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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 466209 matches for " Mary A Luszcz "
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The choice of self-rated health measures matter when predicting mortality: evidence from 10 years follow-up of the Australian longitudinal study of ageing
Kerry A Sargent-Cox, Kaarin J Anstey, Mary A Luszcz
BMC Geriatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-10-18
Abstract: We used seven waves of data from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (1992 to 2004; N = 1733, 52.6% males). Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between three time-varying SRH measures (global, age-comparative and self-comparative reference point) with mortality in older adults (65+ years).After accounting for other mortality risk factors, poor global SRH ratings increased mortality risk by 2.83 times compared to excellent ratings. In contrast, the mortality relationship with age-comparative and self-comparative SRH was moderated by age, revealing that these comparative SRH measures did not independently predict mortality for adults over 75 years of age in adjusted models.We found that a global measure of SRH not referenced to age or self is the best predictor of mortality, and is the most reliable measure of self-perceived health for longitudinal research and population health estimates of healthy life expectancy in older adults. Findings emphasize that the SRH measures are not equivalent measures of health status.Self-rated health (SRH) is a widely used measure for health status in public health and epidemiological research due to strong associations with other subjective and objective measures of well-being, health outcomes and mortality [e.g. [1]]. The multidimensional concept of health that is encapsulated within a single global SRH response is considered by World Health Organisation (WHO[2]) and the Euro-REVES 2 [3] project to be one of the best indicators of health at the individual and population level. Both of these organisations have extensively investigated the relationship between global SRH and health outcomes and recommended the measure to estimate policy relevant data on aspects of public health such as healthy life expectancy and mortality [4].The most commonly used SRH measure has a global or current reference point (i.e. how would you rate your health in general/at the present time?). A comparative reference point i
Social Networks and Memory over 15 Years of Followup in a Cohort of Older Australians: Results from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing
Lynne C. Giles,Kaarin J. Anstey,Ruth B. Walker,Mary A. Luszcz
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/856048
Abstract: The purpose was to examine the relationship between different types of social networks and memory over 15 years of followup in a large cohort of older Australians who were cognitively intact at study baseline. Our specific aims were to investigate whether social networks were associated with memory, determine if different types of social networks had different relationships with memory, and examine if changes in memory over time differed according to types of social networks. We used five waves of data from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing, and followed 706 participants with an average age of 78.6 years (SD 5.7) at baseline. The relationships between five types of social networks and changes in memory were assessed. The results suggested a gradient of effect; participants in the upper tertile of friends or overall social networks had better memory scores than those in the mid tertile, who in turn had better memory scores than participants in the lower tertile. There was evidence of a linear, but not quadratic, effect of time on memory, and an interaction between friends’ social networks and time was apparent. Findings are discussed with respect to mechanisms that might explain the observed relationships between social networks and memory. 1. Introduction Over recent decades, there has been an accrual of evidence concerning the beneficial effects of social relationships on physical and mental health in older people, including longer survival [1], reduced risk of disability [2, 3], and reduced risk of dementia [4]. Cross-sectional [5] and longitudinal studies [6–11] have generally shown that older people with better social relationships also have higher levels of cognitive function. The influence of social relationships is broad. In the conceptual model proposed by Berkman et al. [12], social networks underpin the ways in which social relationships affect health outcomes. Social networks were hypothesised by these authors to influence health through the provision of social support, social influence, social engagement and attachment, and access to material goods and resources. In turn, these aspects of social relationships affect health via behavioural and physiological pathways. In the extant literature concerning cognitive function, there is considerable variability in the ways that social networks have been defined, which may partly explain differences in results across studies. For example, no association between overall social networks (defined as number of children, relatives, and friends seen at least monthly) and cognitive function was
Lower age at menarche affects survival in older Australian women: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing
Lynne C Giles, Gary FV Glonek, Vivienne M Moore, Michael J Davies, Mary A Luszcz
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-341
