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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 134930 matches for " Mark T. Stacey "
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A Protective Role for Complement C3 Protein during Pandemic 2009 H1N1 and H5N1 Influenza A Virus Infection
Kevin B. O'Brien,Thomas E. Morrison,David Y. Dundore,Mark T. Heise,Stacey Schultz-Cherry
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017377
Abstract: Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza infections are associated with enhanced inflammatory and cytokine responses, severe lung damage, and an overall dysregulation of innate immunity. C3, a member of the complement system of serum proteins, is a major component of the innate immune and inflammatory responses. However, the role of this protein in the pathogenesis of H5N1 infection is unknown. Here we demonstrate that H5N1 influenza virus infected mice had increased levels of C5a and C3 activation byproducts as compared to mice infected with either seasonal or pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses. We hypothesized that the increased complement was associated with the enhanced disease associated with the H5N1 infection. However, studies in knockout mice demonstrated that C3 was required for protection from influenza infection, proper viral clearance, and associated with changes in cellular infiltration. These studies suggest that although the levels of complement activation may differ depending on the influenza virus subtype, complement is an important host defense mechanism.
Extremely high negative electron affinity of diamond via magnesium adsorption
Kane M. O'Donnell,Mark T. Edmonds,Anton Tadich,Lars Thomsen,Alastair Stacey,Alex Schenk,Chris I. Pakes,Lothar Ley
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We report large negative electron affinity (NEA) on diamond (100) using magnesium adsorption on a previously oxygen-terminated surface. The measured NEA is up to $(-2.01\pm0.05)$ eV, the largest reported negative electron affinity to date. Despite the expected close relationship between the surface chemistry of Mg and Li species on oxygen-terminated diamond, we observe differences in the adsorption properties between the two. Most importantly, a high-temperature annealing step is not required to activate the Mg-adsorbed surface to a state of negative electron affinity. Diamond surfaces prepared by this procedure continue to possess negative electron affinity after exposure to high temperatures, air and even immersion in water.
Projected Evolution of California's San Francisco Bay-Delta-River System in a Century of Climate Change
James E. Cloern, Noah Knowles, Larry R. Brown, Daniel Cayan, Michael D. Dettinger, Tara L. Morgan, David H. Schoellhamer, Mark T. Stacey, Mick van der Wegen, R. Wayne Wagner, Alan D. Jassby
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024465
Abstract: Background Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. Methodology/Principal Findings We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010–2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Conclusions/Significance Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community changes as responses to cumulative effects of climate change and other drivers of habitat transformations; and (4) anticipation and adaptation to the growing probability of ecosystem regime shifts.
The evolution of dust-obscured star formation activity in galaxy clusters relative to the field over the last 9 billion years
Stacey Alberts,Alexandra Pope,Mark Brodwin,David W. Atlee,Yen-Ting Lin,Arjun Dey,Peter R. M. Eisenhardt,Daniel P. Gettings,Anthony H. Gonzalez,Buell T. Jannuzi,Conor L. Mancone,John Moustakas,Gregory F. Snyder,S. Adam Stanford,Daniel Stern,Benjamin J. Weiner,Gregory R. Zeimann
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1897
Abstract: We compare the star formation (SF) activity in cluster galaxies to the field from z=0.3-1.5 using $Herschel$ SPIRE 250$\mu$m imaging. We utilize 274 clusters from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS) selected as rest-frame near-infrared overdensities over the 9 square degree Bootes field . This analysis allows us to quantify the evolution of SF in clusters over a long redshift baseline without bias against active cluster systems. Using a stacking analysis, we determine the average star formation rates (SFRs) and specific-SFRs (SSFR=SFR/M$_{\star}$) of stellar mass-limited (M>1.3x10$^{10}$ M$_{\odot}$), statistical samples of cluster and field galaxies, probing both the star forming and quiescent populations. We find a clear indication that the average SF in cluster galaxies is evolving more rapidly than in the field, with field SF levels at z>1.2 in the cluster cores (r<0.5 Mpc), in good agreement with previous ISCS studies. By quantifying the SF in cluster and field galaxies as an exponential function of cosmic time, we determine that cluster galaxies are evolving ~2 times faster than the field. Additionally, we see enhanced SF above the field level at z~1.4 in the cluster outskirts (r>0.5 Mpc). These general trends in the cluster cores and outskirts are driven by the lower mass galaxies in our sample. Blue cluster galaxies have systematically lower SSFRs than blue field galaxies, but otherwise show no strong differential evolution with respect to the field over our redshift range. This suggests that the cluster environment is both suppressing the star formation in blue galaxies on long time-scales and rapidly transitioning some fraction of blue galaxies to the quiescent galaxy population on short time-scales. We argue that our results are consistent with both strangulation and ram pressure stripping acting in these clusters, with merger activity occurring in the cluster outskirts.
