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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 191176 matches for " Martin E. Kimanya "
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Maize Storage and Consumption Practices of Farmers in Handeni District, Tanzania: Corollaries for Mycotoxin Contamination  [PDF]
Ibrahim Shabani, Martin E. Kimanya, Peter N. Gichuhi, Conrad Bonsi, Adelia C. Bovell-Benjamin
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.58037
Abstract: In Tanzania, maize is the main complementary food for infants and primary school children. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins through complementary foods by Tanzanian infants is of concern. The maize storage and consumption practices of farmers in Handeni District, Tanzania and their implications for mycotoxin contamination of maize flour were investigated. A convenient sample of 60 farmers in Seza Kofi and Kwabojo villages in Mgambo and Ndolwa wards were surveyed. The majority of farmers (95%) stored their maize in the house using the roofing and sack methods. Most farmers (67%) did not visually or mechanically sort defective maize kernels before storage. In both villages, the most important storage problems reported by the farmers were rodents and insects. Forty two percent of the farmers surveyed indicated that they consumed dehulled maize, while 35 and 12% consumed non-dehulled and mixed (dehulled and non-dehulled), respectively. The preponderance of storage practices described was unfavorable to mycotoxin reduction in stored maize. It is therefore recommended that appropriate, area-specific farmer training regarding recommended storage practices including storage methods, effective management of storage pests and healthy maize preparation and consumption practices be conducted. Additionally, further research on maize storage and consumption practices for Tanzania is needed.
Isolation and Identification of Fungal Endophytes from Grasses along the Oregon Coast  [PDF]
Ruth C. Martin, James E. Dombrowski
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.619313
Abstract: Fungal endophytes have been shown to improve abiotic and biotic stress response in plants. Grasses growing along the Oregon coast are exposed to harsh conditions and may harbor endophytes that enable them to survive and grow under these conditions. Endophytic fungi were isolated from thirty-four grass plants representing eight different grass species at four different locations along the Oregon coast. The ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 regions of each isolate were amplified, sequenced, and used to perform a BLAST search against the nucleotide database collection at National Center for Biotechnology Information. One-hundred-eleven different fungal isolates were classified into thirtynine genera with two isolates that did not show a match greater than 95%. These endophytes will be investigated to determine their potential for improving the adaptability of grasses and other crop plants to grow in diverse environments where they are subjected to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses.
Accelerated partial breast irradiation: a valid choice
Martin E Keisch
Breast Cancer Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1269
Abstract: Just as it is an acceptable option to undergo mastectomy when breast conservation is an option, it is also felt to be acceptable to choose lumpectomy alone if the patient understands the potential for increased local recurrence. In the trial conducted by Fyles and coworkers [2], perhaps more patients would have accepted randomization after lumpectomy if the radiotherapy arm were 1 week instead of 6. In the USA the patient is given options and, hopefully, the background to understand them. Partial breast irradiation is an option that appears to be roughly equivalent to whole breast irradiation for carefully selected, carefully treated patients. I agree that the ongoing phase III randomized trials in Europe and the USA are important in further refining and developing our knowledge of these newer treatment options. The US study has elaborate quality of life end-points and will shed light on patient's experiences with both whole and partial breast irradiation. Furthermore, by having broad eligibility requirements, the study may help to delineate which patients are ideal condidates for partial breast treatment.Even after the trials are complete and the data mature, the question will remain because some patients will benefit from different options depending on their particular situation, whether that situation is a medical/pathologic or a psychosocial one. The treating physician will have more information to share with their patients, and will be better able to guide them in making an appropriate choice. Does that mean that partial breast irradiation is an invalid choice now in an appropriately informed patient? I'd say 'no'.MEK is a technical consultant to Cytyc Surgical Products.
