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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 187759 matches for " Mark E Williams "
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The Framework of a Novel Approach for the Analysis of Human Movement for Clinical Purposes  [PDF]
Mark E. Williams, John C. C. Williams
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.56002
Abstract:
Recent technological advances have led to the development of small wearable microelectronic sensors (accelerometers) that detect motion, gravitational acceleration, and velocity with six degrees of freedom (forward-backward, updown, and side-to-side plus rotational vectors). We have used these motion sensors to create new analytical tools called biokinetographs (BKGs). BKGs allow for more precise screening, diagnosing, monitoring, assessment and predicting of function of elderly people as they ambulate using sophisticated analysis of the unique electronic motion signature of each person. Remarkable visual differences in “functional walking signatures” are evident on the BKGs between fallers and non-fallers. This presentation will summarize our current efforts to translate this new technology into novel clinical and research tools for improving function, reducing injurious falls, and diagnosing orthopedic and neurological conditions for elderly people.
Bismuth Toxicity: A Rare Cause of Neurologic Dysfunction  [PDF]
Paul T. Reynolds, Kathleen C. Abalos, Jennifer Hopp, Mark E. Williams
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.31010
Abstract: Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol?) and other bismuth-containing compounds have been used for many years to treat gastroenterological complaints. Although safe in the majority of patients, bismuth can cause a well-described toxic state marked by progressive neurological decline. Features of bismuth toxicity include confusion, postural instability, myoclonus, and problems with language. This presentation can masquerade as other causes of progressive neurologic dysfunction including Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease (CJD), Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy, and others. In this case study, we present a patient who was using bismuth salicylate in toxic quantities to help control diarrhea. On initial presentation, several diagnoses were entertained before bismuth levels were obtained. This case study highlights the fact that bismuth toxicity, while rare, should be considered in a patient with progressive neurological decline. Also, we hope this case reminds physicians of a severe consequence of a common, readily available medication.
Economic Liberalization and Antitrust in M xico Economic Liberalization and Antitrust in M xico
Armando E. Rodr?-guez,Mark D. Williams
Revista de Análisis Económico (RAE) , 1995,
Abstract: Mexico recently adopted antitrust legislarion modeled after that in the European Union and the United States. The law established an enforcement agency, the Federal Competition Commission. and gave it the fundamental task of preserving economic reforms. Accordingly, the agency initiated a vigorous program of traditional antitrust enforcement, including merger oversight and investigations of hoth horizontal and vertical business activities. The theoretical framework proposed in this paper suggests that dedicating resources to traditional antitrust enforcement may not be an appropriate policy for a liberalizing economy. Instead. the agency should devote its resources to competition advocacy - especially during Mexico's transition to a more open economy - and limit its enforcement activities to nambiguously anticompetitive horizonral restraints on competition. Traditional antitrust enforcement, especially against business activities with ambiguous anticompetitive effect, may simply encourage producer interest groups to lobby other government agencies for protection. This protection will be counterproductive to the goals of liberalization and may often be more anticompetitive than the cure. Qualitative evidence suggests that the Federal Competition Commission has allocated its resources toward its competition advocacy role by challenging government-generated barriers to entry, growth and exit. These resources are expected to have greater returns in terms of economic reform than do traditional antitrust enforcement efforts, We conclude that conventional antitrust enforcement should he relegated to mature developed economies alld that competition advocary he emphasized for economies in transition. Mexico recently adopted antitrust legislarion modeled after that in the European Union and the United States. The law established an enforcement agency, the Federal Competition Commission. and gave it the fundamental task of preserving economic reforms. Accordingly, the agency initiated a vigorous program of traditional antitrust enforcement, including merger oversight and investigations of hoth horizontal and vertical business activities. The theoretical framework proposed in this paper suggests that dedicating resources to traditional antitrust enforcement may not be an appropriate policy for a liberalizing economy. Instead. the agency should devote its resources to competition advocacy - especially during Mexico's transition to a more open economy - and limit its enforcement activities to nambiguously anticompetitive horizonral restraints on competition. Traditio
Formation of Copper Nickel Bimetallic Nanoalloy Film Using Precursor Inks  [PDF]
Chaitanya G. Mahajan, Amanda Marotta, Bruce E. Kahn, Mark Irving, Surendra Gupta, Richard Hailstone, Scott A. Williams, Denis Cormier
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2019.104026
Abstract: Precursor (Metal-organic decomposition (MOD)) inks are used to fabricate 2D and 3D printed conductive structures directly onto a substrate. By formulating a nanoalloy structure containing multiple metals, the opportunity to modify chemical and physical properties exists. In this paper, a copper-nickel bimetallic nanoalloy film was fabricated by mixing copper and nickel precursor inks and sintering them in vacuum. The individual elemental inks were formulated and characterized using SEM, EDS, and XRD. During thermal processing, elemental copper forms first and is followed by the formation of bimetallic copper-nickel alloy. The encapsulation of the underlying copper by the nickel-rich alloy provides excellent oxidation resistance. No change in film resistance was observed after the film was exposed to an oxygen plasma. Nanoalloy films printed using reactive metallic inks have a variety of important applications involving local control of alloy composition. Examples include facile formation of layered nanostructures, and electrical conductivity with oxidative stability.
