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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 122101 matches for " Martha T.;Marx "
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The vitellogenin gene family of Aedes aegypti
Hamblin, Martha T.;Marx, Jeffrey L.;Wolfner, Mariana F.;Hagedorn, Henry H.;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1987, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761987000700021
Abstract: we have been interested in identifying genes that play a role in reproduction of the mosquito aedes aegypti. our interests are currently focused on the vitellogenin genes which in the mosquito are expressed only in the fat body in response to the insect steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone. four of the five vitellogenin genes in the genome have been cloned. we have examined the relationships between these genes and find that they form a small gene family exhibiting different levels of relationship.
What’s in a Concept? Some Reflections on the Complications and Complexities of Personal Information and Anonymity
Gary T. Marx
University of Ottawa Law and Technology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: The topic of anonymity is conceptually and practically challenging. Among reasons for this are the multiple elements across different levels of analysis, varied contexts, and the variety of goals and dimensions that cross-cut these; 2) conflicting rationales and values; and 3) contested and/or opposing social, cultural and political trends and counter-trends. In order to better understand anonymity, this conceptual analysis article raises and suggests possible answers to the following questions: what are the major types of information that can be associated with anonymity? (nine are identified, such as location and attitudes); what do we mean by personal information (using a series of concentric circles, distinctions are drawn between individual, private, intimate, unique and core identification); what are some of the major factors affecting behaviour involving anonymity, and judgments of anonymity (e.g., the structure of the communication and the type of activity involved); what are the major values that support or oppose anonymity? (e.g., openness in communication vs. accountability); what trends and counter-trends encourage or discourage anonymity (e.g., technologies that make the meaningless meaningful as against increased freedom of choice with respect to identity); what broader principles are relevant to public policy in the area (e.g., informed consent and reciprocity); and what kinds of questions should be asked in setting policy (e.g., clear statement of goals, awareness of unintended consequences). ********************L’anonymat est un sujet stimulant sur les plans conceptuels et pratiques. Il y a diverses raisons pour cela, notamment : 1) la multiplicité des éléments provenant d’analyses à divers paliers, de contextes variés ainsi que des objectifs et des perspectives qui se dégagent de tout cela; 2) de justifications et de valeurs en conflit; enfin 3) de tendances ou de contre-tendances sociales, culturelles et politiques contestées ou opposées. Afin de bien comprendre l’anonymat, par le biais d’une analyse conceptuelle, cet article propose des réponses possibles aux questions suivantes : quels sont les principaux genres de renseignements que l’on peut associer à l’anonymat? (neuf genres sont mentionnés, y compris le lieu et les attitudes); qu’entend-on par renseignements personnels? (utilisation d’une série de traits circulaires concentriques pour distinguer l’individu, la vie privée, l’intimité, les identificateurs uniques et fondamentaux); quels sont certains des principaux facteurs qui influent sur le comportement et les jugements en mat
The pseudoscorpion-fauna (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones) of a floodplain close to Ingelheim/Rhine, with special reference to the effects of the dry-warm winter 2006/2007
Marx, Michael T.,Weirich, Oliver,Eisenbeis, Gerhard
Arachnologische Mitteilungen , 2008, DOI: 10.5431/aramit3503
Abstract: From the beginning of May 2005 to September 2007 the pseudoscorpion fauna in a hardwood floodplain forest of the Rhine valley near Ingelheim was investigated. Altogether 587 individuals representing two species from two families were captured using pitfall traps, trunk eclectors and by litter sieving. The warm, dry winter 2006/2007 exhibited a strong influence upon the activity of Neobisium carcinoides (Hermann, 1804). This winter event was followed by an extreme drought in April 2007, which affected the activity maximum of the corticolous species Chernes hahnii (C.L. Koch, 1839). In 2005 and 2006 the activity maximum of C. hahnii was observed in July, whereas in 2007 maturity was achieved earlier in May. Furthermore 31 individuals of N. carcinoides were captured in trunk eclectors. This climbing behaviour correlates with the presence of Lepidocyrtus lignorum (Collembola: Entomobryidae) on the trunks.
Chemopreventive Potential of Probiotics and Prebiotics  [PDF]
Rajitha Sunkata, Josh Herring, Lloyd T. Walker, Martha Verghese
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.518194
Abstract: Utilization of probiotics and prebiotics in food products and in the diet supplemental form continues to gain interest because of their health benefits. Cancer is the leading cause of death and strategies for chemoprevention are important to reduce mortality and morbidity. Probiotics are gaining attention to use as preventive agents. Efficacy of their use as chemopreventive agents was established through research. This review focused on the mechanisms of prebiotics and probiotics action against cancer. Benefits of probiotics against cancer are attributed to competitive exclusion of pathogenic bacteria, direct physical binding to carcinogens, altering intestinal environment to modulate the production enzymes, antioxidant activity and immune modulation. Prebiotics are indigestible food components that could promote the growth of probiotics. Chemopreventive properties of prebiotics are due to their production of short chain fatty acids and enhancing the immunity of the host. Anticarcinogenic properties of pre- and probiotics result from a combination of events rather from a single event.