A correlation between star formation rate and average black hole accretion in star forming galaxies
Chien-Ting J. Chen,Ryan C. Hickox,Stacey Alberts,Mark Brodwin,Christine Jones,Stephen S. Murray,David M. Alexander,Roberto J. Assef,Michael J. Brown,Arjun Dey,William R. Forman,Varoujan Gorjian,Andrew D. Goulding,Emeric Le Floc'h,Buell T. Jannuzi,James R. Mullaney,Alexandra Pope
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/773/1/3
Abstract: We present a measurement of the average supermassive black hole accretion rate (BHAR) as a function of star formation rate (SFR) for galaxies in the redshift range 0.25
Role of Osteoplastic Frontal Sinus Obliteration in the Era of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery
Joshua B. Silverman,Stacey T. Gray,Nicolas Y. Busaba
International Journal of Otolaryngology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/501896
Abstract: Objective. Determining the indications for osteoplastic frontal sinus obliteration (OFSO) for the treatment of inflammatory frontal sinus disease. Study Design. Retrospective case series from a single tertiary care facility. Methods. Thirty-four patients who underwent OFSO for chronic frontal sinusitis () and frontal sinus mucocele () comprised our study group. Data reviewed included demographics, history of prior frontal sinus operation(s), imaging, diagnosis, and operative complications. Results. The age range was 19 to 76 years. Seventy percent of patients with chronic frontal sinusitis underwent OFSO as a salvage surgery after previous frontal sinus surgery failures, while 30% underwent OFSO as a primary surgery. For those in whom OFSO was a salvage procedure, the failed surgeries were endoscopic approaches to the frontal sinus (69%), Lynch procedure (12%), and OFSO outside this study period (19%). For patients with frontal sinus mucocele, 72% had OFSO as a first-line surgery. Within the total study population, 15% of patients presented for OFSO with history of prior obliteration, with a range of 3 to 30 years between representations. Conclusions. Osteoplastic frontal sinus obliteration remains a key surgical treatment for chronic inflammatory frontal sinus disease both as a salvage procedure and first-line surgical therapy.
The Effects Employing Sign Language and Rewards to Teach Rote Counting to 50 with a Student with Down Syndrome and Intellectual Disabilities
Christina Griffin,T. F. McLaughlin,Jennifer Neyman,Stacey Higgins
International Journal of Basics and Applied Science , 2013,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of sign language to teach a second grade student with developmental delays to rote count to fifty. The second grade student with a communication delay that impacted his ability to produce oral communication served as our participant. An ABAB reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of employing sign language. The outcomes indicated an initial gradual improvement in our participant’s skills in rote counting. A return to baseline resulted in a large decrease in performance. A replication of the sign language condition resulted in a large improvements in correct counting. The efficacy of employing manual sign language in the classroom was discussed. Both teachers and parents were satisfied with the outcomes.