Optical Remote Sensing of Glacier Characteristics: A Review with Focus on the Himalaya
Adina E. Racoviteanu,Mark W. Williams,Roger G. Barry
Sensors , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/s8053355
Abstract: The increased availability of remote sensing platforms with appropriate spatial and temporal resolution, global coverage and low financial costs allows for fast, semi-automated, and cost-effective estimates of changes in glacier parameters over large areas. Remote sensing approaches allow for regular monitoring of the properties of alpine glaciers such as ice extent, terminus position, volume and surface elevation, from which glacier mass balance can be inferred. Such methods are particularly useful in remote areas with limited field-based glaciological measurements. This paper reviews advances in the use of visible and infrared remote sensing combined with field methods for estimating glacier parameters, with emphasis on volume/area changes and glacier mass balance. The focus is on the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor and its applicability for monitoring Himalayan glaciers. The methods reviewed are: volumetric changes inferred from digital elevation models (DEMs), glacier delineation algorithms from multi-spectral analysis, changes in glacier area at decadal time scales, and AAR/ELA methods used to calculate yearly mass balances. The current limitations and on-going challenges in using remote sensing for mapping characteristics of mountain glaciers also discussed, specifically in the context of the Himalaya.
Optical Remote Sensing of Glacier Characteristics: A Review with Focus on the Himalaya
Adina E. Racoviteanu,Mark W. Williams,Roger G. Barry
Sensors , 2008,
Abstract: The increased availability of remote sensing platforms with appropriate spatial and temporal resolution, global coverage and low financial costs allows for fast, semi-automated, and cost-effective estimates of changes in glacier parameters over large areas. Remote sensing approaches allow for regular monitoring of the properties of alpine glaciers such as ice extent, terminus position, volume and surface elevation, from which glacier mass balance can be inferred. Such methods are particularly useful in remote areas with limited field-based glaciological measurements. This paper reviews advances in the use of visible and infrared remote sensing combined with field methods for estimating glacier parameters, with emphasis on volume/area changes and glacier mass balance. The focus is on the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor and its applicability for monitoring Himalayan glaciers. The methods reviewed are: volumetric changes inferred from digital elevation models (DEMs), glacier delineation algorithms from multi-spectral analysis, changes in glacier area at decadal time scales, and AAR/ELA methods used to calculate yearly mass balances. The current limitations and on-going challenges in using remote sensing for mapping characteristics of mountain glaciers also discussed, specifically in the context of the Himalaya.
