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Wind Turbine Incident/Complaint Reports in Ontario, Canada: A Review—Why Are They Important?  [PDF]
Carmen M. Krogh, E. Jane Wilson, Mary E. Harrington
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105200
Abstract:
Background: The introduction of industrial wind turbines into quiet rural en-vironments in Ontario, Canada has resulted in complaints about environmental noise and adverse health effects. Ontario has a process whereby residents can report noise to government. Official government records of Incident Reports/Complaints submitted by residents living near operating wind turbine installations were obtained through a Freedom of Information request. This article presents an evaluation of this process while commenting on the significance of Incident Reports/Complaints. Methods: Government records of Incident Reports/Complaints were analysed. Peer reviewed publications, conference presentations, judicial proceedings, government resources, and other sources were evaluated and considered in context with the topic under discussion. Objectives: The purpose of this article is to present the role and significance of Incident Reports/Complaints and discuss the value of these when assessing outcomes related to the introduction of wind turbines into a quiet rural environment. Results: Government records document 4574 Incident Reports/Complaints received by Ontario’s hotline (2006- 2016). There was no ministry response to over 50% of more than 3000 submitted formal complaints (2006-2014). Another 30% were noted as “deferred” response. Only 1% of the reports received a priority response. Provincial Officers noted in summary reports that people were reporting health effects such as: headache, sleep deprivation, annoyance, and ringing or pressure sensation in the head and ears. Health effects were reported many times including those occurring among children. Discussion: In the case of wind power installations, Incident Reports/Complaints are an important source of information for evaluating outcomes of introducing a new noise source into a quiet rural environment and are a form of public health surveillance. These reports can highlight risks to a healthy community living environment, act as an early warning system, and aid in evaluation of government policy initiatives. They may also be used before legal tribunals in public or private actions.
Circadian Rhythms of PER2::LUC in Individual Primary Mouse Hepatocytes and Cultures
Casey J. Guenthner, Martha E. Luitje, Lorna A. Pyle, Penny C. Molyneux, Jimmy K. Yu, Alexander S. Li, Tanya L. Leise, Mary E. Harrington
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087573
Abstract: Background Hepatocytes, the parenchymal cells of the liver, express core clock genes, such as Period2 and Cryptochrome2, which are involved in the transcriptional/translational feedback loop of the circadian clock. Whether or not the liver is capable of sustaining rhythms independent of a central pacemaker is controversial. Whether and how circadian information may be shared among cells in the liver in order to sustain oscillations is currently unknown. Results In this study we isolated primary hepatocytes from transgenic Per2Luc mice and used bioluminescence as a read-out of the state of the circadian clock. Hepatocytes cultured in a collagen gel sandwich configuration exhibited persistent circadian rhythms for several weeks. The amplitude of the rhythms damped, but medium changes consistently reset the phase and amplitude of the cultures. Cry2?/? Per2Luc cells oscillated robustly and expressed a longer period. Co-culturing with wildtype cells did not significantly shorten the period, indicating that coupling among hepatocytes is insufficient to synchronize cells with significantly differing periods. However, spatial patterns revealed by cellular imaging of wildtype cultures provided evidence of weak local coupling among the hepatocytes. Conclusions Our results with primary hepatocyte cultures demonstrate that cultured hepatocytes are weakly coupled. While this coupling is not sufficient to sustain global synchrony, it does increase local synchrony, which may stabilize the circadian rhythms of peripheral oscillators, such as the liver, against noise in the entraining signals.
Medical Sequencing of Candidate Genes for Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and Palate
Alexandre R Vieira,Joseph R Avila,Sandra Daack-Hirsch,Ecaterina Dragan,Têmis M Félix,Fedik Rahimov,Jill Harrington,Rebecca R Schultz,Yoriko Watanabe,Marla Johnson,Jennifer Fang,Sarah E O'Brien,Iêda M Orioli,Eduardo E Castilla,David R FitzPatrick,Rulang Jiang,Mary L Marazita,Jeffrey C Murray
PLOS Genetics , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0010064
Abstract: Nonsyndromic or isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) occurs in wide geographic distribution with an average birth prevalence of 1/700. We used direct sequencing as an approach to study candidate genes for CL/P. We report here the results of sequencing on 20 candidate genes for clefts in 184 cases with CL/P selected with an emphasis on severity and positive family history. Genes were selected based on expression patterns, animal models, and/or role in known human clefting syndromes. For seven genes with identified coding mutations that are potentially etiologic, we performed linkage disequilibrium studies as well in 501 family triads (affected child/mother/father). The recently reported MSX1 P147Q mutation was also studied in an additional 1,098 cleft cases. Selected missense mutations were screened in 1,064 controls from unrelated individuals on the Centre d'étude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) diversity cell line panel. Our aggregate data suggest that point mutations in these candidate genes are likely to contribute to 6% of isolated clefts, particularly those with more severe phenotypes (bilateral cleft of the lip with cleft palate). Additional cases, possibly due to microdeletions or isodisomy, were also detected and may contribute to clefts as well. Sequence analysis alone suggests that point mutations in FOXE1, GLI2, JAG2, LHX8, MSX1, MSX2, SATB2, SKI, SPRY2, and TBX10 may be rare causes of isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and the linkage disequilibrium data support a larger, as yet unspecified, role for variants in or near MSX2, JAG2, and SKI. This study also illustrates the need to test large numbers of controls to distinguish rare polymorphic variants and prioritize functional studies for rare point mutations.