Role of Osteoplastic Frontal Sinus Obliteration in the Era of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery
Joshua B. Silverman,Stacey T. Gray,Nicolas Y. Busaba
International Journal of Otolaryngology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/501896
Abstract: Objective. Determining the indications for osteoplastic frontal sinus obliteration (OFSO) for the treatment of inflammatory frontal sinus disease. Study Design. Retrospective case series from a single tertiary care facility. Methods. Thirty-four patients who underwent OFSO for chronic frontal sinusitis ( ) and frontal sinus mucocele ( ) comprised our study group. Data reviewed included demographics, history of prior frontal sinus operation(s), imaging, diagnosis, and operative complications. Results. The age range was 19 to 76 years. Seventy percent of patients with chronic frontal sinusitis underwent OFSO as a salvage surgery after previous frontal sinus surgery failures, while 30% underwent OFSO as a primary surgery. For those in whom OFSO was a salvage procedure, the failed surgeries were endoscopic approaches to the frontal sinus (69%), Lynch procedure (12%), and OFSO outside this study period (19%). For patients with frontal sinus mucocele, 72% had OFSO as a first-line surgery. Within the total study population, 15% of patients presented for OFSO with history of prior obliteration, with a range of 3 to 30 years between representations. Conclusions. Osteoplastic frontal sinus obliteration remains a key surgical treatment for chronic inflammatory frontal sinus disease both as a salvage procedure and first-line surgical therapy. 1. Introduction Chronic frontal rhinosinusitis remains a highly prevalent disease with significant associated morbidity despite advances in pharmacology, physiology, and technology [1]. Current frontal sinus surgery has evolved to include minimally invasive endoscopic techniques in addition to more traditional open frontal sinus obliteration [2]. However, the proper utilization of each of these different techniques remains a controversial topic. The osteoplastic flap frontal sinus obliteration (OFSO) procedure popularized by Montgomery in the 1960s has historically been accepted as the gold standard for treatment of frontal sinus disease [2]. The main impetus for developing this technique was the high failure rate associated with earlier external techniques such as the Lynch and Lothrop procedures, which produced short-term patency rates up to 90% but failed at least an additional 20% over a seven-year follow-up period [2]. This led to the prevailing dogma in the otolaryngology specialty that trauma to the mucosa of the frontal recess inevitably leads to scarring and obstruction of the frontal sinus outflow tract. Hence, any surgical manipulation of the frontal recess was discouraged. Even though OFSO with fat obliteration
Consumer Ideology Determines Shopping Preferences at Farmers Markets in Two US Geographical Regions  [PDF]
Deanna Pucciarelli, Stacey Faith
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.519205
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify if there were differences that existed in the behaviors, attitudes, awareness, and motivating factors that influenced people to shop at farmers’ markets and purchase USDA certified organic food in two geographic regions: Corvallis, Oregon and Muncie, Indiana. A survey was administered to consumers who shopped at the Minnetrista Farmers’ Market (MFM) and the Corvallis-Albany Farmers’ Market (CAFM) in the summer of 2012 to measure the shoppers’ purchasing perceptions. Specific areas of interest in this study included consumer values towards supporting local farmers and consuming USDA certified organic food. A comparison of responses between regions was analyzed. Results of the study provide insights on consumers’ purchasing attitudes and behaviors regarding USDA certified organic products, and why they chose to shop at Farmers’ Markets. Ideology was the strongest predictor for consumer purchasing behaviors. Understanding how regional differences affect food choice has implications for wellness programs and industry marketing materials.
Walking and Aerobic Capacity in Old Adults after Concentric and Eccentric Endurance Exercise at Self-Selected Intensities  [PDF]
Mandy L. Gault, Mark E. T. Willems
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.68085
Abstract: Self-selected exercise intensity can be a useful exercise prescription tool for older adults; however, it is not known if it can elicit improvements in walking and aerobic capacity. In older adults, effects of concentric or eccentric endurance exercise at self-selected walking speed were examined on 1-mile indoor walk performance, predicted maximum oxygen uptake and physiological parameters. Twenty-four older adults (67 ± 4 years) completed 3 × 30 min treadmill walks per week for 12-weeks on level (LTW, n = 11, 0%) or downhill (DTW, n = 13, ﹣10%) treadmill gradient at a self- selected speed, which progressed every 4 weeks. Maximal oxygen uptake was predicted using a 1-mile walk at 4-week intervals with physiological responses recorded using a portable metabolic system. One-mile walking speed increased from baseline following 8- and 12-weeks (12 weeks: LTW: 13% ± 6%, DTW: 14% ± 9%, P < 0.01). Both groups increased predicted maximal oxygen uptake following 8-weeks of walking (LTW: 15% ± 15%; DTW: 23% ± 30%, P < 0.01). At 12-weeks, the 1-mile walk was performed with higher heart rates and minute ventilation (P < 0.01). It is concluded that an exercise programme of concentric or eccentric endurance exercise, at self-selected exercise intensity, is sufficient to elicit similar improvements in maximum oxygen uptake.
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