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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 687030 matches for " Martha A Sánchez Rodríguez "
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The determinants of the antibiotic resistance process
Beatriz Espinosa Franco, Marina Altagracia Martínez, Martha A Sánchez Rodríguez, Albert I Wertheimer
Infection and Drug Resistance , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S4899
Abstract: eterminants of the antibiotic resistance process Review (7476) Total Article Views Authors: Beatriz Espinosa Franco, Marina Altagracia Martínez, Martha A Sánchez Rodríguez, Albert I Wertheimer Published Date April 2009 Volume 2009:2 Pages 1 - 11 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S4899 Beatriz Espinosa Franco1, Marina Altagracia Martínez2, Martha A Sánchez Rodríguez1, Albert I Wertheimer3 1Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza (UNAM), Mexico; 2Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico; 3Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA Background: The use of antibiotic drugs triggers a complex interaction involving many biological, sociological, and psychological determinants. Resistance to antibiotics is a serious worldwide problem which is increasing and has implications for morbidity, mortality, and health care both in hospitals and in the community. Objectives: To analyze current research on the determinants of antibiotic resistance and comprehensively review the main factors in the process of resistance in order to aid our understanding and assessment of this problem. Methods: We conducted a MedLine search using the key words “determinants”, “antibiotic”, and “antibiotic resistance” to identify publications between 1995 and 2007 on the determinants of antibiotic resistance. Publications that did not address the determinants of antibiotic resistance were excluded. Results: The process and determinants of antibiotic resistance are described, beginning with the development of antibiotics, resistance and the mechanisms of resistance, sociocultural determinants of resistance, the consequences of antibiotic resistance, and alternative measures proposed to combat antibiotic resistance. Conclusions: Analysis of the published literature identified the main determinants of antibiotic resistance as irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animal species, insufficient patient education when antibiotics are prescribed, lack of guidelines for treatment and control of infections, lack of scientific information for physicians on the rational use of antibiotics, and lack of official government policy on the rational use of antibiotics in public and private hospitals.
A Pedagogical Agent as an Interface of an Intelligent Tutoring System to Assist Collaborative Learning  [PDF]
Ana Lilia Laureano-Cruces, Enrique Acu?a-Gardu?o, Lourdes Sánchez-Guerrero, Javier Ramírez-Rodríguez, Martha Mora-Torres, Blanca R. Silva-López
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.58073
Abstract:

This article discusses the aspects that are recommendable when designing an interface that includes a collaborative pedagogical agent within a context in which the collaborative learning process is reinforced by the task distribution process that goes with it. The concept of the intelligent tutoring system, conceived as a pedagogical interface agent (interface with human features that permits interaction between system and user), forms the basis of this study. The pedagogical agent is constituted by an intelligent tutoring system that makes a diagnosis adapted to needs of students, so as to improve the learning process. This is achieved by dynamic interaction on a system that has a collaborative and distributed interaction facility, in which the agent is conceived as an educational tool.

Prevalencia y factores de riesgo de mordida cruzada posterior en ni?os de 4-9 a?os de edad en ciudad Nezahualcóyotl
Beraud Osorio, Doria Isela;Sánchez Rodríguez, Martha A.;Murrieta Pruneda, José Francisco;Mendoza Nú?ez, Víctor M.;
Boletín médico del Hospital Infantil de México , 2004,
Abstract: introduction. posterior cross bite is a malocclusion with a prevalence reported from 5 till 27% of individuals, depending on age and the features of the population studied, due to the existing information at the moment which the risk factors are not specific, the purpose of the present study was to know the prevalence of posterior cross bite and the potential factors of risk which may cause its appearance (ectopic dental eruption, mouth breathing, finger sucking, occlusal disturbances, and age). material and methods. it was carried out a cross-section study in a population of 1 000 children from 4 till 9 years old in ciudad nezahualcoyotl (a suburb of mexico city), which were undergone to intraoral examination assessing occlusion and functional analysis. univariate and logistic regression analyses were executed with the statistical software spss version 10.0. results. the prevalence of posterior cross bite was 11.3%, with the following breakdown: 5.4% having unilateral cross bite; 1.5% having bilateral cross bite; 4.8% being affected one tooth only; in the sex structure more prevalence in boys was observed. the factors of risk, which showed statistical significance, were: ectopic eruption, occlusal interference, and group age. using multivariate analysis, it was observed that ectopic eruption and occlusal interference are the more important risk factors (p < 0.001). conclusion. prevalence of posterior cross bite is high and the greatest dependency is produced by ectopic eruption and occlusal interferences, being necessary the early detection and correction of any abnormalities in the tooth occlusion, which would allow correcting disturbances in the dent facial growth.