Individual Learning and Social Learning: Endogenous Division of Cognitive Labor in a Population of Co-evolving Problem-Solvers
Myong-Hun Chang,Joseph E. Harrington
Administrative Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/admsci3030053
Abstract: The dynamic choice between individual and social learning is explored for a population of autonomous agents whose objective is to find solutions to a stream of related problems. The probability that an agent is in the individual learning mode, as opposed to the social learning mode, evolves over time through reinforcement learning. Furthermore, the communication network of an agent is also endogenous. Our main finding is that when agents are sufficiently effective at social learning, structure emerges in the form of specialization. Some agents focus on coming up with new ideas while the remainder of the population focuses on imitating worthwhile ideas.
Eccentric binaries: Tidal flows and periastron events
E. Moreno,G. Koenigsberger,D. M. Harrington
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201015874
Abstract: A number of binary systems present evidence of enhanced activity around periastron passage, suggesting a connection between tidal interactions and these periastron effects. The aim of this investigation is to study the time-dependent response of a star's surface as it is perturbed by a binary companion. We derive expressions for the rate of dissipation, $\dot{E}$, of the kinetic energy by the viscous flows driven by tidal interactions on the surface layer. The method is tested by comparing the results from a grid of model calculations with the analytical predictions of Hut (1981) and the synchronization timescales of Zahn (1977, 2008). Our results for the orbital cycle averaged energy dissipation on orbital separation are consistent with those of Hut for model binaries with orbital separations at periastron >8 stellar radii. The model also reproduces the predicted pseudo-synchronization angular velocity for moderate eccentricities and the same scaling of synchronization timescales for circular orbits with separation as given by Zahn. The computations gives the distribution of $\dot{E}$ over the stellar surface, and show that it is generally concentrated at the equatorial latitude, with maxima generally located around four clearly defined longitudes, corresponding to the fastest azimuthal velocity perturbations. Maximum amplitudes occur around periastron passage or slightly thereafter for supersynchronously rotating stars. In very eccentric binaries, the distribution of $\dot{E}$ over the surface changes significantly as a function of orbital phase, with small spatial structures appearing after periastron. An exploratory calculation for the highly eccentric binary system delta Sco suggests that the sudden and large amplitude variations in surface properties around periastron may contribute toward the activity observed around this orbital phase.
Analytical and Stability Studies on Medical Cosmetics  [PDF]
Manal I. Eid, Mary E. K. Wahba
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2012.33037
Abstract: Two simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric (method Ι) and spectrophotometric (method ΙΙ) methods have been developed for the determination of some chloride containing toothpastes and panthenol-containing cosmetic preparations respectively. Method Ι is based on quantitative fluorescence quenching of (terbium-salicylate-hexamine ternary complex) by fluoride which could be measured at λem/λex of 547 nm/322 nm. The ΔF-concentration plot was rectilinear over the concentration range of 0.5 - 20 μg/ml. Method ΙΙ depends reaction of panthenol with nitrobenzoxadiazole chloride (NBD-Cl) and measuring the absorbance of the resultant product at 480 nm. The absorbance-concentration plot was rectilinear over the concentration range of 2 - 20 μg/ml.
Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Pregnant Women Is Associated with Increased Risk of Severe Malaria in Their Offspring
Whitney E. Harrington, Robert Morrison, Michal Fried, Patrick E. Duffy
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056183
Abstract: Background In areas of widespread sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance, intermittent treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) fails to prevent placental malaria (PM) and may exacerbate drug resistant infections. Because PM predicts increased susceptibility to parasitemia during infancy, we hypothesized that IPTp would also increase susceptibility to malaria infection and disease in the offspring. Methods In a birth cohort from NE Tanzania, we evaluated the association between maternal IPTp use and risk of parasitemia and severe malaria in the offspring. Using Cox Proportional Hazards Models as well as Generalized Estimating Equations, we evaluated the effects of IPTp on the entire cohort and on subgroups stratified by PM status at delivery. Results and Conclusions Offspring of PM+ women who received IPTp had a dose-dependent decrease in time to first parasitemia (AHR = 2.13, p = 0.04 [95%CI: 1.04, 4.38]). Among all offspring, IPTp was associated with earlier first severe malaria episode (AHR = 2.32, p = 0.02 [95%CI: 1.12, 4.78]) as well as increased overall odds of severe malaria (AOR = 2.31, p = 0.03 [95%CI: 1.09, 4.88]). Cost-benefit analyses of IPTp regimens should consider the long term effects on offspring in addition to pregnancy outcomes.