Abstract: Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 1,031 women aged 65-103 years). We estimated the hazard ratio (HR) associated with lower age at menarche using Cox proportional hazards models, and adjusted for a broad range of reproductive, demographic, health and lifestyle covariates.During the follow-up period, 673 women (65%) died (average 7.3 years (SD 4.1) of follow-up for decedents). Women with menses onset < 12 years of age (10.7%; n = 106) had an increased hazard of death over the follow-up period (adjusted HR 1.28; 95%CI 0.99-1.65) compared with women who began menstruating aged ≥ 12 years (89.3%; n = 883). However, when age at menarche was considered as a continuous variable, the adjusted HRs associated with the linear and quadratic terms for age at menarche were not statistically significant at a 5% level of significance (linear HR 0.76; 95%CI 0.56 - 1.04; quadratic HR 1.01; 95%CI 1.00-1.02).Women with lower age at menarche may have reduced survival into old age. These results lend support to the known associations between earlier menarche and risk of metabolic disease in early adulthood. Strategies to minimise earlier menarche, such as promoting healthy weights and minimising family dysfunction during childhood, may also have positive longer-term effects on survival in later life.The timing and development of the reproductive system can be viewed as a continuum across the lifespan [1] in which there is an intimate association with underlying metabolic processes, reproductive function and, potentially, chronic disease risk. The onset of menarche is an important milestone in a woman's reproductive career, and appears to be meaningfully related to a range of emergent chronic disease risk factors, and subsequent morbidity and mortality in later-life.An association between lower age at menarche - that is, < 12 years [2] - and an increased risk of uterine cancer [3] and breast cancer [4,5] is well established. One explanation for the latte
Self-medication with over-the-counter drugs and complementary medications in South Australia's elderly population
Lynn Goh, Agnes I Vitry, Susan J Semple, Adrian Esterman, Mary A Luszcz
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-9-42
Abstract: The Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ALSA) is an ongoing multidisciplinary prospective study of the older population which commenced in 1992 in South Australia. Data collected in 4 waves of ALSA between 1992 and 2004 were used in this study with a baseline sample of 2087 adults aged 65 years and over, living in the community or residential aged care. OTC medicines were classified according to the World Health Organization Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. CAM were classified according a modified version of the classification adopted by the Therapeutics Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia.The prevalence of CAM or OTC use ranged from 17.7% in 2000-2001 to 35.5% in 2003-2004. The top classes of CAM and OTC medicines used remained relatively constant over the study period. The most frequent classes of CAM used were vitamins and minerals, herbal medicines and nutritional supplements while the most commonly used OTC were analgesics, laxatives and low dose aspirin. Females and those of younger age were more likely to be CAM users but no variable was associated with OTC use.Participants seemed to self-medicate in accordance with approved indications, suggesting they were informed consumers, actively looking after their own health. However, use of analgesics and aspirin are associated with an increased risk of adverse drug events in the elderly. Future work should examine how self-medication contributes to polypharmacy and increases the risk of adverse drug reactions.In Australia, the proportion of adults over the age of 65 in 2005 was 13% and this figure is expected to more than double by 2051. South Australia has the highest percentage of people aged 65 and over of all Australian states and territories, and this age group is expected to make up 26.5% of the state's population by 2031[1].Increasing age is associated with increased prevalence of chronic medical conditions [2], a higher number of medicines used, and a higher demand for all medi
Do social networks affect the use of residential aged care among older Australians?
Lynne C Giles, Gary FV Glonek, Mary A Luszcz, Gary R Andrews
BMC Geriatrics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-7-24
Abstract: Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Six waves of data from 1477 people aged ≥ 70 collected over nine years of follow-up were used. Multinomial logistic regressions of the effects of specific and total social networks on residential care use were carried out. Propensity scores were used in the analyses to adjust for differences in participant's health, demographic and lifestyle characteristics with respect to social networks.Higher scores for confidant networks were protective against nursing home use (odds ratio [OR] upper versus lower tertile of confidant networks = 0.50; 95%CI 0.33–0.75). Similarly, a significant effect of upper versus lower total network tertile on nursing home use was observed (OR = 0.62; 95%CI 0.43–0.90). Evidence of an effect of children networks on nursing home use was equivocal. Nursing home use was not predicted by other relatives or friends social networks. Use of lower-level residential care was unrelated to social networks of any type. Social networks of any type did not have a significant effect upon low-level residential care use.Better confidant and total social networks predict nursing home use in a large cohort of older Australians. Policy needs to reflect the importance of these particular relationships in considering where older people want to live in the later years of life.At any point in time in Australia, around one in ten older people have left their home to receive either respite or permanent care in a residential care facility [1]. The Australian aged care system is a tiered system that comprises both community and residential aged care places. Residential aged care may be provided as either 'high-level' or 'low-level' care, depending on clients' needs. In the Australian aged care system, high-level care is equivalent to nursing home care in other countries, and reflects high levels of medical and personal care needs. Low-level residential care (also referred to as 'hostel care' in the Australi
Estimates of probable dementia prevalence from population-based surveys compared with dementia prevalence estimates based on meta-analyses
Kaarin J Anstey, Richard A Burns, Carole L Birrell, David Steel, Kim M Kiely, Mary A Luszcz
BMC Neurology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-10-62