Uso de la analgesia acupuntural quirúrgica en la herniorrafía inguinal
Mirabal Mirabal,María E; Sánchez Portela,Carlos A; Oriolo Estrada,Martha A; Martínez Zamora,Ana L; García Rodríguez,Ariadna;
Revista de Ciencias M??dicas de Pinar del R?-o , 2006,
Abstract: by the importance the application of the traditional and natural medicine has gotten in our country, specially acupuncture, not only clinically but also with surgical purposes, a descriptive and retrospective study was performed with 40 patients operated on for inguinal hernia at "abel santamaría cuadrado" teaching university hospital in pinar del río, from january to july 2003, with the purpose of assessing the effectiveness of the surgical acupunctural analgesia in this type of surgery. two groups were formed (control and study). the control group was applied spinal anesthesia, and the study group was applied surgical acupunctural analgesia. the degree of transoperative and post-operative analgesia was compared, as well as the complications. the degree of the patient's satisfaction was registered, for which a visual analogical scale was applied, being good in 90% patients who underwent acupunctural analgesia. this procedure is harmless, easily applicable, well accepted by the patient, and represents a significant economical saving since it diminishes hospital costs. this is why its systematic use is recommended. all patients underwent major ambulatory surgery.
Desarrollo de la formación de técnicos y tecnólogos de la Salud en Cuba
Rodríguez Gallo,Martha Nieves; García Linares,Georgina; García González,Mercedes Caridad; Ortega González,Nancy; Sánchez Fernández,Ovidio Antonio;
Humanidades M??dicas , 2011,
Abstract: this paper describes the stages of the formation of health technicians and technologists in cuba, including the particularities of the syllabi. it deals with the current model of bachelor of health technology, which presents a ber basic cycle and eight specialties. it also includes the social impact of this new educational model, which responds to the demands of both cuban health services and cooperation in other countries.
Hernia inguinal. Estudio de 2 a?os
Sánchez Portela,Carlos A; Oriolo Estrada,Martha A; Ruizcalderón Cabrera,Ivanis; Sosa Hernández,Roberto; Humarán Rodríguez,Lisset;
Revista de Ciencias M??dicas de Pinar del R?-o , 2005,
Abstract: inguinal hernia represented 3.42 % of surgeries from the general surgery service at abel santamaria cuadrado general hospital during years 2002 and 2003. in this surgeries, more than the third (36 %) of patients ranged 41 - 50 years of age when being operated on. masculine sex prevailed over feminine sex with a ratio 16/2 and, moreover, throughout the whole study it was observed a slight predominance of the right side over the left one with a ratio 3/2. 48.5 % of herniated patients performed a physical strain before the ocurrence of the hernia and 50 % of the studied ones went to the surgeon before 1 after the onset tof the disease took place. indirect inguinal hernia prevailed over the right one with a ratio 4/1. incarceration was the most frequent complication found. among local postoperative complicactions found, the most significant were sepsis of the wound, hematoma and seroma. total mortality was 0.39 %. we decided to carry out this work in order to perform a study of the behaviour of inguinal hernias in our hospital during a period of two years.
