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The purpose of this research was to improve nursing professionals’ understanding of the important link to safe, competent, and ethical practices that Nursing Practice Standards (NPS) serve. This research on NPS may improve the scope and comprehensiveness by which the Standards are integrated with clinical, educational, administrative, and research-based nursing practices. This research was unique in that it includes nurses in developing NPS. The method by which this study was done involved sixteen practicing nurses and seven instructional design experts from Alberta, Canada participating in designing, developing, and evaluating a NPS module. Nursing practice standards are a vital aspect of performing safe, efficient and effective patient care. The manner in which Nursing Standard Practices are presented and taught will directly influence a nurse’s ability to understand the value of NPS and successfully incorporate NPS into practice.
Rates of exclusive breastfeeding in Malawi remain low despite the
acknowledged benefits of exclusive breastfeeding for the infant’s wellbeing
and the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Creating an environment supportive of exclusive breastfeeding is critical to
increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding among HIV-positive
mothers. However, little is known on factors that influence the
environment within which HIV-positive mothers in Malawi practise exclusive
breastfeeding. Therefore, the exploratory qualitative study on which this article
is based was conducted at the Chatinkha maternity unit of Queen Elizabeth Central
Hospital in Malawi from April 16, 2009 to May 8, 2009 to explore perceived
practice environment related barriers to exclusive breastfeeding among HIV-positive mothers. Data were obtained through indepth interviews with 16 purposively selected breastfeeding HIV-positive
mothers between 18 and 35 years old and two focus group discussions with
women of unknown HIV status. Semi-structured interview and focus group guides
were utilised. Content analysis of data was done. Five main themes emerged regarding factors that may influence the
environment within which exclusive breastfeeding was practised: 1) availability of resources; 2) societal norms and cultural
practices; 3) mother-baby proximity; 4) health workers’ attitudes and 5)
disclosure of the mothers’ HIV status. A
multi-sectoral approach to promote exclusive breastfeeding is suggested.
This should include community involvement because it is in the community where breastfeeding norms and cultural
practices associated with breast-feeding are propagated.