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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 340407 matches for " Mark S Kindy "
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Semi-allogeneic vaccine for T-cell lymphoma
Jin Yu, Mark S Kindy, Sebastiano Gattoni-Celli
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-5-39
Abstract: Semi-allogeneic somatic cell hybrids were generated by the fusion of EL-4 T lymphoma cells (H-2b) and BALB/c-derived renal adenocarcinoma RAG cells (H-2d). Cell hybrids were injected intra-peritoneally (i.p.) in C57BL/6 mice (H-2b) before challenging the mice with a tumorigenic dose of EL-4 cells.Semi-allogeneic tumor cell hybrids could not form a tumor in the animal host because they expressed allogeneic determinants (H-2d) and were rejected as a transplant. However, they conferred protection against a tumorigenic challenge of EL-4 cells compared to control mice that were mock-vaccinated with i.p.-injected phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and in which EL-4 lymphomas grew rapidly to a large size in the peritoneal cavity. Screening of spleen-derived RNA by means of focused microarray technology revealed up-regulation of genes involved in the Th-1-type immune response and in the activation of dendritic antigen-presenting cells (APC).The results of our studies are entirely consistent with the concept that CD80- and CD86-expressing APC play a central role in mediating the immune protection induced by semi-allogeneic vaccines by activating a Th-1 response and instructing T cells responsible for killing autologous tumor cells.The capacity of T cells to recognize allogeneic MHC molecules as intact structures on the surface of foreign cells is called direct T-cell allorecognition and is responsible for the powerful immune reactions associated with transplant rejection, a phenomenon called "alloagression". To a large extent this is due to the ability of allogeneic stimulation to mobilize up to 10% of all T lymphocytes, compared with a precursor T-cell frequency of between 10-4 and 10-5 for most common antigens. At the same time, each of the lymphocytes activated through direct allorecognition will also recognize a specific antigenic peptide presented in the context of a self major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule (MHC restriction). Cross-reactivity between alloantige
Semi-allogeneic vaccines and tumor-induced immune tolerance
Jin Yu, Mark S Kindy, Sebastiano Gattoni-Celli
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-7-3
Abstract: Almost a century has passed since Paul Erlich first proposed that the immune system has the potential to eradicate cancer even though tumor cells arise from normal cells. Fifty years later the immune surveillance theory put forth that lymphocytes have the capacity to survey and destroy newly arising tumor cells that continuously appear in the body [1]. The conviction that the immune system can be mobilized as well as manipulated to eradicate tumor cells has invigorated the field of tumor immunology, one of the most active fields in immunology. The parallel discoveries of histocompatibility antigens in humans and mice are a good example of how studies in animal models and humans may go hand in hand [2]. In fact, animal studies continue as a basis for important advances because they have allowed the evaluation of multiple parameters in tumor immunology that are not possible in clinical studies [3].Despite a reasonable understanding of anti-tumor effector mechanisms, clinical studies investigating spontaneous anti-tumor immune responses have yet to lead to reproducible or consistent tumor regression. Thus, the question of why tumors continue to grow and metastasize in immunological competent cancer patients remains unanswered. Several observations have demonstrated that tumors evade and actively suppress the immune system. Tumor evasion of the immune system, termed immune escape, may occur through several mechanisms, including (i) tolerance or anergy induction; (ii) the genetic instability of tumors; (iii) modulation of tumor antigens; and (iv) decreased major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) expression [4]. In addition to evasion of the immune system, tumors actively suppress the immune system directly through production of immune suppressive cytokines and indirectly through the induction of immune inhibitory cells [5]. This secretion of soluble factors is thought to contribute to the Th2-skewed immune responses observed in cancer patients and to induce the
A New Target for Amyloid Beta Toxicity Validated by Standard and High-Throughput Electrophysiology
Kucku Varghese,Peter Molnar,Mainak Das,Neelima Bhargava,Stephen Lambert,Mark S. Kindy,James J. Hickman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008643
Abstract: Soluble oligomers of amyloid beta (Aβ) are considered to be one of the major contributing factors to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Most therapeutic development studies have focused on toxicity directly at the synapse.
