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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 122559 matches for " Martha Téllez-Rojo "
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Prevalencia de dependencia funcional y su asociación con caídas en una muestra de adultos mayores pobres en México
Manrique-Espinoza,Betty; Salinas-Rodríguez,Aarón; Moreno-Tamayo,Karla; Téllez-Rojo,Martha M;
Salud Pública de México , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342011000100005
Abstract: objective: to determine the prevalence of functional dependency (fd) on mexican elderly living in extreme poverty conditions and to estimate the association between falls and fd. material and methods: a survey was conducted with three stages for selection, stratified by type of locality (rural or urban) and nationally representative of the 2006 oportunidades program. the target population was composed of individuals 70 years of age and older who were beneficiaries of the oportunidades program. results: a total of 30.9% of the elderly presented fd. the gender stratified logistic regression model resulted in an odds ratio (or) for women of 1.25 (i.c:1.13-1.39) for the association between the increase in the number of falls and fd and or=1.12 (i.c:0.97-1.29) for men. conclusions: given the vulnerable conditions in which these older adults live, specific interventions need to be implemented to prevent falls in order to reduce the risk of functional dependency.
Efecto del tabaquismo durante el embarazo sobre la antropometría al nacimiento
Sánchez-Zamorano,Luisa María; Téllez-Rojo,Martha María; Hernández-Avila,Mauricio;
Salud Pública de México , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342004000600008
Abstract: objective: to assess the effect of tobacco consumption during pregnancy on height and birth weight of newborns. material and methods: two cohort studies on lead exposure conducted in mexico city between 1993 and 2000 were analyzed. data were analyzed to assess the differences in height and birth weight between children of women who smoked during pregnancy and those who did not, adjusting for other important factors. statistical analysis consisted of multiple linear regression models. results: the proportion of women who smoked during pregnancy was 4.7%. the birth weight of children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy was 154 grams less on average (95% confidence interval [ci] -284.7, -24.7) and their height was 0.79 cm less (95% ci -1.5, -0.1) than the children of non-smokers during pregnancy. conclusions: these findings evidence the deleterious effect of tobacco consumption on children.
Pobreza, jóvenes y consumo de tabaco en México
Reddy-Jacobs,Carl; Téllez-Rojo,Martha Ma.; Meneses-González,Fernando; Campuzano-Rincón,Julio; Hernández-ávila,Mauricio;
Salud Pública de México , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342006000700010
Abstract: objective: to characterize tobacco use according to level of poverty in a random, nationally representative sample of adolescents (10 to 21 years old), living in urban areas with less than 50 000 inhabitants. the study was done in 2001 as part of the baseline assessment of the evaluation of the governmental program, oportunidades. material and methods: a questionnaire was applied to 29 548 adolescents living in 30 000 selected households and it included specific questions on individual tobacco use among other questions. results: the prevalence of smokers was 3.5% (95% ci: 3.3%-3.7%) and experimenters 9.9% (95% ci: 9.6%-10.2%). a logistic regression model for clustered data was constructed in order to evaluate the associated factors that distinguish a smoker from an experimenter. after adjusting for level of poverty of the household and use of alcohol and drugs, a significant association (or = 1.5, p <0.01) was found with having a paid job and a differential association was found between gender and age group. conclusions: the results of this study suggest that the additional availability of money that an adolescent has, could increase the prevalence of tobacco smoking and that the program oportunidades should include prevention campaigns directed specifically at this population group.
Peak bone mass and bone mineral density correlates for 9 to 24 year-old Mexican women, using corrected BMD
Torres-Mejía,Gabriela; Guzmán Pineda,Rubén; Téllez-Rojo,Martha María; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342009000700011
Abstract: objective: to determine the age of peak bone mass (pbm) in mexican women and factors associated with both bmda and corrected bmd (bmdcorr) at the femoral neck and the spine (l2-l4). material and methods: data on 461 women between 9 and 24 years old was used. an interview was performed and height and weight were measured. bmda was measured by a densitometer and bmdcorr by the method proposed by kr?ger et al. (1992). results: pbm at the spine (l2-l4) was observed later than at the femoral neck. both bmda and bmdcorr at the lumbar spine correlate with age, socio-economic status, body fat percentage and height. bmda at the femoral neck correlates with overweight and obesity, body fat percentage, height and moderate physical activity; the same variables were associated with bmdcorr except for height. conclusions: the method proposed by kr?ger et al. was more precise at the femoral neck than at the spine.
