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Biochemical association between essential trace elements and susceptibility to Leishmania major in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice
Amini, Marzyeh;Nahrevanian, Hossein;Khatami, Shohreh;Farahmand, Mahin;Mirkhani, Fatemeh;Javadian, Seifoddin;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702009000200002
Abstract: several enzymes that contribute to immune system responses require zinc and copper as trace elements for their activity. we examined zinc and copper levels in two susceptible balb/c mouse lines and resistant c57bl/6 mice infected with leishmania major mrho/ir/75/er, a prevalent strain that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in iran. serum zn and cu were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. higher cu levels were found in infected c57bl/6 mice and higher zn levels were found in infected balb/c mice. also, cu/zn ratios were increased in both the balb/c and the c57bl/6 mice. we conclude that concentrations of essential trace elements vary during cutaneous leishmaniasis infection and that this variation is associated with susceptibility/resistance to leishmania major in balb/c and c57bl/6 mice. we detected zn deficiency in the plasma of infected balb/c mice; possibly, therapeutic administration of zn would be useful for treating this form of leishmaniasis. increases in cu level might increase resistance to leishmaniasis. based on our findings, the cu/zn ratio could be a useful marker for the pathophysiology of leishmaniasis.
Immune effector mechanisms of the nitric oxide pathway in malaria: cytotoxicity versus cytoprotection
Nahrevanian, Hossein;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702006000400014
Abstract: nitric oxide (no) is thought to be an important mediator and critical signaling molecule for malaria immunopathology; it is also a target for therapy and for vaccine. inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) is synthesized by a number of cell types under inflammatory conditions. the most relevant known triggers for its expression are endotoxins and cytokines. to date, there have been conflicting reports concerning the clinical significance of no in malaria. some researchers have proposed that no contributes to the development of severe and complicated malaria, while others have argued that no has a protective role. infection with parasites resistant to the microbicidal action of no may result in high levels of no being generated, which could then damage the host, instead of controlling parasitemia. consequently, the host-parasite interaction is a determining factor for whether the parasite is capable of stimulating no production; the role of no in resistance to malaria appears to be strain specific. it is known that no and/or its related molecules are involved in malaria, but their involvement is not independent of other immune events. no is an important, but possibly not an essential contributor to the control of acute-phase malaria infection. the protective immune responses against malaria parasite are multifactorial; however, they necessarily involve final effector molecules, including no, inos and rni.
Involvement of nitric oxide and its up/down stream molecules in the immunity against parasitic infections
Nahrevanian, Hossein;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702009000600010
Abstract: nitric oxide (no) is a potent mediator with diverse roles in regulating cellular functions and signaling pathways. the no synthase (nos) enzyme family consists of three major isoforms, which convey variety of messages between cells, including signals for vasorelaxation, neurotransmission and cytotoxicity. this family of enzymes are generally classified as neuronal nos (nnos), endothelial nos (enos) and inducible nos (inos). increased levels of no are induced from inos during infection; while enos and nnos may be produced at the baseline in normal conditions. an association of some key cytokines appears to be essential for nos gene regulation in the immunity of infections. accumulating evidence indicates that parasitic diseases are commonly associated with elevated production of no. no plays a role in the immunoregulation and it is implicated in the host non-specific defence in a variety of infections. nevertheless, the functional role of no and nos isoforms in the immune responses of host against the majority of parasites is still highly controversial. in the present review, the role of parasitic infections will be discussed in the controversy related to the no production and inos gene expression in different parasites and a variety of experimental models.
E-learning as a new technology for sustainable development
Marzyeh Bordbar,Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari,Meysam Solouki
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Achieving sustainable development is, without a doubt, the single most critical challenge necessary to ensure the well being of our world and its people. Development is a process fueled by resources and it is imperative that much more be done to make certain that these can equitably meet present needs and also remain available for the development needs of generations to come. There are no easy solutions. There is, however, a considerable amount of consensus that the most successful approach will involve two key elements. The first of these is education. More people at all levels must be empowered to develop the values, attitudes and skills necessary to change behavior in regard to natural resource management. The second component is greater collaboration among key entities working to make a difference. Education and working together are the fundamental principles of the Sustainable Development e-Learning Network. This network has, and is developing and delivering quality online courses that address the priority learning needs of a range of development professionals and help to disseminate key information and knowledge of its members. One of the ways that businesses can manage their climate change risk is through the comprehensive implementation of sustainable development strategies. These strategies require a paradigm shift toward more systems, future and critical thinking skills, by everyone in the company. This will require the re-education of the workforce from the current, largely one dimensional focus on economic value; to a multi-dimensional, interdependent, values-based, focus on environmental, social and economic issues. This transformation will be complex and will evolve over the lifetime of a learner. In this paper we will emphasis on how E-learning to achieve sustainable development.
