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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 475600 matches for " Mark A Hanson "
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Developmental origins of health and disease: reducing the burden of chronic disease in the next generation
Peter D Gluckman, Mark A Hanson, Murray D Mitchell
Genome Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/gm135
Abstract: The concept of developmental origins of health and disease is predicated upon the assumption that environmental factors acting early in life (usually in fetal life) have profound effects on vulnerability to disease later in life, often in adulthood. The range of experimental, clinical and epidemiological data linking conditions in early life to later health is now overwhelming [1]. Initially, the focus was on a small fraction of children -those who were born small - but it is now clear that the environment impacts on the development of every child [2]. Observations and experimental approaches have generally considered nutritional changes or, classically, alterations in glucocorticosteroid exposure, reflecting the critical maturational events linked to such events. Indeed, the placenta is in a critical position to cause or modify such challenges by altering nutritional transport functions or the pattern and nature of endocrine signals impacting the fetus. Nor does the story end at birth, because epigenetic development can be influenced by how the infant is fed, and perhaps how its gut is colonized with commensal bacteria.Yet there has been considerable resistance to these ideas. Medicine is replete with reductionist biomedical thinking and this has, in some ways, limited not only our understanding but also our ability to address the challenge of some contemporary health problems. Nowhere is this clearer than in the outcomes of genome-wide association studies where, despite substantial investment, only a relatively small proportion of risk of common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) - such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes - is explained [3]. The economic and humanitarian costs of NCDs are enormous in both the developed and the developing world, and indeed they may destabilize the economies of low-income countries where recent data show that risk markers for these diseases become evident early in the process of socioeconomic improvement, and well below the level o
Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion
Mark Hanson
Theological Librarianship , 2010,
Abstract:
Dietary Protein Restriction during F0 Pregnancy in Rats Induces Transgenerational Changes in the Hepatic Transcriptome in Female Offspring
Samuel P. Hoile,Karen A. Lillycrop,Nicola A. Thomas,Mark A. Hanson,Graham C. Burdge
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021668
Abstract: There is considerable evidence for non-genomic transmission between generations of phenotypes induced by environmental exposures during development, although the mechanism is poorly understood. We investigated whether alterations in expression of the liver transcriptome induced in F1 offspring by feeding F0 dams a protein-restricted (PR) diet during pregnancy were passed with or without further change to two subsequent generations. The number of genes that differed between adult female offspring of F0 protein-restricted (PR) and protein-sufficient (PS) dams was F1 1,684 genes, F2 1,680 and F3 2,062. 63/113 genes that were altered in all three generations showed directionally opposite differences between generations. There was a trend toward increased proportions of up-regulated genes in F3 compared to F1. KEGG analysis showed that only the Adherens Junctions pathway was altered in all three generations. PR offspring showed altered fasting glucose homeostasis and changes in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase promoter methylation and expression in all three generations. These findings show that dietary challenge during F0 pregnancy induced altered gene expression in all three generations, but relatively few genes showed transmission of altered expression between generations. For the majority of altered genes, these changes were not found in all generations, including some genes that were changed in F3 but not F1, or the direction and magnitude of difference between PR and PS differed between generations. Such variation may reflect differences between generations in the signals received by the fetus from the mother as a consequence of changes in the interaction between her phenotype and the environment.
Tissue-Specific 5′ Heterogeneity of PPARα Transcripts and Their Differential Regulation by Leptin
Emma S. Garratt, Mark H. Vickers, Peter D. Gluckman, Mark A. Hanson, Graham C. Burdge, Karen A. Lillycrop
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067483
Abstract: The genes encoding nuclear receptors comprise multiple 5′untranslated exons, which give rise to several transcripts encoding the same protein, allowing tissue-specific regulation of expression. Both human and mouse peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) α genes have multiple promoters, although their function is unknown. Here we have characterised the rat PPARα promoter region and have identified three alternative PPARα transcripts, which have different transcription start sites owing to the utilisation of distinct first exons. Moreover these alternative PPARα transcripts were differentially expressed between adipose tissue and liver. We show that while the major adipose (P1) and liver (P2) transcripts were both induced by dexamethasone, they were differentially regulated by the PPARα agonist, clofibric acid, and leptin. Leptin had no effect on the adipose-specific P1 transcript, but induced liver-specific P2 promoter activity via a STAT3/Sp1 mechanism. Moreover in Wistar rats, leptin treatment between postnatal day 3–13 led to an increase in P2 but not P1 transcription in adipose tissue which was sustained into adulthood. This suggests that the expression of the alternative PPARα transcripts are in part programmed by early life exposure to leptin leading to persistent change in adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism through specific activation of a quiescent PPARα promoter. Such complexity in the regulation of PPARα may allow the expression of PPARα to be finely regulated in response to environmental factors.