Abstract: Data sources included a pooled dataset of Australian longitudinal studies (DYNOPTA), and two Australian Bureau of Statistics National Surveys of Mental Health and Wellbeing. National rates of probable dementia (MMSE < 24) and possible cognitive impairment (24-26) were estimated using combined sample weights.Estimates of probable dementia were higher in surveys than in meta-analyses for ages 65-84, but were similar at ages 85 and older. Surveys used weights to account for sample bias, but no adjustments were made in meta-analyses. Results from DYNOPTA and meta-analyses had a very similar pattern of increase with age. Contrary to trends from some meta-analyses, rates of probable dementia were not higher among women in the Australian surveys. Lower education was associated with higher prevalence of probable dementia. Data from investigator-led longitudinal studies designed to assess cognitive decline appeared more reliable than government health surveys.This study shows that estimates of probable dementia based on MMSE in studies where cognitive decline and dementia are a focus, are a useful adjunct to clinical studies of dementia prevalence. Such information and may be used to inform projections of dementia prevalence and the concomitant burden of disease.In 2005 it was estimated that the number of people with dementia in Australia reached 200,000 [1]. Recent projections indicate that if there is no risk reduction at the population level, the number of people with dementia in Australia will exceed 730,000 by 2050 [2]. In Australia, dementia will cause the largest burden of disease for women and 5th largest for men by 2016 [3]. These Australian figures were derived using a similar methodology to European studies that project future population characteristics by age and sex [4] and took into account prevalence estimates from four meta-analyses of mostly European studies [5-8]. Consequently, estimates of dementia prevalence in Australia are typically based on non-Austral
Minkowski decomposition of Okounkov bodies on surfaces
Patrycja \Luszcz-?widecka,David Schmitz
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We prove that the Okounkov body of a big divisor with respect to a general flag on a smooth projective surface whose pseudo-effective cone is rational polyhedral decomposes as the Minkowski sum of finitely many simplices and line segments arising as Okounkov bodies of nef divisors.
Multi-Criteria Decision Making Using ELECTRE  [PDF]
S. A. Sahaaya Arul Mary, G. Suganya
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.76085
Abstract: Requirements prioritization is one of the key factors in deciding the success of the project and hence the software industry. One of the major concerns in software prioritization techniques is that the existing ranking techniques have a very modest support to different criteria used by stakeholders to present their ranking. The current techniques are not suitable for arriving at anoptimized view of multiple stakeholders using multiple criteria. This research analyzes the issues in existing techniques. A web based decision support model using ELECTRE as the method for prioritization is proposed. ELECTRE is a multi-criteria decision making model that is proved to be effective in ranking several decision making problems. The proposed system takes input from multiple stakeholders using 100-point method. An optimized ranking is obtained using ELECTRE method. The developed system is validated using a pilot project and is found to be efficient in terms of saving cost of implementation and man-hours needed for implementation.
Genomic and stem cell policy issues: more alike than different?
Mary A Majumder
Genome Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/gm251
Abstract: Significant sums of public money have been and are being invested in genomic and stem cell research. Perhaps most attention-grabbing in the USA have been the Human Genome Project and the California Stem Cell Research and Cures Initiative (10 years of funding, approved by ballot in 2004), each with a price tag of approximately $3 billion. Given a perception that members of the public are motivated less by a thirst for fundamental knowledge than a desire for cures for diseases, enthusiasts have not always been modest in their assessments of the scope or speed of progress to be expected on the clinical front [3]. Yet this communication strategy, successful in building public support in the short term, has the potential to backfire down the road. For example, in California, what will happen in 2014, or 2017 (granting an additional 3 years for time lost to legal battles), if patients with paralysis have yet to walk and patients with diabetes are still going blind? Tempering enthusiasm with caution could help to avoid boom-and-bust cycles in which public generosity gives way to disappointment and loss of funding. Still, there is a difference between resisting pressure to exaggerate the ease of finding cures and dampening down all excitement about the clinical potential of dramatic advances in basic science. The task is to find a way of harnessing public hopes and support for investment in scientific research to achieve realistic longer-term goals for improvement in clinical care and outcomes.How much time and effort have policy bodies and institutional review boards invested in specifying conditions for informed consent for research uses of human biological material and personal information? I have not seen a calculation, but it seems likely that the investment has been substantial. So it is interesting and perhaps also disheartening that consensus on consent has proven elusive. A recent review article focusing on genetics and genomics presents five competing options for
Cogestión de empresas y transformación del sistema económico en Venezuela: Algunas reflexiones
Vera Colina,Mary A;
Gaceta Laboral , 2006,
Abstract: in the face of new governmental policies related to business co-management in venezuela, this paper proposes some reflections related to the application of mechanisms for popular participation in the economic sphere, and in particular co-management and its possible effect in the transformation of the venezuelan economic system. documents related to these mechanisms are reviewed, and their economic implications are discussed. as a conclusion, it is proposed that the transformation in economic systems will depend greatly on the transparency of the objectives, on the combination of diverse public policies in a national economic project, and on the clarity and permanence of the rules applied by the state. we do not visualize sufficient reasons in the application of models of co-management and participation which would imply a radical change in the present economic system in venezuela.
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