Antibacterial activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Achillea wilhelmsii against pathogenic bacteria
Maryam Mohammadi-Sichani,Leila Amjad,Marzyeh Mohammadi-Kamalabadi
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Increased bacterial resistance to antibacterial agents is one of the most common problems in medicine. Herbal remedies used in the traditional medicine provide an interesting and unexplored source of assessing new drug. The purpose of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of methanol extract and essential oil of aerial part of Achillea wilhelmsii against bacteria.Materials and Methods: Achillea wilhelmsii C-Koch is an endemic plant that has relatively wide distribution in different parts of Iran. The concentrations of 20, 30, 50 and 400 mg/ml of methanol extract were prepared. Antibacterial activities were examined by agar dilution and well diffusion methods against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) or Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was carried out by tube dilution and well-diffusion methods. Results: Methanol extracts exhibited inhibitory effects on S. aureus, B. cereus and E. coli with a range of MIC values extended from 6.25 to 25 mg/ml. Essential oil at concentration of 1000μg/ml was active against S. aureus , B. cereus and E. coli. They did not have any activity on P. aeroginosa.Conclusion: Methanol extract and essential oil of aerial part of Achillea wilhelmsii inhibited growth of pathogenic bacteria especially gram positive bacteria. Clinical applications of these materials needed further investigations
Pathogenicity Variations of Susceptibility and Resistance to Leishmania major MRHO/IR/75/ER Strain in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice
Marzieh Amini,Hossein Nahrevanian,Mahin Farahmand
Iranian Journal of Parasitology , 2008,
Abstract: Background: To compare the pathogenicity differences in two susceptible Balb/c and resistant C57bl/6 mice infected with Leishmania major MRHO/IR/75/ER as a prevalent strain of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Methods: Mice were assigned into four groups as control and infected BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Experimental leishma-niasis was initiated by (s. c) injection of the 2×106 L. major promastigotes into the basal tail of infected groups. The devel-opment of lesions was determined weekly by measuring the two diameters. After 10 weeks, all mice were killed humanly, target tissues including lymph node, spleen and liver from each mouse were removed, weighted, and their impression smears were prepared. Results: Proliferation of amastigotes inside macrophages, pathogenicity signs in two susceptible, resistant hosts was varied, and these variations were depended on mice strain. Conclusion: Host immunity may modify clinical signs and could affect the proliferation of amastigotes inside macro-phages, the size of lesions, the survival rates, the degree of hepatomegaly and splenomegaly and the percentage of amasti-gotes in lesion, liver, spleen, lymph node and brain smears.
Antimalarial Effects of Iranian Flora Artemisia sieberi on Plasmodium berghei In Vivo in Mice and Phytochemistry Analysis of Its Herbal Extracts
Hossein Nahrevanian,Bayram Sheykhkanlooye Milan,Masoud Kazemi,Reza Hajhosseini,Soudeh Soleymani Mashhadi,Shahab Nahrevanian
Malaria Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/727032
Abstract: The aim of this study is pharmacochemistry of Iranian flora Artemisia sieberi and its antimalarial effects on Plasmodium berghei in vivo. This is the first application of A. sieberi for treatment of murine malaria. A. sieberi were collected at flowering stage from the Khorassan and Semnan provinces of Iran; the aerial parts were air-dried at room temperature and then powdered. The powder was macerated in methanol, filtered with Bokhner hopper and solvent was separated in rotary evaporator. Total herbal extract was subsequently processed for ether and chloroform extracts preparation. The toxicity of herbal extract was assessed on naive NMRI mice with high, average and low doses; then pathophysiological signs were assessed. Finally, the antimalarial efficacy was investigated on two groups of Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Percentage of parasitaemia and pathophysiology were also evaluated. The results of this assessment showed no toxicity even by high concentration of herbal extract. A significant reduction in percentage of parasitaemia was observed; no alterations of hepatosplenomegaly and body weight were indicated in study group. A. sieberi extracts showed antimalarial effects against murine malaria with some efficacies on reducing pathophysiology. However, there is requirement to find the major component of this herbal extract by further studies. 1. Introduction Malaria is one of the most serious and widespread diseases encountered by human. It is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Plasmodia (P.) transmitted by the female anopheles. Four identified species of this parasite exist, which cause different types of human malaria [1]. Although all the four species of malaria parasites can infect humans and cause illness, only P. falciparum is known to be potentially life threatening and some of infected persons die, usually because of delayed treatment [2]; however, annual incidence of clinically new cases and mortality rates are decreasing [3–6]. As malaria vaccines remain problematic, chemotherapy still is the most important weapon in the fight against the disease [7]. The antimalarial drugs including chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, pyrimethamine, and artemisinin are currently used in malaria treatment. Part of the reason for the failure to control malaria is the spread of resistance to first-line antimalarial drugs, cross-resistance between the limited number of drug families available, and some multidrug resistance [8]. Resistance has emerged to all classes of antimalarial drugs except artemisinin, an endoperoxide antimalarial drug derived
