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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 17848 matches for " Mark "
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The Mind’s Irreducible Structure  [PDF]
Mark Simes
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.23033
Abstract: The human mind is one of our most compelling subjects of scientific inquiry—and perhaps our most elusive. Despite impressive biological advances, neuroscience has yet to produce a logical and empirical analysis of the mind that exhibits universal, objective explanatory power of human mental phenomena on both an individual and species level. This article first explores the limitations of the current neuroscientific approach to the human mind and then argues for a reconceptualization of the relationship between human mental phenomena and the brain. Here I introduce a new interpretation of neuroscientific data and argue that this framework has the capacity to causally explain the link between social, psychological and biological levels of analysis.
Why Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (ACMC) Is a Powerful Tool for Language Learning  [PDF]
Mark Brooke
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2012.23016
Abstract: Tertiary institutions are increasingly using online virtual environments such as Blackboard to upload course content for students. However, there is still limited usage of the online blogging and discussion tools. This study describes the language used by tertiary students involved in blogging and discussions online. It also demonstrates learning processes observed through the interactions of participants over time. Findings suggest that this unique discourse mode is a potentially powerful tool for language learning.
Enhancing Pre-Service Teacher Training: The Construction and Application of a Model for Developing Teacher Reflective Practice Online  [PDF]
Mark Brooke
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2012.24023
Abstract: Reflective practice is an essential component of pre-service teacher training programs. It facilitates the linking of theory and practice and empowers trainees to seek reasons behind their practices and their beliefs. These help novices to evolve as they witness their own teaching philosophies emerging. This research took place over 18 months and comprised 3 case studies of eight weeks with 3rd year ESOL trainees on their first intensive block practice in Hong Kong state schools. The research suggests that an online environment is an effective one in supporting and developing reflective practice during these periods. This was facilitated by asking trainees to apply an online model to scaffold reflections. These reflections were then posted and discussed by all case study members. They were also explored further using online moderator asynchronous Socratic dialogue to prompt further reflection. Findings demonstrate that a deep level of reflection is attainable in this context, albeit relatively rare, using the online medium.
A Critical Analysis of Selected Policy Making Decisions in the US and the UK with Regard to the Implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in National State Primary and Secondary School Education Systems  [PDF]
Mark Brooke
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2013.31012
Abstract: Information and Communication Technology has played an important and pervasive role in modern business and everyday living over the last decade and more. The industry accounts for trillions of annual revenue. Yet, it has proved hard for a similar role for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to emerge in education. In this paper, I will argue that policy regarding ICT use at national state levels in the UK and the US has striven to create, and continues to perpetuate, a system of education with technological divisions of labour, and marginalized innovative and communicative practical uses of technology for enhancing education in schools.
Manuel Castells and Historical Materialism  [PDF]
Mark Cowling
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2014.41001
Abstract:

Considering the very large volume of work produced by Castells, the relative scarcity of secondary literature discussing his theories is somewhat surprising. Castells does not really try to situate his theories about the network society in relation to Marxism. The argument of this paper is that Castells provides a plausible account of some major features of the means of production in the contemporary phase of capitalism, and also of the effects of this on society more generally. His theories could form the basis of an academically respectable version of historical materialism. Some problems with his theories are discussed.

Police Misconduct, Racism, and Excessive Use of Force-Failure Analysis, Commentary, and Recommendations  [PDF]
Mark Malmin
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.38001
Abstract: Community perceptions of police misconduct, racism, and allegations of excessive use of force vary from community to community, especially with variant population densities. Perceptual views tend to promote the idiomatic dilemma that perception is reality. This paper exegetically explores modalities of community policing, existing FBI empirical statistical evidence of Uniform Crime Reports, facts, misconceptions, the absence of uniform reporting requirements, and other perceptual contributing factors, such as media influence, that support the existing paradigm of racial profiling perceptions across the US. The pursuit and acquisition of racial justice and equality require public trust in government, unbiased factual analysis of systemic failures, better communication, community collaboration, and minority participation in the political process.
Non-Backtracking Random Walks and a Weighted Ihara’s Theorem  [PDF]
Mark Kempton
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2016.64018
Abstract: We study the mixing rate of non-backtracking random walks on graphs by looking at non-backtracking walks as walks on the directed edges of a graph. A result known as Ihara’s Theorem relates the adjacency matrix of a graph to a matrix related to non-backtracking walks on the directed edges. We prove a weighted version of Ihara’s Theorem which relates the transition probability matrix of a non-backtracking walk to the transition matrix for the usual random walk. This allows us to determine the spectrum of the transition probability matrix of a non-backtracking random walk in the case of regular graphs and biregular graphs. As a corollary, we obtain a result of Alon et al. in [1] that in most cases, a non-backtracking random walk on a regular graph has a faster mixing rate than the usual random walk. In addition, we obtain an analogous result for biregular graphs.
TrueBeam Low Dose Rate Investigation for Pulsed Reduced Dose Rate IMRT  [PDF]
Mark Geurts
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2017.62013
Abstract: The capability of the TrueBeam treatment system to deliver step and shoot IMRT plans at low dose rates was evaluated. Beam characteristics during low dose rates (5 to 100 MU/min) were evaluated for consistency using a planar ion chamber array. MU constancy, linearity, and beam profile symmetry were all found to be equivalent within 0.5%. The response of the Scandi Dos Delta 4 system was also evaluated at low dose rates of using static open beams compared to ion chamber measurements, and step and shoot IMRT plans comparing 5 - 20 MU/min and 100 MU/min dose rates, with a maximum observed absolute dose difference of 0.8% and equivalence margin of 0.2%. The Gamma Index and measurement reproducibility were also found to be equivalent.
Food Production Engineering Efficiency: A Critical Analysis of the Conventional Metrics Used in Measuring Agricultural Efficiency  [PDF]
Mark McGuire
Engineering (ENG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2017.95025
Abstract: An analysis is reported of conventional vs. alternative metrics used in measuring food production efficiency. Economic efficiency is driven by marketplace economics, while engineering efficiency is driven by useful energy conservation. As farming systems are optimized for maximum efficiency, how “efficiency” is defined will dictate the methods used in food production. Farming methods that are optimized in terms of economic efficiency have environmental consequences that are not inherent of engineering efficiency; however, farming methods optimized in terms of engineering efficiency have labor requirements not inherent of economic efficiency. A shift from optimizing food production in terms of economic efficiency to engineering efficiency may be necessary in order to feed a growing human population.
A 4-channel 3 Tesla phased array receive coil for awake rhesus monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments  [PDF]
Mark Haig Khachaturian
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2010.311141
Abstract: Awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI combined with conventional neuroscience techniques has the potential to study the structural and functional neural network. The majority of monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments are performed with single coils which suffer from severe EPI distortions which limit resolution. By constructing phased array coils for monkey MRI studies, gains in SNR and anatomical accuracy (i.e., reduction of EPI distortions) can be achieved using parallel imaging. The major challenges associated with constructing phased array coils for monkeys are the variation in head size and space constraints. Here, we apply phased array technology to a 4-channel phased array coil capable of improving the resolution and image quality of full brain awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments. The phased array coil is that can adapt to different rhesus monkey head sizes (ages 4-8) and fits in the limited space provided by monkey stereotactic equipment and provides SNR gains in primary visual cortex and anatomical accuracy in conjunction with parallel imaging and improves resolution in fMRI experiments by a factor of 2 (1.25 mm to 1.0 mm isotropic) and diffusion MRI experiments by a factor of 4 (1.5 mm to 0.9 mm isotropic).
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