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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 246518 matches for " Martin R. "
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The use of diuretics in acute heart failure: Evidence based therapy?  [PDF]
Ali Vazir, Martin R. Cowie
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.32A004

The evidence base for the use of diuretics in acute heart failure is limited, with no large double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trials. However, their use as a first line treatment of acute heart failure is firmly established in clinical practice, and endorsed in clinical guidelines. Loop diuretics are typically the first line diuretic strategy for the treatment of acute heart failure. For patients with considerable fluid retention, there is some evidence that initial treatment with continuous infusion or boluses of high dose loop diuretic is superior to an initial lower dose strategy. In patients who are diuretic resistant, the addition of an oral thiazide or thiazide-like diuretic to induce sequential nephron blockade can be beneficial. Intravenous low-dose dopamine has also been used to assist diuresis and preserve renal function in such circumstances, but trials are underway to confirm the clinical value of this agent. Mechanical ultrafiltration has been used to treat patients with heart failure and fluid retention, but the evidence base is not secure, and its place in clinical practice is yet to be established.

Radial Growth Responses of Four Deciduous Species to Climate Variables in Central Ontario, Canada  [PDF]
Martin Kwiaton, Jian R. Wang
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.614226
Abstract: To address the central question of how climate change influences tree growth within the context of climate will become warmer and drier in central Ontario, we used dendroclimatological analysis to understand the radial growth responses of four co-occurring hardwood species: sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), and red oak (Quercus rubra L.) to climatic variables in central Ontario, Canada. Ring width chronologies were developed for the target species within three regions (Algonquin Park, Haliburton, and North Bay) of the study area. Seven of the eleven chronologies exceeded the 0.85 expressed population signal (EPS) and were used for further analysis. Mean sensitivity and standard deviation values of the Ontario chronologies indicated lower sensitivity to climate fluctuations than in southern North America. Positive correlations with precipitation variables from the current and prior growing season supported previous studies in sugar maple, while a positive response to growing degree days suggested the importance of warmer temperatures and a longer growing season at the northern limit of the distribution range of sugar maple. Yellow birch ring width was correlated with precipitation from the previous growing season and from the end of the current growing season also suggesting that mature trees with deep root systems might utilize moisture from deep soil. Radial growth of American beech positively correlated to precipitation of the previous season, suggesting that the amount of moisture reserves stored in the previous year might affect growth in the following year. Drought stress at the start of the growing season for red oak had negative correlations with precipitation in August indicating possible cessation of cambial activity. This decline in growth process would also affect ring width of red oak the following year as expressed by negative correlations with mean annual temperature from the previous year. Abnormally, warm seasonal temperatures may be indicative of drought stress in red oak.
Comparison of Sensory Qualities of Geographically Paired Organic and Conventional Red Wines from the Southwestern US with Differing Total Polyphenol Concentrations: A Randomized Pilot Study  [PDF]
Keith R. Martin, Kristen K. Rasmussen
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.210154
Abstract: Dietary polyphenols, or phenolic compounds, are numerous, diverse, and ubiquitous phytochemicals occurring throughout the plant kingdom. They are important components of the human diet because of their capacity to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. In plants, polyphenols contribute to resistance to pathogens due to their potent astringency and function as phytoalexins. As a result, organic grapevines grown with reduced pesticides may be more stressed by pathogens than conventionally grown grapevines and presumably produce more polyphenols. Since polyphenols also play an important role in the sensory qualities of fruits and wines particularly involving astringency and bitterness, there may be differences that affect sensory perceptions of wine. This establishes a conundrum where dietary polyphenols are healthful but potentially unpalatable.We recruited and randomized 18 female participants (21 - 50 y) to one of five groups (3 - 4 per group). Each group evaluated the sensory qualities of a geographically paired organic (OW) and conventional wine (CW) and an artificially colored white wine placebo (PW) with significantly differing total polyphenol concentrations (TP). Participants reported for three visits (one wine per visit) where they consumed 5 ounces (150 mL) of wine over 15 minutes while completing the sensory survey. Sensory evaluations based on a Likert-type scale included visual, aroma, and taste perceptions and overall impressions (scale 0 - 10). In two wine pairs, the OW contained significantly more TP (3.49 and 5.86 g/L) than the respective CW (2.63 and 4.63 g/L). In two other wine pairs both produced by sustainable viticulture, the CW (5.23 and 8.38 g/L) contained sig- nificantly more TP than OW (4.55 and 3.70 g/L) and in one set the amounts were equivalent (4.10 and 4.17 g/L). The five PW averaged 1.26 ± 0.20 g/L. Although there were significant differences in TP content of test wines, the results indicated that no significant differences in either intensity or quality for any of the sensory qualities were detected be- tween paired OW and CW wines but both scored significantly higher than the PW, with significantly lower TP. We conclude in this pilot study that a subset of OW from the Southwestern US is perceived similarly to CW produced by the same vineyard even with significantly differing TP concentrations.
Prediction of External Exposure during Dismantling of Steam Generator  [PDF]
Martin Horná?ek, Vladimír Ne?as
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33C023