Patterns of co-association of C-reactive protein and nitric oxide in malaria in endemic areas of Iran
Nahrevanian, Hossein;Gholizadeh, Jafar;Farahmand, Mahin;Assmar, Mehdi;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762008000100006
Abstract: in addition to numerous immune factors, c-reactive protein (crp) and nitric oxide (no) are believed to be molecules of malaria immunopathology. the objective of this study was to detect crp and no inductions by agglutination latex test and griess microassay respectively in both control and malaria groups from endemic areas of iran, including southeastern (se) (sistan & balouchestan, hormozgan, kerman) and northwestern (nw) provinces (ardabil). the results indicated that crp and no are produced in all malaria endemic areas of iran. in addition, more crp and no positive cases were observed amongst malaria patients in comparison with those in control group. a variable co-association of crp/no production were detected between control and malaria groups, which depended upon the malaria endemic areas and the type of plasmodia infection. the percentage of crp/no positive cases was observed to be lower in nw compare to se region, which may be due to the different type of plasmodium in the nw (plasmodium vivax) with se area (p. vivax, plasmodium falciparum, mixed infection). the fluctuations in crp/no induction may be consistent with genetic background of patients. although, crp/no may play important role in malaria, their actual function and interaction in clinical forms of disease remains unclear.
In Vivo Antimalarial Effects of Iranian Flora Artemisia khorassanica against Plasmodium berghei and Pharmacochemistry of its Natural Components
H Nahrevanian,M Kazemi,H Nazem,M Amini
Iranian Journal of Parasitology , 2010,
Abstract: "nBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimalarial effects of Iranian flora Artemisia khorassanica against Plasmodium berghei in vivo and pharmacochemistry of its natural components."nMethods: The aerial parts of Iranian flora A. khorasanica were collected at flowering stage from Khorassan Province, northeastern Iran in 2008. They were air-dried at room temperature; powder was macerated in methanol and the extract defatted in refrigerator, filtered, diluted with water, then eluted with n-hexane and finally non-polar components were identified through Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). Toxicity of herbal extracts was assessed on na ve NMRI mice, and its anti-malarial efficacy was investigated on infected Plasmodium berghei animals. This is the first ap-plication on A. khorssanica extract for treatment of murine malaria. The significance of differences was determined by Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) and Student's t-test using Graph Pad Prism Software."nResults: The herbal extract was successfully tested in vivo for its anti-plasmodial activity through ar-temisin composition, which is widely used as a standard malaria treatment."nConclusion: Although, this study confirmed less anti-malarial effects of A. khorssanica against mur-ine malaria in vivo, how-ever there are some evidences on reducing pathophysiology by this medica-tion. In complementary assay, major components were detected by GC-MS analysis in herbal extract including chrysanthe-none (7.8%), palmitic acid (7.4%) and cis-thujone (5.8%). The most retention indices of the compo-nent are given as n-eicosane, palmitic acid and n-octadecane.
Inhibition of Murine Systemic Leishmaniasis by Acetyl Salicylic Acid Via Nitric Oxide Immunomodulation
H Nahrevanian,M Jalalian,M Farahmand,M Assmar
Iranian Journal of Parasitology , 2012,
Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate antileishmanial effects of ASA via NO pathway in Leishmania major infected Balb/c mice. Moreover, toxicity and pathological consequences of ASA administration were investigated.Methods: Balb/c mice were infected with L. major and ASA was inoculated orally after lesion appearance for its ability to modulate NO and to modify Leishmania infection in host, in order to evaluate the effects of NO production on size and lesion macroscopy, delay of lesion formation and proliferation of amasti-gotes inside macrophages. Liver, spleen, and lymph nodes were also studied as target organs to detect amastigotes. In addition, plasma was investigated for NO induction using Griess microassay.Results: ASA increased NO production in plasma of both na ve and Leishmania test groups at the ultimate of the experimental period. A decline was observed in proliferation of amastigotes inside macrophages of test group when compared with control one. ASA reduced lesion size, inhibited Leishma-nia visceralisation in spleen, lymph node, and decreased hepato/splenomegaly in ASA treated animals.Conclusions: Some antileishmanial effects of ASA by NO-modulation were indicated during systemic leishmaniasis in mice. Despite slight effects on lesion size, ASA decreased parasite visceralization in target organs and declined their proliferation inside macrophages. Therefore, ASA may be indicated to inhibit systemic leishmaniasis via NO pathway in mice model.
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