Accelerated partial breast irradiation: the case for current use
Martin E Keisch
Breast Cancer Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/bcr992
Abstract: Over the past decade there has been growing interest in decreasing the volumes of radiotherapeutic treatment post-lumpectomy in breast conservation therapy (BCT). Historically, we have demonstrated the need for post-lumpectomy radiation to optimize local control. Currently, no subset of patients can be successfully identified in whom radiotherapeutic treatment can be eliminated when local control and breast preservation are used as end-points [1]. More recently, we have demonstrated the effectiveness of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in maintaining excellent local control in select subsets of patients [2]. The methods of APBI have evolved to highly reproducible techniques with excellent quality assurance [3]. Although continued study is important, APBI can be offered as an option to patients who desire an alternative to standard whole breast irradiation. To convince the reader, we examine the history of BCT, the evolution of techniques employed in APBI, the rationale supporting use of APBI, and the growing data pool showing equivalence in properly selected, properly treated patients. In addition, arguments against APBI are examined and critiqued. In defending this advance in treatment, appropriate selection criteria are reviewed, published guidelines discussed, and ongoing research reviewed.Thoughtful consideration of the history and status of BCT drives the need for better BCT options. Just as it was the perception of a handful of institutions that led away from the one size fits all, mastectomy for everyone dogma, it is a questioning of the status quo of BCT that has led to a more tailored approach. The concept that some patients could undergo lumpectomy plus whole breast irradiation to maintain an acceptable rate of local control and minimize morbidity is evolving into further limitation in the volume treated in select patients. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of BCT, many women are still treated with mastectomy for a variety of reasons, includin
Resilience in Lower Columbia River Salmon Communities
Irene E. Martin
Ecology and Society , 2008,
Abstract: In 1992, the first listings of Columbia River salmon under the Endangered Species Act occurred. Regulation of the Columbia River gillnet fishery since that time has greatly reduced fishing time and economic return to the fishing fleet. The counties where two-thirds of the gillnetters reside have registered negative social statistics during this period, including drug and alcohol abuse rates, incomes, and mortality rates, among others. The fishing communities' attempts to cope with this change, their strategies for resilience, and the potential consequences for their ability to advocate on behalf of salmon should they be further weakened are discussed. The possibility exists that the gillnet population could abandon its commitment to the Columbia River and settle in other areas.
Romberg s Method of Numerical Integration and its Implementation in MATLAB
Ka?eňák Martin
Acta Montanistica Slovaca , 2001,
Abstract: A method suggested by Romberg in 1955 is shown to be a very efficient, accurate and fast. In this paper an implementation of the Romberg method in MATLAB is discussed and illustrated using example. Two modifications of the method are provided, one based on the use of the trapezoidal rule, and another one using the Simpson rule. The paper starts with an overview of some most basic approaches to the numerical integration. The place of the Romberg method in the classification of classical approaches is shown, and linked to Richardson s extrapolation method, which is used for the acceleration of convergence of numerical methods. The results of implementation are demonstrated in the form of comparison tables. It is demonstrated that the Romberg method gives a high precision for the price of the good time performance, and therefore represents a competitive alternative to MATLAB s standard functions for numerical integration.
Responsabilidad de los administradores societarios por pérdida del capital en el derecho argentino
Martin E. Abdala
Revista de Derecho , 2011,
Abstract: Con frecuencia se observa en Argentina sociedades que operan sin una adecuada provisión de capital y que realizan negocios que exceden las reales posibilidades de la firma. Cuando se producen situaciones de incumplimiento de obligaciones sociales, los acreedores perjudicados intentan resarcir sus perjuicios ensayando acciones de responsabilidad en contra de los administradores. Para fundar las mismas un sector de la doctrina argentina propone recurrir e a los arts. 59, 274 y 99 de la ley de sociedades comerciales. Nosotros no consideramos apropiado utilizar a esos efectos el art. 99 de la ley de sociedades comerciales. Por un lado, porque es sumamente difícil precisar cuándo una sociedad perdió su capital social (problema sobre el cuál no existe ni siquiera una coincidencia doctrinaria), y, por otro lado, y esto es lo más importante, porque en todos lo casos la aplicación de esa norma presupone que la causal de disolución no solo se haya comprobado, sino que la comprobación haya sido declarada. Tampoco consideramos prudente, sin soslayar la importancia de los arts. 59 y 274 de ley de sociedades comerciales, utilizarlos como una suerte de cláusula general a la que pueda recurrirse cuan comodín de baraja para justificar imputaciones de responsabilidad que, de otra manera, no encontrarían un claro enclave o justificación en nuestro ordenamiento jurídico. La solución al problema planteado la encontramos en el derecho de fondo: en la etapa preparatoria de cualquier contrato que celebre, el administrador societario está personalmente obligado a informar ciertas cuestiones referidas a la solvencia de la empresa, como por ejemplo la cuantía y existencia del capital social y, si no lo hace, puede imputársele responsabilidad resarcitoria por culpa in contrahendo.