Oxidative stress as a risk factor for osteoporosis in elderly Mexicans as characterized by antioxidant enzymes
Martha A Sánchez-Rodríguez, Mirna Ruiz-Ramos, Elsa Correa-Mu?oz, Víctor Mendoza-Nú?ez
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-8-124
Abstract: We conducted a case-control study in 94 subjects ≥60 years of age, 50 healthy and 44 with osteoporosis. We measured total antioxidant status, plasma lipid peroxides, antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and calculated the SOD/GPx ratio. Bone mineral density was obtained at the peripheral DXA in calcaneus using a portable Norland Apollo Densitometer?. Osteoporosis was considered when subjects had a BMD of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean value for young adults.GPx antioxidant activity was significantly lower in the group of subjects with osteoporosis in comparison with the group of healthy subjects (p < 0.01); in addition, the SOD/GPx ratio was significantly higher in the group of individuals with osteoporosis (p < 0.05). In logistic regression analysis, we found OxS to be an independent risk factor for osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.79; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.08–7.23; p = 0.034).Our findings suggest that OxS is an independent risk factor for osteoporosis linked to increase of SOD/GPx ratio.Oxidative stress (OxS) is a biochemical disequilibrium propitiated by excessive production of free radicals (FR) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which provoke oxidative damage to biomolecules and which cannot be counteracted by antioxidative systems. This biochemical alteration has been linked with aging and more of 100 chronic-degenerative diseases, among which osteoporosis is found [1,2].Thus, epidemiologic studies on osteoporosis should consider OxS, in addition to risk factors linked with lifestyles, hormonal changes, and aging [3-5]. It has been demonstrated recently that FR intervene in bone resorption, promoting osteoclastic differentiation in such a manner that bone resorption is increased with OxS [6-8].Similarly, experimental studies have shown a diminution in antioxidant activity in patients with osteoporosis [9,10]. In this regard, Arjmandi et al. (2002) demonstrated that administration of vita
Antioxidant capacity in relationship to serum lipid peroxides levels in healthy elderly of Mexico City
Sánchez-Rodríguez,Martha A.; Retana-Ugalde,Raquel; Ruiz-Ramos,Mirna; Mendoza-Nú?ez,Víctor Manuel;
Acta bioqu?-mica cl?-nica latinoamericana , 2004,
Abstract: the aging is one of the factors that cause decrease in the antioxidant capacity. likewise, it has been proposed that subjects exposed permanently to air pollution develop deficient antioxidant capacity to oxidative stress (oxs). this study aimed to analyze the antioxidant capacity against elevated lipid peroxides in healthy elderly of mexico city. 105 adults (44 ± 10.8 years) and 126 elderly subjects were studied (68 ± 7.1 years); residents of mexico city (clinically healthy, non-smokers, non-vitamin supplement takers) who had lived in the city for >10 years. plasma lipoperoxides (lpo), total antioxidant status (tas), the activity of red blood cells superoxide dismutase (sod), and plasma glutathione peroxidase (gpx), were studied in all subjects. lpo levels were found significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the elderly subjects in comparison with the adults; in addition, tas and gpx were higher in adults than among the elderly people (p < 0.0001). nevertheless, sod was similar in both groups (p = 0.346). these findings reveal that the elderly residents of mexico city have tas and gpx lower than adults, and similar sd activity, probably due to the fact that these antioxidants are neutralizing the higher lpo levels of elderly people. therefore, this mechanism could be considered as an efficient antioxidant capacity in the elderly, as response to high lpo levels, since the health status, mortality prevalence and life span life of the older people of mexico city are similar or better than other cities of mexican republic.