Focal cerebral ischemia in the TNFalpha-transgenic rat
L Creed Pettigrew, Mark S Kindy, Stephen Scheff, Joe E Springer, Richard J Kryscio, Yizhao Li, David S Grass
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-5-47
Abstract: Transgenic (TNFα-Tg) rats overexpressing the murine TNFα gene in brain were prepared by injection of mouse DNA into rat oocytes. Brain levels of TNFα mRNA and protein were measured and compared between TNFα-Tg and non-transgenic (non-Tg) littermates. Mean infarct volume was calculated 24 hours or 7 days after one hour of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Cortical perfusion was monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) during MCAO. Cortical vascular density was quantified by stereology. Post-ischemic cell death was assessed by immunohistochemistry and regional measurement of caspase-3 activity or DNA fragmentation. Unpaired t tests or analysis of variance with post hoc tests were used for comparison of group means.In TNFα-Tg rat brain, the aggregate mouse and rat TNFα mRNA level was fourfold higher than in non-Tg littermates and the corresponding TNFα protein level was increased fivefold (p ≤ 0.01). Infarct volume was greater in TNFα-Tg rats than in non-Tg controls at 24 hours (p ≤ 0.05) and 7 days (p ≤ 0.01). Within the first 10 minutes of MCAO, cortical perfusion measured by LDF was reduced in TNFα-Tg rats (p ≤ 0.05). However, regional vascular density was equivalent between TNFα-Tg and non-Tg animals (p = NS). Neural cellular apoptosis was increased in transgenic animals as shown by elevated caspase-3 activity (p ≤ 0.05) and DNA fragmentation (p ≤ 0.001) at 24 hours.Chronic elevation of TNFα protein in brain increases susceptibility to ischemic injury but has no effect on vascular density. TNFα-Tg animals are more susceptible to apoptotic cell death after MCAO than are non-Tg animals. We conclude that the TNFα-Tg rat is a valuable new tool for the study of cytokine-mediated ischemic brain injury.Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is a pleiotropic cytokine suspected to enhance or deter cellular survival through activation of receptor-mediated signal transduction. When present in supra-physiological levels after injury, it is known to modulate neural
Altered Mental Status and Hyperammonemia after Overdose of Valproic Acid with Therapeutic Valproic Acid Concentrations  [PDF]
Evan S. Schwarz, Mark Thoelke
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.510075
Abstract:

Valproic acid is used in the treatment of multiple disorders. Adverse effects from valproic acid include hepatotoxicity, hypotension, metabolic acidosis, and decreased mental status. Valproic acid also causes hyperammonemia. Many physicians assume that this is due to a supratherapeutic valproic acid concentration; when in fact, it can occur with therapeutic valproic acid concentrations. This is because the hyperammonemia may be related to carnitine deficiency and disruption of the urea cycle, which can both occur with therapeutic valproic acid concentrations. We report a patient presented to the emergency department with alteration of mental status after ingesting valproic acid for recreational purposes, who developed hyperammonemia with a therapeutic valproic acid concentration.

La fuerza de los vínculos débiles
Mark S. Granovetter Mark S.
Política y Sociedad , 2000, DOI: -
Abstract: Sin resumen
A Detailed Survey on Various Aspects of SQL Injection in Web Applications: Vulnerabilities, Innovative Attacks, and Remedies
Diallo Abdoulaye Kindy,Al-Sakib Khan Pathan
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: In today's world, Web applications play a very important role in individual life as well as in any country's development. Web applications have gone through a very rapid growth in the recent years and their adoption is moving faster than that was expected few years ago. Now-a-days, billions of transactions are done online with the aid of different Web applications. Though these applications are used by hundreds of people, in many cases the security level is weak, which makes them vulnerable to get compromised. In most of the scenarios, a user has to be identified before any communication is established with the backend database. An arbitrary user should not be allowed access to the system without proof of valid credentials. However, a crafted injection gives access to unauthorized users. This is mostly accomplished via SQL Injection input. In spite of the development of different approaches to prevent SQL injection, it still remains an alarming threat to Web applications. In this paper, we present a detailed survey on various types of SQL Injection vulnerabilities, attacks, and their prevention techniques. Alongside presenting our findings from the study, we also note down future expectations and possible development of countermeasures against SQL Injection attacks.