Antioxidant and Apoptotic Activity of Papaya Peel Extracts in HepG2 Cells  [PDF]
Swetha Salla, Rajitha Sunkara, Lloyd T. Walker, Martha Verghese
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.76050
Abstract: Papaya peels (PP) are discarded after consuming the fruit. However, they contain antioxidants. Oxidative damage caused by free radicals has major implications in many chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to determine in-vitro antioxidant and apoptotic activity of PP extracts. Modulation of endogenous glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), caspase-3 activities and DNA fragmentation by PP extracts in HepG2 cells were evaluated. Gallic acid (18.06 μg/g), caffeic acid (29.28 μg/g), p-coumaric acid (38.16 μg/g), ferulic acid (95.46 μg/g) and quercetin (3.17 μg/g) were the major polyphenols quantified in PP extracts. In-vitro antioxidant capacity of PP was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant potential (31.86 μM Fe+2/g), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (14.56 mM trolox equivalents (TE)/g), oxygen radical scavenging activity (30.88 mM TE/g) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability (IC50-8.33 mg/ml). Induction of oxidative stress significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lowered SOD, CAT, GPx, GR activities and GSH levels by 3.1, 1.46, 2.87, 1.34 and 1.32 folds compared to control respectively. However, treating cells with PP extracts significantly (p ≤ 0.05) enhanced SOD, CAT, GPx, GR activities and GSH compared to oxidative stress induced cells. Treating cells with PP extracts significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lowered COX-2 activity, enhanced caspase-3 activity and induced DNA fragmentation, indicating that PP extracts caused cell death by apoptosis. In conclusion, anti-cancer properties of PP extracts may be due to the synergistic effect of free radical scavenging ability, induction antioxidant enzymes and by inducing apoptosis.
Effect of Drying Techniques on Antioxidant Capacity of Guava Fruit  [PDF]
Priyanka Patel, Rajitha Sunkara, Lloyd T. Walker, Martha Verghese
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.77056
Abstract: Frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with low risk of chronic diseases. Guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) is a tropical, seasonal fruit rich in antioxidants, vitamin C and polyphenol compounds. Drying is one of the common methods to preserve and extend the shelf life of guava. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of drying techniques on the antioxidant activity of guava fruit. Guava was air dried in air dryer (45°C), freeze dryer and by osmatic drying techniques. Fresh guava extracts (FGE), freeze dried guava extracts (FDGE), oven dried guava extracts (ODGE) and osmotic-dehydrated guava extracts (OSGE) guava extracts were prepared and analyzed for total polyphenols (TP), flavonoids, antioxidant potential by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NORS). Inhibitory potential of guava extracts on enzymes α-glucosidase, α-amylase and lipase was also determined. TP in FG, FD, OD, and OS were 415.69 ± 56.95, 295.30 ± 4.11, 303.57 ± 1.41, and 182.93 ± 6.48 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100g, respectively. Flavonoids in Fresh, FD, OD, and OS were 202.01 ± 0.16, 96.93 ± 1.73, 105.07 ± 0.58, and 76.13 ± 2.74 mg catechin equivalent (CE)/100 g, respectively. FD extracts were the most effective in scavenging DPPH radical. Whereas FRAP, TEAC and TAC activities were found to be higher in FG followed by OD and FD. However, NORS activity of FD was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower compared to other treatments. Inhibition of α-glycosidase, α-amylase and lipase enzymes was (19% - 90%) observed at 0.4, 0.8, and 0.8 mg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, considering this in-vitro study, drying could be effectively utilized to preserve guava fruit with minimum effect on health benefits.
Phytochemical Content, Radical Scavenging Ability & Enzyme Inhibiting Activities of Selected Spices (Cinnamon, Cardamom and Cloves)  [PDF]
Nigel Chimbetete, Martha Verghese, Rajitha Sunkara, Lloyd T. Walker
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2019.103020
Abstract: Cinnamon, cardamom and cloves have been widely used for medicinal purposes as well as essential cooking ingredients for flavor. The objective of the research was to investigate the antioxidant content, antioxidant capacity, and inhibition of lipid and carbohydrate metabolizing enzyme activities of selected spices (cinnamon, cardamom & cloves) methanol (ME) and water extracts (WE). The phytochemical content was determined by total phenolic and total flavanoid content. The antioxidant potential was determined by measuring 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) in spice’s (ME) and (WE) extracts. Total phenolic (GAE mg/100g dry weight) and flavonoid (mg CE/100g dry weight) content were the highest in Cloves (ME) 174.4 and 101.06. The lowest values for phenolic content were seen in ME and WE of Cardamom at 31.24 and 7.55. The DPPH IC50 values ranged from 0.22mg/mL (Cloves ME) to 0.60mg/mL (Cardamom ME). FRAP (μmol Fe2+/100g dry weight) for Cinnamon, Cardamom (ME) was 2438.5 and 325. Clove (ME) had a significantly higher reducing potential of 6888.5 which might have been attributed by the high amounts of phenolics and flavonoids in the spice. FRAP in spice extracts (WE) was lower with values of 2296.5 and 218.5 and 2310.5, respectively. The highest inhibition of the α-glucosidase was observed by Clove (ME) 86.5%, which also had the highest amylase enzyme inhibition at 71%. However, inhibition of the lipase enzyme was highest by the Cinnamon (WE) extracts 44.3%. The potential of phytochemicals in spices was studied and if consumed in high amounts could offer antioxidative properties and regulate key digestive enzymes which may lead to prevention or decreased progression of diseases such as Cancer, Diabetes and Cardiovascular diseases.