Antioxidant capacity in relationship to serum lipid peroxides levels in healthy elderly of Mexico City Capacidad antioxidante en relación a niveles séricos de lipoperóxidos en ancianos sanos de la ciudad de México
Martha A. Sánchez-Rodríguez,Raquel Retana-Ugalde,Mirna Ruiz-Ramos,Víctor Manuel Mendoza-Nú?ez
Acta bioqu?-mica cl?-nica latinoamericana , 2004,
Abstract: The aging is one of the factors that cause decrease in the antioxidant capacity. Likewise, it has been proposed that subjects exposed permanently to air pollution develop deficient antioxidant capacity to oxidative stress (OxS). This study aimed to analyze the antioxidant capacity against elevated lipid peroxides in healthy elderly of Mexico City. 105 adults (44 ± 10.8 years) and 126 elderly subjects were studied (68 ± 7.1 years); residents of Mexico City (clinically healthy, non-smokers, non-vitamin supplement takers) who had lived in the city for >10 years. Plasma lipoperoxides (LPO), total antioxidant status (TAS), the activity of red blood cells superoxide dismutase (SOD), and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were studied in all subjects. LPO levels were found significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the elderly subjects in comparison with the adults; in addition, TAS and GPx were higher in adults than among the elderly people (p < 0.0001). Nevertheless, SOD was similar in both groups (p = 0.346). These findings reveal that the elderly residents of Mexico City have TAS and GPx lower than adults, and similar SD activity, probably due to the fact that these antioxidants are neutralizing the higher LPO levels of elderly people. Therefore, this mechanism could be considered as an efficient antioxidant capacity in the elderly, as response to high LPO levels, since the health status, mortality prevalence and life span life of the older people of Mexico City are similar or better than other cities of Mexican Republic. Se ha propuesto que los sujetos expuestos permanentemente a la contaminación ambiental tienen una deficiente capacidad para contrarrestar el estrés oxidativo (EOx) y que el envejecimiento es un factor causante de dicha alteración. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la capacidad antioxidante contra el aumento de lipoperóxidos (LPO) en adultos mayores sanos de la ciudad de México. Se estudiaron 105 adultos residentes de la ciudad de México (44 ± 10,8 a os) y 126 adultos mayores (68 ± 7,1 a os) clínicamente sanos, no fumadores, sin ingesta de vitaminas antioxidantes, con residencia en esta ciudad por más 10 a os. Se cuantificó a todos los sujetos los LPO plasmáticos, capacidad sérica antioxidante total (AT), actividad eritrocitaria de superóxido dismutasa (SOD) y plasmática de glutatión peroxidasa (GPx). Se encontró que los niveles de LPO fueron más altos en los adultos mayores comparados con los jóvenes (p < 0,05); asimismo, AT y GPx fueron mayores en los jóvenes (p < 0,0001). La SOD fue similar en ambos grupos (p = 0,346). Estos hallazgos
Plasmid DNA immunization with Trypanosoma cruzi genes induces cardiac and clinical protection against Chagas disease in the canine model
Rodríguez-Morales Olivia,Pérez-Leyva M,Ballinas-Verdugo Martha A,Carrillo-Sánchez Silvia C
Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9716-43-79
Abstract: The only existing preventive measure against American trypanosomosis, or Chagas disease, is the control of the transmitting insect, which has only been effective in a few South American regions. Currently, there is no vaccine available to prevent this disease. Here, we present the clinical and cardiac levels of protection induced by expression to Trypanosoma cruzi genes encoding the TcSP and TcSSP4 proteins in the canine model. Physical examination, diagnostic chagasic serology, and serial electrocardiograms were performed before and after immunization, as well as after experimental infection. We found that immunization with recombinant plasmids prevented hyperthermia in the acute phase of experimental infection and produced lymphadenomegaly as an immunological response against the parasite and additionally prevented heart rate elevation (tachycardia) in the acute and/or chronic stages of infection. Immunization with T. cruzi genes encoding the TcSP and TcSSP4 antigens diminished the quality and quantity of the electrocardiographic abnormalities, thereby avoiding progression to more severe developments such as right bundle branch block or ventricular premature complexes in a greater number of dogs.
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