Relief of osteoarthritis with a herbal-amino acid supplement: A randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial  [PDF]
Mark J.S. Miller, Ross Butler
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2012.324066
Abstract: A redox active medicinal plant and L-leucine mixture (HLM) was investigated in subjects with established osteoarthritis of the knee in a multi-center, rando- m-ized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. A total of 96 subjects with osteoarthritis were enrolled and randomized to either placebo (n = 38) or HLM treatment group (n = 38). The HLM group re- ceived a combination of Uncaria tomentosa (300 mg), Boswellia serrata (200 mg), Lepidium meyenii (1000 mg) and L-Leucine (700 mg) given as 3 capsules once a day. The placebo group received matching capsules with carboxymethylcellulose. The treatment period was 8 weeks, with assessments made at days 7, 14, 28 and 56. The primary outcome was reduction in total WOMAC score. VAS pain, tolerability, investigator assessments, use of rescue medication (acetominophen), and safety assessments of vital signs and laboratory assessments were included. Subject randomization was effective for age, gender and disease severity. In the placebo group 32/38 subjects completed the trial and for HLM 35/38. WOMAC scores (pain, stiffness, physical performance and total) steadily declined over the course of the 8 week study in both groups, but the magnitude was significantly greater for HLM (P < 0.05). Total WOMAC was reduced 46.5% for HLM and 25.4 % for placebo. VAS pain was reduced 21.8% in the placebo group (p < 0.002) but the changes were significantly greater (37.8% p < 0.03) with HLM treatment. Investigator’s global assessment rating of good-excellent was 24/35 (69%) for HLM and 14/32 (44%) for placebo (P = 0.05). Rescue medication consumption and tolerability were comparable for HLM and placebo. No safety issues were evident with either group. As expected a placebo effect was observed, nevertheless HLM was clearly more effective in relieving the symptoms of osteoarthritis. This HLM represents a safe and effective new approach to the management of osteoarthritis symptoms.
Impact of Reflective Writing and Labatorials on Student Understanding of Force and Motion in Introductory Physics  [PDF]
Calvin S. Kalman, Mark Lattery, Mandana Sobhanzadeh
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.94041
Abstract: In this paper, we examine a way to deal with alternative student conceptions about force and motion in a university level introductory physics course.? The course combines Reflective Writing,an activity that engages students in textual material metacognitively, and Labatorials,an in-class active learning intervention. Semi-structured interviews and student writing provide evidence of conceptual change.
Morphology-Controlled Synthesis of ZnxCd1-xS Solid Solutions: An Efficient Solar Light Active Photocatalyst for the Degradation of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol  [PDF]
Rengaraj Selvaraj, Kezhen Qi, Sathish Babu Soundra Pandian, Mohammed A. Meetani, Bushra Al Wahaibi, Haider Al Lawati, Salma M. Z. Al Kindy, Younghun Kim, Mika Sillanp??
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.711132
Abstract:
ZnxCd1-xS solid solutions with controlled morphology have been successfully synthe-sized by a facile solution-phase method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, X-ray photoelec-tron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission elec-tron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic activity of ZnxCd1-xS was evaluated in the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) degradation and mineralization in aqueous solution under direct solar light illumination. The experiment demonstrated that TCP was effectively degraded by more than 95% with 120 min. The results show that ZnS with Cd doping (ZnxCd1-xS) exhibits the much stronger visible light adsorption than that of pure ZnS, the light adsorption increasing as the Cd2+ doping amount. These results indicate that Cd doping into a ZnS crystal lattice can result in the shift of the valence band of ZnS to a positive direction. It may lead to its higher oxidative ability than pure ZnS, which is important for organic pollutant degradation under solar light irradiation. Further-more, the photocatalytic activity studies reveal that the prepared ZnxCd1-xS nanostructures exhibit an excellent photocatalytic performance, degrading rapidly the aqueous 2,4,6-trichlorophenol solution under solar light irradiation. These results sug-gest that ZnxCd
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