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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5560 matches for " Markus Kipp "
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Combined Application of 17-Estradiol and Progesterone Enhance Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Surfactant Protein Expression in Cultured Embryonic Lung Cells of Mice
Andreas Trotter,Markus Kipp,Roland Matthias Schrader,Cordian Beyer
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/170491
Abstract: Preterm delivery is associated with disruption of the placental supply with 17-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P). The aim is to evaluate the role of E2 and P on the regulation of key proteins in lung development in embryonic lung cells. Alveolar cell type II (AT-II) and central lung fibroblast cultures were established from mouse embryos. Cells were exposed for 24 hours to E2 and/or P, the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182.780 (ICI) and the progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone (RU 486). The mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and surfactant protein B and C (SB-B, SB-C) was determined, and protein levels of VEGF were measured. Only the combined treatment with E2 and P increased mRNA expression and VEGF protein in AT-II cells and lung fibroblasts. Combined treatment also promoted SP-B and SP-C expression in AT-II cells. Pretreatment with ICI and RU 486 completely abolished the E2 and P induced effects. E2 and P enhanced expression of VEGF and surfactant proteins in primary embryonic lung cells and may be involved in regulating expression of key molecules for the prenatal lung development and postnatal lung function.
The effects of levosimendan on brain metabolism during initial recovery from global transient ischaemia/hypoxia
Roehl Anna B,Zoremba Norbert,Kipp Markus,Schiefer Johannes
BMC Neurology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-12-81
Abstract: Backround Neuroprotective strategies after cardiopulmonary resuscitation are currently the focus of experimental and clinical research. Levosimendan has been proposed as a promising drug candidate because of its cardioprotective properties, improved haemodynamic effects in vivo and reduced traumatic brain injury in vitro. The effects of levosimendan on brain metabolism during and after ischaemia/hypoxia are unknown. Methods Transient cerebral ischaemia/hypoxia was induced in 30 male Wistar rats by bilateral common carotid artery clamping for 15 min and concomitant ventilation with 6% O2 during general anaesthesia with urethane. After 10 min of global ischaemia/hypoxia, the rats were treated with an i.v. bolus of 24 μg kg-1 levosimendan followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2 μg kg-1 min-1. The changes in the energy-related metabolites lactate, the lactate/pyruvate ratio, glucose and glutamate were monitored by microdialysis. In addition, the effects on global haemodynamics, cerebral perfusion and autoregulation, oedema and expression of proinflammatory genes in the neocortex were assessed. Results Levosimendan reduced blood pressure during initial reperfusion (72 ± 14 vs. 109 ± 2 mmHg, p = 0.03) and delayed flow maximum by 5 minutes (p = 0.002). Whereas no effects on time course of lactate, glucose, pyruvate and glutamate concentrations in the dialysate could be observed, the lactate/pyruvate ratio during initial reperfusion (144 ± 31 vs. 77 ± 8, p = 0.017) and the glutamate release during 90 minutes of reperfusion (75 ± 19 vs. 24 ± 28 μmol·L-1) were higher in the levosimendan group. The increased expression of IL-6, IL-1 TNFα and ICAM-1, extend of cerebral edema and cerebral autoregulation was not influenced by levosimendan. Conclusion Although levosimendan has neuroprotective actions in vitro and on the spinal cord in vivo and has been shown to cross the blood–brain barrier, the present results showed that levosimendan did not reduce the initial neuronal injury after transient ischaemia/hypoxia.
e-TREAM—improve your knowledge on transport
Tobias Kipp
European Transport Research Review , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/s12544-009-0012-7
Abstract: e-TREAM is an e-learning tool which offers training in transport issues like mobility management and alternative fuels. The main target groups are energy agencies but everybody is welcome who is seeking to develop new skills for implementing mobility services and reducing energy consumption in the area of transport. The platform can be found via www.e-TREAM.eu.
The Making of a Tropical Disease: A Short History of Malaria
Walter Kipp
Canadian Studies in Population , 2011,
Book Review: Illife, John. (2006). The African AIDS Epidemic. A History. Ohio: Ohio University Press
Kipp, Walter
Canadian Studies in Population , 2009,
The Response of a Two-Element Radio Interferometer to Gravitational Waves
Kipp Cannon
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: This document presents a ray-optics analysis of the response of a two-element radio interferometer to the presence of a plane gravitational wave. A general expression for the differential phase observed between the two receiving stations as a result of an arbitrary gravitational wave is determined, as well as the specific responses to monochromatic and black hole ring-down waveforms. Finally, the possibility of gravitational wave detection via this mechanism is discussed in the context of interferometer noise.