Tendencia de los niveles de plomo en la atmósfera de la zona metropolitana de la Ciudad de México: 1988-1998
Cortez-Lugo,Marlene; Téllez-Rojo,Martha Ma; Gómez-Dantés,Héctor; Hernández-Avila,Mauricio;
Salud Pública de México , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342003000800005
Abstract: objective: to describe the trends in airborne lead levels and their association with the control measures implemented from 1988 to 1998 to phase out lead from gasoline that included the introduction of a lead-free gasoline and the use of catalytic converters in automobiles in mexico city. material and methods: data of atmospheric lead levels were obtained from the 9 field stations included in the local air quality monitoring network (rmma). trends for airborne lead are shown by monitor, monitoring area and for the entire metropolitan zone. analysis of data was performed using linear regression models including autocorrelation analysis. the models were validated by standard diagnostic techniques using student residuals analysis. results: the introduction of lead-free gasoline and the use of catalytic converters decreased the airborne lead levels by 23% while the slow elimination of lead from gasoline produced a cumulative decrease of 89% during the period and in all areas studied. conclusions: the strategy implemented to reduce sources of airborne lead pollution had an important impact on atmospheric lead levels. health risks of this environmental hazard are now primarily due to less important sources and to particular occupational exposures.
Relación entre consultas a urgencias por enfermedad respiratoria y contaminación atmosférica en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua
Hernández-Cadena,Leticia; Téllez-Rojo,Martha Ma.; Sanín-Aguirre,Luz Helena; Lacasa?a-Navarro,Marina; Campos,Armando; Romieu,Isabelle;
Salud Pública de México , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342000000400003
Abstract: objective: to assess the relationship of £10 μm particles (pm10) and atmospheric ozone concentrations, with the daily number of emergency visits due to asthma and acute respiratory diseases, among children aged under 15, living in ciudad juarez, chihuahua, mexico. material and methods: between 1998 and 1999, an ecologic study was conducted. atmospheric data were obtained from the environmental protection agency (epa), from eight monitoring stations located in ciudad juarez, chihuahua, and el paso, texas. from july 1997 to december 1998, data from emergency room visits for respiratory illness were abstracted from existing medical records of two mexican institute of social security (imss) hospitals in ciudad juarez. diagnoses were classified into two groups: a) asthma, and b) upper respiratory infections (uri), according to the international classification of diseases (icd-9 and/or idc-10). statistical analysis was carried out using the poisson regression time series method. results: during the study period, the mean 24-hour pm10 level was 34.46 μg/m3 (sd=17.99) and the mean ozone level was 51.60 ppb (sd=20.70). the model shows that an increase of 20 μg/m3 in the mean 24-hour exposure to pm10 was related to an increase of 4.97% (95% ci 0.97-9.13) in emergency visits for asthma, with a 5-day lag, as well as to an increase of 9% (95% ci 1.8-16.8) when a cumulative 5-day exposure was considered. uri increased 2.95% as a cause of emergency room visits, for each 20 μg/m3 increase in the mean 24-hour exposure to pm10. the impact of pm10 on emergency visits for asthma was greater on days with ozone ambient levels exceeded 49 ppb (median value). conclusions: a positive association was found between environmental pm10 and ozone concentrations and the daily number of emergency room visits due to asthma and acute respiratory diseases, even with levels lower than the mexican standard levels. also, a synergic effect between pm10 and o3 was found.
Prevalencia de asma y otras enfermedades alérgicas en ni?os escolares de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua
Barraza-Villarreal,Albino; Sanín-Aguirre,Luz Helena; Téllez-Rojo,Martha María; Lacasa?a-Navarro,Marina; Romieu,Isabelle;
Salud Pública de México , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342001000500007
Abstract: objective. to assess the prevalence and severity of asthma and allergic diseases in schoolchildren residing in ciudad juarez, chihuahua. material and methods. a cross-sectional study was conducted from april 1998 to may 1999, among 6 174 children from 53 schools in ciudad juarez, chihuahua. the method used was the one recommended by the international study of asthma and allergies in childhood (isaac) to determine the prevalence and severity of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema. parents were asked to answer a standardized questionnaire on current and cumulative prevalence of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema. a sample stratified by level of pollution was selected. results. the cumulative prevalence of medically diagnosed asthma and wheezing was 6.8% (95% ci 6.2, 7.4) and 20% (95% ci 19.7, 21.8), respectively. the prevalence of wheezing in the last 12 months was higher in the group aged 6-8 years than in those aged 11-14 years (9.7% vs. 5.8 %, p<0.01). the prevalence of medically diagnosed rhinitis was 5.0 % (95% ci 4.5, 5.6). the prevalence of medically diagnosed eczema was 4.9% (4.3, 5.4). the prevalence of eczema symptoms in the last 12 months was 12.7% in the 6-8 years group and 13.3% in the 11-14 year group, respectively. severe symptoms of asthma were significantly higher in the 6-8 years group and during the autumn months. conclusions. the prevalence of medically diagnosed and symptomatic asthma was relatively low in comparison with findings from others studies that use similar methods, but the prevalence rates of rhinitis and eczema were higher.
