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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 160604 matches for " Mark B. Bromberg "
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Emotion regulation predicts pain and functioning in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Connelly Mark,Anthony Kelly K,Bromberg Maggie H,Franks Lindsey
Pediatric Rheumatology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1546-0096-10-s1-a32
Abstract:
SMA CARNI-VAL TRIAL PART II: A Prospective, Single-Armed Trial of L-Carnitine and Valproic Acid in Ambulatory Children with Spinal Muscular Atrophy
John T. Kissel,Charles B. Scott,Sandra P. Reyna,Thomas O. Crawford,Louise R. Simard,Kristin J. Krosschell,Gyula Acsadi,Bakri Elsheik,Mary K. Schroth,Guy D'Anjou,Bernard LaSalle,Thomas W. Prior,Susan Sorenson,Jo Anne Maczulski,Mark B. Bromberg,Gary M. Chan,Kathryn J. Swoboda
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021296
Abstract: Multiple lines of evidence have suggested that valproic acid (VPA) might benefit patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). The SMA CARNIVAL TRIAL was a two part prospective trial to evaluate oral VPA and l-carnitine in SMA children. Part 1 targeted non-ambulatory children ages 2–8 in a 12 month cross over design. We report here Part 2, a twelve month prospective, open-label trial of VPA and L-carnitine in ambulatory SMA children.
Phase II Open Label Study of Valproic Acid in Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Kathryn J. Swoboda, Charles B. Scott, Sandra P. Reyna, Thomas W. Prior, Bernard LaSalle, Susan L. Sorenson, Janine Wood, Gyula Acsadi, Thomas O. Crawford, John T. Kissel, Kristin J. Krosschell, Guy D'Anjou, Mark B. Bromberg, Mary K. Schroth, Gary M. Chan, Bakri Elsheikh, Louise R. Simard
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005268
Abstract: Preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies with valproic acid (VPA) in cell lines and patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) demonstrate increased expression of SMN, supporting the possibility of therapeutic benefit. We performed an open label trial of VPA in 42 subjects with SMA to assess safety and explore potential outcome measures to help guide design of future controlled clinical trials. Subjects included 2 SMA type I ages 2–3 years, 29 SMA type II ages 2–14 years and 11 type III ages 2–31 years, recruited from a natural history study. VPA was well-tolerated and without evident hepatotoxicity. Carnitine depletion was frequent and temporally associated with increased weakness in two subjects. Exploratory outcome measures included assessment of gross motor function via the modified Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (MHFMS), electrophysiologic measures of innervation including maximum ulnar compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes and motor unit number estimation (MUNE), body composition and bone density via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and quantitative blood SMN mRNA levels. Clear decline in motor function occurred in several subjects in association with weight gain; mean fat mass increased without a corresponding increase in lean mass. We observed an increased mean score on the MHFMS scale in 27 subjects with SMA type II (p≤0.001); however, significant improvement was almost entirely restricted to participants <5 years of age. Full length SMN levels were unchanged and Δ7SMN levels were significantly reduced for 2 of 3 treatment visits. In contrast, bone mineral density (p≤0.0036) and maximum ulnar CMAP scores (p≤0.0001) increased significantly. Conclusions While VPA appears safe and well-tolerated in this initial pilot trial, these data suggest that weight gain and carnitine depletion are likely to be significant confounding factors in clinical trials. This study highlights potential strengths and limitations of various candidate outcome measures and underscores the need for additional controlled clinical trials with VPA targeting more restricted cohorts of subjects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov
SMA CARNI-VAL Trial Part I: Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of L-Carnitine and Valproic Acid in Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Kathryn J. Swoboda,Charles B. Scott,Thomas O. Crawford,Louise R. Simard,Sandra P. Reyna,Kristin J. Krosschell,Gyula Acsadi,Bakri Elsheik,Mary K. Schroth,Guy D'Anjou,Bernard LaSalle,Thomas W. Prior,Susan L. Sorenson,Jo Anne Maczulski,Mark B. Bromberg,Gary M. Chan,John T. Kissel
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012140
Abstract: Valproic acid (VPA) has demonstrated potential as a therapeutic candidate for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in vitro and in vivo.
Sprouting Wings in the Hyper-Colonial: High-Octane Desire and Youth-Targeted Market Predation  [PDF]
Mark B. Borg
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.14040
Abstract: In this article, the author utilizes a novel action research approach to developing an interpretation of a colonial discourse that reproduces an otherness that is consistent with traditional views of history and ideology. Through this unique educational—for both author and client—approach, further analysis reveals a colonial discourse that has become unhinged from its historical roots and taken flight into supermolecular space where its origins and impact have been thoroughly dissociated from its cultural impact. When our identities are thoroughly absorbed into and taken over by consumer products, we enter a corporately induced, mass-media augmented hyper-colonial in which our minds, bodies, and senses of self become defined by those products. A primary research question is: how can we intervene in colonialism when the colonized is an inferior/lacking version of our own self ? The ways in which this hyper-colonial state captures and makes use of desire and is then marked—marketed—by/through a society-level drive is explored throughout this article. The author “takes a walk”—that is, he uses a week-long organizational consultation that was conducted for a marketing research organization to analyze the ways that the dynamics of a hyper-colonialized consumer culture were at play in the consultee’s marketing strategies that target American youth.
Disability, Social Policy and the Burden of Disease: Creating an “Assertive” Community Mental Health System in New York  [PDF]
Mark B. Borg, Jr.