The decommissioning of nuclear power plants is in the Slovak Republic an actual issue. In 2015 started the second decommissioning stage of nuclear power plant V1 in Jaslovské Bohunice. This stage involves the dismantling and segmentation of activated (reactor pressure vessel, reactor internals) and contaminated parts (steam generators, pressurizer). From this reason it is necessary to investigate the radiation situation in the vicinity of the component to be cut. The presented results show that during remote dismantling the exposure is small (compared with the fragmentation tasks). Moreover, when the pre-dismantling decontamination with decontamination factor of 100 is applied, the total collective effective dose is below the yearly limit of 20 mSv for workers.

The compactificability classes: The behavior at infinity
Martin Maria Kovár
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2006, DOI: 10.1155/ijmms/2006/24370
Abstract: We study the behavior of certain spaces and their compactificability classes at infinity. Among other results we show that every noncompact, locally compact, second countable Hausdorff space X such that each neighborhood of infinity (in the Alexandroff compactification) is uncountable, has 𝒞(X)=𝒞(ℝ). We also prove some criteria for (non-) comparability of the studied classes of mutual compactificability.
A note on Raghavan-Reilly's pairwise paracompactness
Martin M. Kovár
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2000, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171200002921
Abstract: The bitopological unstability of RR-pairwise paracompactness inpresence of pairwise Hausdorff separation axiom is caused by abitopological property which is much weaker and more local thanRR-pairwise paracompactness. We slightly generalize someMichael's constructions and characterize RR-pairwiseparacompactness in terms of bitopological θ-regularity, andsome other weaker modifications of pairwise paracompactness.
A note on the comparison of topologies
Martin M. Kovár
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2001, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171201005518
Abstract: A considerable problem of some bitopological covering properties is the bitopological unstability with respect to the presence of the pairwise Hausdorff separation axiom. For instance, if the space is RR-pairwise paracompact, its two topologies will collapse and revert to the unitopological case. We introduce a new bitopological separation axiom τS2σ which is appropriate for the study of the bitopological collapse. We also show that the property that may cause the collapse is much weaker than some modifications of pairwise paracompactness and we generalize several results of T. G. Raghavan and I. L. Reilly (1977) regarding the comparison of topologies.
On -topological version of -regularity
Martin M. Kovár
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2000, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171200001678
Abstract: We modify the concept of θ-regularity forspaces with 2 and 3 topologies. The new, more general property isfully preserved by sums and products. Using some bitopologicalreductions of this property, Michael's theorem for several variantsof bitopological paracompactness is proved.
The compactificability classes of certain spaces
Martin Maria Kovár
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2006, DOI: 10.1155/ijmms/2006/67083
Abstract: We apply the theory of the mutual compactificability to some spaces, mostly derived from the real line. For example, any noncompact locally connected metrizable generalized continuum, the Tichonov cube without its zero point Iℵ0\{0}, as well as the Cantor discontinuum without its zero point Dℵ0\{0} are of the same class of mutual compactificability as ℝ.
Mutually Compactificable Topological Spaces
Martin Maria Kovár
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/70671
Abstract: Two disjoint topological spaces X, Y are (T2-) mutually compactificable if there exists a compact (T2-) topology on K=X∪Y which coincides on X, Y with their original topologies such that the points x∈X, y∈Y have open disjoint neighborhoods in K. This paper, the first one from a series, contains some initial investigations of the notion. Some key properties are the following: a topological space is mutually compactificable with some space if and only if it is θ-regular. A regular space on which every real-valued continuous function is constant is mutually compactificable with no S2-space. On the other hand, there exists a regular non-T3.5 space which is mutually compactificable with the infinite countable discrete space.
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