Encuesta Nacional de Cobertura de Vacunación (influenza, neumococo y tétanos) en adultos mayores de 60 a?os en México
Trejo-Valdivia,Belem; Mendoza-Alvarado,Laura R; Palma-Coca,Oswaldo; Hernández-ávila,Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo Solís,Martha María;
Salud Pública de México , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342012000100006
Abstract: objective: determine vaccination coverage (vc) among adults 60 years of age and older (ep), for influenza, pneumococcal and tetanus vaccines, association with socio-demographic characteristics and heterogeneity at state level. material and methods: cross-sectional analysis based on information from 18 015 households visited in a national survey. general and vaccine information (self-report) for a randomly selected elder in each household is available. results: the national vc level was found to be 56.5% (±0.97) for influenza, 44.3% (±0.98) for pneumococcus and 61.8% (±0.96) for tetanus. the vc was significantly lower for ep without health social services and higher for women. almost 20.0% of ep recognized not having vaccines at all, due mainly that they didn't know it was a duty. conclusions: important improvements are shown in vaccination coverage among elderly in mexico. differentials suggest the need to intensify information campaigns and actions that could improve the accessibility to vaccines for this population.
Tendencia de los niveles de plomo en la atmósfera de la zona metropolitana de la Ciudad de México: 1988-1998
Cortez-Lugo Marlene,Téllez-Rojo Martha Ma,Gómez-Dantés Héctor,Hernández-Avila Mauricio
Salud Pública de México , 2003,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: Describir las tendencias del plomo atmosférico asociadas a la eliminación paulatina del plomo de la gasolina y el uso de convertidores catalíticos en el auto transporte de la Ciudad de México, de 1988 a 1998. MATERIAL Y MéTODOS: Estudio de series de tiempo que incluye las mediciones atmosféricas de plomo que se obtuvieron, entre 1988 y 1998, de nueve estaciones de la red manual de monitoreo atmosférico de la Ciudad de México. Las intervenciones evaluadas fueron la introducción de gasolina Magnasin, el uso de convertidores catalíticos y el descenso en la concentración de plomo hasta su eliminación total de la gasolina utilizada en los auto transportes. Se describen las tendencias de plomo por monitor, por zona geográfica, utilizando un modelo de regresión que incorpora una estructura de auto-correlación. RESULTADOS: La introducción de gasolina sin plomo y de los convertidores catalíticos se asoció con un descenso en la concentración de plomo atmosférico en 23%, la reducción paulatina del plomo en la gasolina ocasionó una reducción acumulada de 89% en todas las zonas estudiadas. CONCLUSIONES: La introducción de la gasolina sin plomo ha logrado abatir las concentraciones ambientales de este contaminante de una manera importante.
Relación entre consultas a urgencias por enfermedad respiratoria y contaminación atmosférica en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua
Hernández-Cadena Leticia,Téllez-Rojo Martha Ma.,Sanín-Aguirre Luz Helena,Lacasa?a-Navarro Marina
Salud Pública de México , 2000,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: Analizar la relación entre las concentraciones ambientales de partículas de diámetro <=10 μm (PM10) y de ozono con el número diario de consultas al servicio de urgencias por enfermedades respiratorias agudas y asma en ni os menores de 15 a os, residentes de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. MATERIAL Y MéTODOS: Este estudio se realizó durante los a os de 1998 y 1999, utilizando un dise o de tipo ecológico. Los datos atmosféricos se obtuvieron de la base de datos de la Agencia de Protección al Ambiente (EPA), provenientes de ocho estaciones de monitoreo ubicadas en Ciudad Juárez y en El Paso, Texas. Los datos de consultas al servicio de urgencias por causas respiratorias se obtuvieron de los registros médicos de dos hospitales del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, de julio de 1997 a diciembre de 1998. Los diagnósticos se clasificaron en dos grupos: a) asma, y b) infecciones respiratorias altas, conforme a la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades (CIE-9 o CIE-10). El análisis se realizó con la utilización de la metodología de series de tiempo que emplea regresión Poisson. RESULTADOS: Durante el periodo de estudio la media de 24 horas de PM10 fue de 34.46 μg/m3 (DE=17.99) y la media de los niveles de ozono fue de 51.60 partes por billón (ppb) (DE=20.70). El modelo propuesto estima que un incremento de 20 μg/m3 en el promedio de 24 horas, en la exposición a PM10, se relaciona con un incremento de 4.97% (IC 95% 0.97-9.13) en las consultas por asma con un retraso de cinco días y con un incremento de 9% (IC 95% 1.8-16.8) cuando se considera a la exposición acumulada de cinco días anteriores. Respecto a enfermedades respiratorias altas se encontró un aumento de 2.95% en las consultas a urgencias por cada 20 μm/m3 de incremento en el promedio de 24 horas en la exposición a PM10. Se observó que el impacto de PM10 sobre las visitas de urgencia por asma fue más severo en los días en que los niveles de ozono excedían los 49 ppb (nivel de la mediana) en el ambiente. CONCLUSIONES: Se encontraron asociaciones positivas entre las concentraciones de PM10 y el número de consultas por asma y enfermedades respiratorias aun cuando los niveles alcanzados no excedían las normas ambientales mexicanas. Asimismo, se detectó un efecto sinérgico entre ozono y PM10.
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