microRNA expression in the aging mouse lung
Andrew E Williams, Mark M Perry, Sterghios A Moschos, Mark A Lindsay
BMC Genomics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-8-172
Abstract: To address this question, we have used a highly-sensitive, semi-quantitative RT-PCR based approach to measure the expression profile of 256 of the 493 currently identified miRNAs in the lungs from 6 month (adult) and 18 month (aged) old female BALB/c mice. We show that, despite the characteristic changes in anatomy and gene expression associated with lung aging, there were no significant changes in the expression of 256 miRNAs.Overall, these results show that miRNA transcription is unchanged during lung aging and suggests that stable expression of miRNAs might instead buffer age related changes in the expression of protein-encoding genes.MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21–23 nucleotide double-stranded RNA molecules produced from endogenous genes by the sequential action of the RNase III enzymes Drosha and Dicer. At the present time, 493 miRNAs have been identified in mammalian tissues (Sanger Institute miRNA Registry, Release 9.1, February 2007) [1] and shown to regulate the post-transcriptional expression of multiple genes through a mechanism similar to RNA interference (RNAi) [2,3]. Indeed, bioinformatics studies suggest that up to a third of all known genes maybe regulated by this mechanism [4]. Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is mediated by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which uses one strand of the miRNA molecule (the guide strand) to target relevant mRNAs at their 3'-untranslated regions. Once mRNA is targeted by miRNAs, the RISC is thought to inhibit protein production either through blocking translation or by reducing mRNA stability [2,3].At the present time, the functions of only a fraction of the identified miRNAs are known. However, it appears that miRNAs play an essential role during development, since studies with Dicer knockout mice have shown that these die prematurely and have a variety of developmental abnormalities [5-7]. Furthermore, tissue specific developmental functions of individual miRNAs have been determined in mice and
Expression profiling in vivo demonstrates rapid changes in lung microRNA levels following lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation but not in the anti-inflammatory action of glucocorticoids
Sterghios A Moschos, Andrew E Williams, Mark M Perry, Mark A Birrell, Maria G Belvisi, Mark A Lindsay
BMC Genomics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-8-240
Abstract: To address this question, we have examined the differential expression of 104 miRNAs using real-time PCR during the innate immune response in mouse lung following exposure to aerosilised lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Following challenge, we observed rapid and transient increase in both the mean (4.3-fold) and individual levels of miRNA expression (46 miRNAs) which peaked at 3 hrs. Crucially, this increase was correlated with a reduction in the expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, suggesting a potential role for miRNAs in the regulation of inflammatory cytokine production. Examination of the individual miRNA expression profiles showed time dependent increases in miR-21, -25, -27b, -100, 140, -142-3p, -181c, 187, -194, -214, -223 and -224. Corticosteroid studies showed that pre-treatment with dexamethasone at concentrations that inhibited TNF-α production, had no effect either alone or upon the LPS-induced miRNA expression profile.We have shown that the LPS-induced innate immune response is associated with widespread, rapid and transient increases in miRNA expression in the mouse lung and we speculate that these changes might be involved in the regulation of the inflammatory response. In contrast, the lack of effect of dexamethasone in either control or challenged animals implies that the actions of glucocorticoids per se are not mediated through changes in miRNAs expression and that LPS-induced increases in miRNA expression are not mediated via classical inflammatory transcription factors.RNA interference (RNAi), mediated by 19- to 23- nucleotide double stranded RNA, has been identified as an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for the post-transcriptional regulation of mammalian gene expression [1]. Initial studies implicated RNAi in the cellular response to viral infection following the demonstration that virally-derived double stranded RNA was cleaved by the action of the RNase-II
Manual Control Age and Sex Differences in 4 to 11 Year Old Children
Ian Flatters, Liam J. B. Hill, Justin H. G. Williams, Sally E. Barber, Mark Mon-Williams
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088692
Abstract: To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled ‘manual control’, whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4–5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10–11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills.
Ileitis Secondary to Oral Capecitabine Treatment?
Rami Radwan,Wanangwa C. Namelo,Mark Robinson,Alison E. Brewster,Gethin L. Williams
Case Reports in Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/154981
Abstract: The efficacy of capecitabine as adjuvant therapy in colon cancer is well demonstrated and its lower toxicity rates when compared with 5-FU make it an increasingly more favourable option for patients. This case highlights the awareness of a potentially severe side effect related to the use of capecitabine, yet through the early identification of symptoms patients can be managed conservatively.
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