Airway pressures during xenon anaesthesia
M. Schmidt,T. Marx,C. Papp-Jambor,H. Reinelt
Applied Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiology , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Because of the higher density and viscosity of xenon/oxygen mixtures in comparison to nitrogen/oxygen, increases of the pulmonary resistance have been reported. We have investigated the relevance of these findings to practical anaesthesia. Methods: 14 pigs were randomly assigned to receive either xenon/oxygen or nitrogen/oxygen mixtures (75/25) under condition of normo-, hypo- and hyperventilation. Airway pressures were measured in the ventilator system and endobronchially by an inserted measuring catheter. Results: Ventilator pressures were significantly higher in xenon ventilated animals as compared with nitrogen/oxygen ventilation. Endobronchial pressures were equal or significantly lower in xenon ventilated animals. Discussion: Ventilation with xenon/oxygen mixtures leads to a markable pressure decrease along endotracheal tubes. High ventilator system pressures do not correspond with high endobronchial pressures. In clinical xenon anaesthesia high ventilator pressures can be accepted.
Transport and Noise Characteristics of Submicron High-Temperature Superconductor Grain-Boundary Junctions
F. Herbstritt,T. Kemen,L. Alff,A. Marx,R. Gross
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1063/1.1343847
Abstract: We have investigated the transport and noise properties of submicron YBCO bicrystal grain-boundary junctions prepared using electron beam lithography. The junctions show an increased conductance for low voltages reminiscent of Josephson junctions having a barrier with high transmissivity. The voltage noise spectra are dominated by a few Lorentzian components. At low temperatures clear two-level random telegraph switching (RTS) signals are observable in the voltage vs time traces. We have investigated the temperature and voltage dependence of individual fluctuators both from statistical analysis of voltage vs time traces and from fits to noise spectra. A transition from tunneling to thermally activated behavior of individual fluctuators was clearly observed. The experimental results support the model of charge carrier traps in the barrier region.
Feasibility of using a World Health Organization-standard methodology for Sample Vital Registration with Verbal Autopsy (SAVVY) to report leading causes of death in Zambia: results of a pilot in four provinces, 2010
Sheila S Mudenda, Stanley Kamocha, Robert Mswia, Martha Conkling, Palver Sikanyiti, Dara Potter, William C Mayaka, Melissa A Marx
Population Health Metrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7954-9-40
Abstract: A dedicated census was conducted in regions of four provinces chosen by cluster-sampling methods in January 2010. Deaths in the 12-month period prior to the census were identified during the census. Subsequently, trained field staff conducted verbal autopsy interviews with caregivers or close relatives of the deceased using structured and unstructured questionnaires. Additional deaths were identified and respondents were interviewed during 12 months of fieldwork. After the interviews, two physicians independently reviewed each VA questionnaire to determine a probable cause of death.Among the four provinces (1,056 total deaths) assessed, all-cause mortality rate was 17.2 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.4, 22). The seven leading causes of death were HIV/AIDS (287, 27%), malaria (111, 10%), injuries and accidents (81, 8%), diseases of the circulatory system (75, 7%), malnutrition (58, 6%), pneumonia (56, 5%), and tuberculosis (50, 5%). Those who died were more likely to be male, have less than or equal to a primary education, and be unmarried, widowed, or divorced compared to the baseline population. Nearly half (49%) of all reported deaths occurred at home.The 17.2 per 1,000 all-cause mortality rate is somewhat similar to modeled country estimates. The leading causes of death -- HIV/AIDS, malaria, injuries, circulatory diseases, and malnutrition -- reflected causes similar to those reported for the African region and by other countries in the region. Results can enable the targeting of interventions by region, disease, and population to reduce preventable death. Collecting vital statistics using standardized Sample Vital Registration with Verbal Autopsy (SAVVY) methods appears feasible in Zambia. If conducted regularly, these data can be used to evaluate trends in estimated causes of death over time.Mortality is one of the most important indicators for measuring the health of the population in a country. But population-based causes of death ha
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