Solulin reduces infarct volume and regulates gene-expression in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats
Yu-Mi Ryang, Jon Dang, Markus Kipp, Karl-Uwe Petersen, Astrid V Fahlenkamp, Jens Gempt, Dominik Wesp, Rolf Rossaint, Cordian Beyer, Mark Coburn
BMC Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-12-113
Abstract: Male SD rats were subjected to 2 hrs of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Rats treated with Solulin intravenously shortly before reperfusion were compared to rats receiving normal saline i.v. with respect to infarct volumes, neurological deficits and mortality. Gene expression of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-9, CD11B and GFAP were semiquantitatively analyzed by rtPCR of the penumbra.24 hrs after reperfusion, rats were neurologically tested, euthanized and infarct volumes determined. Solulin significantly reduced mean total (p = 0.001), cortical (p = 0.002), and basal ganglia (p = 0.036) infarct volumes. Hippocampal infarct volumes (p = 0.191) were not significantly affected. Solulin significantly downregulated the expression of IL-1β (79%; p < 0.001), TNF-α (59%; p = 0.001), IL-6 (47%; p = 0.04), and CD11B (49%; p = 0.001) in the infarcted cortex compared to controls.Solulin reduced mean total, cortical and basal ganglia infarct volumes and regulated a subset of cytokines and proteases after tMCAO suggesting the potency of this compound for therapeutic interventions.Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western civilization. Roughly 60% of ischemic strokes are attributable to large-artery occlusion by thrombembolism. Complete absence of perfusion results in irreversible brain damage and neuronal loss in the stroke core. However, the surrounding penumbra contains functionally impaired, yet reversibly damaged neurons which are potentially salvageable. The goal in modern stroke therapy, therefore, is to protect the penumbra. To date, the only approved drug for lysis therapy is recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) which has shown significant benefit in patient outcome when given up to 4.5 hours of onset. Less than 10% of all acute stroke patients are eligible for this treatment. No clinical trial has been able to demonstrate clear beneficial effects in respect to improvement of short- or long-term outcome after anticoagulatory
On the Ontology of Structural Realism  [PDF]
Markus Fischer
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2019.91008
Abstract: Due to its systemic approach, structural realism (or neorealism) can be subsumed under methodological holism, which takes social phenomena to be wholes that cannot be reduced to their parts. The wholes posited by structural realism are the state and the international structure. Recent developments in the philosophy of social science suggest that methodological holism ought to be limited to causal explanation and complemented by ontological individualism, which requires an account of how social wholes derive from individuals. Structural realism lacks such an account because it takes the state as an empirical given, mistaking for a fact what is really a concept in need of deductive derivation from individuals. To bring the theory methodologically up to date, this essay undertakes such a derivation of the state from individuals, proceeding in the deductive manner of political theory. It thus provides structural realism with a methodologically valid ontology, which, in turn, enables the theory to better defend itself against liberal and constructivist critics who reduce the state to a transient phenomenon.
Walking Corpses and Kindly Neighbours: Retrospective Accounts of AIDS Stigma in Western Uganda  [PDF]
Amy Kaler, Arif Alibhai, Walter Kipp, Tom Rubaale, Joseph Konde-Lule
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.23023
Abstract: Stigma has been of tremendous concern in the AIDS epidemic. In this paper we investigate reported experiences of stigma in western Uganda, as related by coresidents treatment partners (TPs) of people receiving treatment through a community-based treatment programme. A survey (n = 110) and open-ended interviews (n = 30) were used. We found that while stigma persists, it is balanced by kindness and sympathy expressed by relatives and neighbours. Stigma experiences involve isolation and gossip, rather than harassment or violence. We argue that the persistence of isolating behavior may be related to 1) practical concerns about avoiding requests for assistance coming from families of people with AIDS; and 2) the perception that people with AIDS are \"walking corpses\", in a liminal state between life and death. The perception of AIDS as a death sentence appears to be a stronger driver of stigma than perceptions of sexual misbehaviour or promiscuity in the acquisition of AIDS. We argue that treatment has the potential to reduce stigma because it permits a repeal of this perceived death sentence.
Married men’s perceptions of barriers for HIV-positive pregnant women accessing highly active antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda
Duff P, Rubaale T, Kipp W
International Journal of Women's Health , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S31807
Abstract: rried men’s perceptions of barriers for HIV-positive pregnant women accessing highly active antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda Original Research (1808) Total Article Views Authors: Duff P, Rubaale T, Kipp W Published Date May 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 227 - 233 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S31807 Received: 15 March 2012 Accepted: 02 April 2012 Published: 16 May 2012 Putu Duff,1 Tom Rubaale,2 Walter Kipp1,2 1School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; 2Community ARV Project, Fort Portal, Uganda Background: The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of married men about barriers to accessing and accepting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by pregnant/postnatal women positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and registered in Kabarole District’s Program for the Prevention of HIV from Mother to Child (PMTCT-Plus). Materials and methods: Our study was a qualitative descriptive exploratory study using thematic analysis. Four focus group discussions were held with a convenience sample of 40 married men. Results: Lack of disclosure of a positive HIV diagnosis to the partner and stigmatization of persons with HIV were two major obstacles for women in accessing HAART. In addition, men felt that their low knowledge of HAART and their low HIV testing rate also constituted important barriers to these women taking treatment. Men complained that they were not sufficiently involved in the reproductive care of women and that couples’ counseling could be a step towards addressing this problem. Conclusion: Barriers to HAART experienced by pregnant/postnatal women need to be addressed in order to improve their uptake of treatment, increase their low treatment coverage, improve their survival, and at the same time dramatically reduce HIV transmission from mother to child.
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