The clustering of health behaviours in Ireland and their relationship with mental health, self-rated health and quality of life
Mary C Conry, Karen Morgan, Philip Curry, Hannah McGee, Janas Harrington, Mark Ward, Emer Shelley
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-692
Abstract: TwoStep Cluster analysis using SPSS was carried out on the SLáN 2007 data (national Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition, n = 10,364; response rate =62%; food frequency n = 9,223; cluster analysis n = 7,350). Patterns of smoking, drinking alcohol, physical activity and diet were considered. Associations with positive and negative mental health, quality of life and self-rated health were assessed.Six health behaviour clusters were identified: Former Smokers, 21.3% (n = 1,564), Temperate, 14.6% (n = 1,075), Physically Inactive, 17.8% (n = 1,310), Healthy Lifestyle, 9.3% (n = 681), Multiple Risk Factor, 17% (n = 1248), and Mixed Lifestyle, 20% (n = 1,472). Cluster profiles varied with men aged 18-29 years, in the lower social classes most likely to adopt unhealthy behaviour patterns. In contrast, women from the higher social classes and aged 65 years and over were most likely to be in the Healthy Lifestyle cluster. Having healthier patterns of behaviour was associated with positive lower levels of psychological distress and higher levels of energy vitality.The current study identifies discernible patterns of lifestyle behaviours in the Irish population which are similar to those of our European counterparts. Healthier clusters (Former Smokers, Temperate and Healthy Lifestyle) reported higher levels of energy vitality, lower levels of psychological distress, better self-rated health and better quality of life. In contrast, those in the Multiple Risk Factor cluster had the lowest levels of energy and vitality and the highest levels of psychological distress. Identification of these discernible patterns because of their relationship with mortality, morbidity and longevity is important for identifying national and international health behaviour patterns.It is well established that modification health related behaviours, can reduce mortality rates for all sections of the population [1]. While studies have documented the role of the 'big four' modifiable health behav
Consumption Patterns of the Millenial Generational Cohort  [PDF]
Rebecca Abraham, Charles Harrington
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.61005
Abstract: This study constructs a consumption profile for the Generation Y age cohort using responses to the Consumer Expenditure Survey furnished by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from the financial crisis period. This generation was theorized to employ both economic reasons, i.e. preferences for inexpensive products, and the desire to comply with the values and normative beliefs of social referent groups. For the rent or buy a home decision, the variability of income, risk of foreclosure and loss of mobility governed the consumption choice. For the purchase a new car or a used car decision, economic considerations dominated with variability of income being the sole explanatory variable for the choice. Family size and the need to conform to group norms explained the choice of bringing food from home to the workplace. Socialization opportunities and group identification explained the decision to eat lunch away from the workplace. Family size and desire for group conformity explained vacation expenditure as they did for bringing food from home. For both furniture and large appliances and small appliances, the need to conform to group norms was significant suggesting that they may be the subject of social interactions. Given that investment in a private education is often considered a luxury, the proportion of the family budget allocated to this expense was significant along with the expected need for conformity with group values.
Unusual Case of Metastatic Gastrointestinal Adenocarcinoma to the Cervical Spine without a Detectable Primary Source in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Case Report
Paul E. Kaloostian,Marc Barry,James Fred Harrington
Case Reports in Surgery , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/749056
Abstract: The authors report a case of metastatic gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma to the cervical spine in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) being treated with antiretroviral therapy. The source of this tumor could not be identified despite a thorough evaluation. A 49-year-old male being treated for AIDS presents with worsening neck pain and left distal arm weakness. MRI demonstrated an erosive mass within the cervical four vertebral body extending through the pedicle on the left side. Patient underwent needle biopsy followed by combined anterior and posterior fusion procedures. Pathology demonstrated metastatic gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma without known primary origin. He is currently undergoing palliative radiotherapy. This is an unusual case of metastatic gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma to the cervical spine. This should be included on the differential diagnosis of spinal lesions in this patient population and may represent a unique tumor in patients with HIV/AIDS who are on immunosuppressive therapy.
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