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.12018
Abstract: One conclusion of the decade-long epidemiological Global Burden of Disease Project is that five of the top 10 disease “burdens” the world will face by 2020 will be related to mental disabilities. Therefore, developing social policy and community responses to the ways that people with mental disabilities are treated is becoming an important focus for community practitioners, political activists and legislators. The author explores some of the dynamics of our culture’s approach to dealing with difference, especially when manifested in disenfranchized individuals. He discusses a community development project created by a New York City advocacy and social policy organization following the 1999 murder of a woman by an individual whose mental health disability was never treated. Parallels are drawn between the civil rights and community mental health movements, which created a precedent for the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act. Also examined are the ways in which community mental health systems manifest social policy that alternately resists, repeats and colludes with power operations. The unexamined assumptions that drive this dynamic are examined as ableism or disability oppression.
Suicide by Cop-A Psychology of Institutional Betrayal  [PDF]
Mark B. Malmin
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.86059
Abstract: This positional paper examines institutional law enforcement (LE) deadly force encounters with the mentally ill in the United States, with an emphasis on those who threaten or attempt suicide by cop while armed with a weapon other than a firearm. Research reveals a disproportionate number of mentally ill people are killed by police during LE confrontations. The social psychology of suicide by cop and the contributory LE institutional facilitation of these encounters is examined. Causational attribution is attributable, in part, to LE epistemological correlation factors that include a one-size-fits all shooting methodology of shooting center mass body-torso that invariably produces death, a lack of LE crisis intervention de-escalation training, and other contributing sociological geopolitical-jurisprudential factors that are elucidated. LE use-of-force is exegetically examined in the legal context of requirements that it be objectively reasonable and necessary. A reduction in homicides of the mentally ill at the hands of LE is conceptually possible if the institutional culture of LE agrees to increase crisis intervention de-escalation training for officers, and LE modifies its shooting tactics, so as to permit discretionary implementation of incapacitating force, permitting a more calculated disabling level of force, using a fewer rounds fired methodology. Such a change in policy and tactics could mitigate the number of mentally ill fatalities with LE encounters, potentially improve community policing relationships, and reduce wrongful death litigations and settlement awards that are routinely paid out by municipalities with tax dollars. The author recommends the implementation of a pilot program that would test the efficacy of these change proposals.
Control of coherent backscattering by breaking optical reciprocity
Y. Bromberg,B. Redding,S. M. Popoff,H. Cao
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Reciprocity is a universal principle that has a profound impact on many areas of physics. A fundamental phenomenon in condensed-matter physics, optical physics and acoustics, arising from reciprocity, is the constructive interference of quantum or classical waves which propagate along time-reversed paths in disordered media, leading to, for example, weak localization and metal-insulator transition. Previous studies have shown that such coherent effects are suppressed when reciprocity is broken. Here we show that by breaking reciprocity in a controlled manner, we can tune, rather than simply suppress, these phenomena. In particular, we manipulate coherent backscattering of light, also known as weak localization. By utilizing a non-reciprocal magneto-optical effect, we control the interference between time-reversed paths inside a multimode fiber with strong mode mixing, and realize a continuous transition from the well-known peak to a dip in the backscattered intensity. Our results may open new possibilities for coherent control of classical and quantum waves in complex systems
Signal transducers and activators of transcription as regulators of growth, apoptosis and breast development
Jacqueline Bromberg
Breast Cancer Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/bcr38
Abstract: Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins are latent transcription factors that become activated by phosphorylation on a single tyrosine (near the carboxy-terminal of the molecule), typically in response to extracellular ligands [1,2]. Virtually every cytokine and growth factor (polypeptide ligands) can cause STAT phosphorylation through either cytokine receptors plus associated Jak kinases or growth factors [eg epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), colony-stimulating factor-1] acting through intrinsic receptor tyrosine kinases. This clearly implicates STAT activation in many different biologic events. An active STAT dimer is formed via the reciprocal interactions between the Src homology domain-2 of one monomer and the phosphorylated tyrosine of the other [3]. The dimers accumulate in the nucleus, recognize specific DNA elements, and activate transcription. The STAT proteins are subsequently inactivated by tyrosine dephosphorylation and return to the cytoplasm [4,5].The relevance of STAT activation to growth control is made apparent in experiments performed in cell lines or animals that lack specific STAT proteins, by the use of antisense molecules to specific STATs or by the use of dominant-negative STAT protein encoding constructs. Of the seven mammalian STATs: STAT2, STAT4, and STAT6 are activated by a small defined group of cytokines; and deficiencies in these STATs, as determined by murine knockout experiments, have been used to demonstrate their restricted roles in interferon-γ signaling and in T cell development (Schindler C, personal communication) [6,7,8,9]. In contrast, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5A, and STAT5B are activated by a large number of different ligands and frequently simultaneously by the same ligand, which raises the question regarding how these STATs participate in particular biologic responses (Table 1).Interferon-γ activates STAT1 almost exclusively, and mice that lack STAT1 have no innate res
Parametric Excitation of Discrete Nonlinear Systems With Many Degrees of Freedom
Yaron Bromberg
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: The response of a large array of coupled nonlinear oscillators to parametric excitation is studied, motivated by the growing interest in the nonlinear dynamics of microelectromechanical and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS). Using a multiscale analysis, we derive an amplitude equation that captures the slow dynamics of the coupled oscillators just above the onset of parametric oscillations. The amplitude equation that we derive here from first principles contains uncommon nonlinear gradient terms which yield a unique wave-number dependent bifurcation similar in character to the behavior known to exist in fluids undergoing the Faraday wave instability. We suggest a number of experiments with nanomechanical or micromechanical resonators to test the predictions of our theory, in particular the strong hysteretic dependence on the drive amplitude.
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