (droplet). In this paper, flow visualization and PIV are attempted to understand the flow structures around bridge beams and, furthermore, numerical approach of motion of droplets is attempted to understand the collision of sea-water mists on the bridge wall.
Message Routing Algorithm with Additional Node-Information for Capability-Aware Object Management in P2P Networks
Takuji Tachibana
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2008,
Sonic Watermarking
Ryuki Tachibana
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2004, DOI: 10.1155/s1687617204403138
Abstract: Audio watermarking has been used mainly for digital sound. In this paper, we extend the range of its applications to live performances with a new composition method for real-time audio watermarking. Sonic watermarking mixes the sound of the watermark signal and the host sound in the air to detect illegal music recordings recorded from auditoriums. We propose an audio watermarking algorithm for sonic watermarking that increases the magnitudes of the host signal only in segmented areas pseudorandomly chosen in the time-frequency plane. The result of a MUSHRA subjective listening test assesses the acoustic quality of the method in the range of ¢ € excellent quality. ¢ € The robustness is dependent on the type of music samples. For popular and orchestral music, a watermark can be stably detected from music samples that have been sonic-watermarked and then once compressed in an MPEG 1 layer 3 file.
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