The Long Road from the Kidney Bazaar: A Commentary on Pakistan’s Progress Towards Self-sufficiency in Organ Transplantation
Dominique E. Martin
PORTAL : Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies , 2011,
Abstract: The dark history of transplant tourism in Pakistan demonstrates the hazards of unregulated cross-border markets in human organs. Trading on existing national and international social inequities, ‘transplant tourism’ offers dubious benefits for transplant recipients and attractive profits to those facilitating the industry at the expense of the world’s poor. The impact of Pakistan’s 2007 Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissue Ordinance and the sustained efforts of transplant professionals and societal groups led by the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, show that organ trading can be effectively discouraged and equitable programs of organ procurement and transplantation pursued despite multiple challenges. In this paper, the factors that have contributed to Pakistan’s progress towards self-sufficiency in organ transplantation are identified and discussed. The case of Pakistan highlights the need for countries to protect their own organ and tissue providers who may be vulnerable in the global healthcare market. Pakistan provides an excellent example for other countries in the region and throughout the world to consider when regulating their own transplantation programs and considering the pursuit of national self-sufficiency.
Resource Optimization in Mobile Communication Networks With User Profile-Based Algorithms
E. Martin,R. Bajcsy
International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications , 2012,
Abstract: In mobile communications networks, Location Management enables the roaming of the user in the coverage area. The employment of the call and mobility patterns of the user can help minimize the signaling costs involved in Location Management, and optimize the available radio resources. In this paper, we carry out an exhaustive analysis of the location update costs involved in a user profile-based Location Management algorithm, and compare its performance with the classical strategy of static location areas. As original contributions, we introduce two new algorithms to obtain the β parameters, useful for the calculation of the Location Management signaling costs. Making use of these new algorithms, we show the convenience of the application of user profile-based strategies for Location Management in order to optimize the available radio resources, and we obtain practical guidelines for the optimum design of mobile communications networks.
VARIABILITY OF LOCATION MANAGEMENT COSTS WITH DIFFERENT MOBILITIES AND TIMER PERIODS TO UPDATE LOCATIONS
E. Martin,R. Bajcsy
International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications , 2011,
Abstract: In this article, we examine the Location Management costs in mobile communication networks utilizingthe timer-based method. From the study of the probabilities that a mobile terminal changes a number ofLocation Areas between two calls, we identify a threshold value of 0.7 for the Call-to-Mobility Ratio(CMR) below which the application of the timer-based method is most appropriate. We characterize thevalley appearing in the evolution of the costs with the timeout period, showing that the time intervalrequired to reach 90% of the stabilized costs grows with the mobility index, the paging cost per LocationArea and the movement dimension, in opposition to the behavior presented by the time interval thatachieves the minimum of the costs. The results obtained for CMRs below the suggested 0.7 thresholdshow that the valley appearing in the costs tends to disappear for CMRs within [0.001, 0.7] in onedimensionalmovements and within [0.2, 0.7] in two-dimensional ones, and when the normalized pagingcost per Location Area is below 0.3.
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