Fetal size in the second trimester is associated with the duration of pregnancy, small fetuses having longer pregnancies
Synn?ve L Johnsen, Tom Wilsgaard, Svein Rasmussen, Mark A Hanson, Keith M Godfrey, Torvid Kiserud
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-8-25
Abstract: We analysed duration of gestation data for 541 women who had a spontaneous delivery having previously been recruited to a cross-sectional study of 650 low-risk pregnancies. All had a regular menses and a known date of their last menstrual period (LMP). Subjects were examined using ultrasound to determine fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) at 10–24 weeks of gestation. Length of the pregnancy was calculated from LMP, and birth weights were noted. The effect of fetal size at 10–24 weeks of gestation on pregnancy duration was assessed also when adjusting for the difference between LMP and ultrasound based fetal age.Small fetuses (z-score -2.5) at second trimester ultrasound scan had lower birth weights (p < 0.0001) and longer duration of pregnancy (p < 0.0001) than large fetuses (z-score +2.5): 289.6 days (95%CI 288.0 to 291.1) vs. 276.1 (95%CI 273.6 to 278.4) for HC, 289.0 days (95%CI 287.4 to 290.6) vs. 276.9 days (95%CI 274.4 to 279.2) for AC and 288.3 vs. 277.9 days (95%CI 275.6 to 280.1) for FL. Controlling for the difference between LMP and ultrasound dating (using HC measurement), the effect of fetal size on pregnancy length was reduced to half but was still present for AC and FL (comparing z-score -2.5 with +2.5, 286.6 vs. 280.2 days, p = 0.004, and 286.0 vs. 280.9, p = 0.008, respectively).Fetal size in the second trimester is a determinant of birth weight and pregnancy duration, small fetuses having lower birth weights and longer pregnancies (up to 13 days compared with large fetuses). Our results support a concept of individually assigned pregnancy duration according to growth rates rather than imposing a standard of 280–282 days on all pregnancies.It was N?gele and his contemporaries who first suggested counting 40 weeks from the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) to predict the day of confinement [1]. Subsequently, WHO has also defined the normal length of pregnancy to be 40 weeks (280 days)[2], but s
Content validity and reliability of a food frequency questionnaire to measure eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intakes in young adults: A pilot study
Jennifer A. Hanson,Richard R. Rosenkranz,Carol Ann Holcomb,Mark D. Haub
Functional Foods in Health and Disease , 2012,
Abstract: Background: The food environment is rapidly changing with regard to omega-3 fatty acids.Research is hindered by the lack of a tool specifically designed to measure intakes of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in US populations. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the content validity and reliability of a novel 14-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed to measure contemporary sources of eicosapentaenoic aid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).Methods: During May of 2009, college students (n = 165) completed the FFQ and provided feedback. Forty-five completed the questionnaire a second time allowing for the evaluation of test-retest reliability.Results: None of the students reported consuming a food naturally rich in EPA and DHA that was not included in the FFQ. Overall instrument reliability (n = 54) was strong (ρ = 0.86, p < 0.001) and the reliability for each of the non-functional food items ranged from moderate to strong (ρ = 0.48 to 0.86, p < 0.001). Correlation coefficients for each of the functional food items were low and/or non-significant. Uncertainty regarding omega-3 functional foods was listed as a reason by eight of the twelve who felt one or more of the questions were difficult to answer. Conclusions: Overall instrument reliability was strong and content validity was good. Nonetheless, participant feedback, and the decreased test-retest coefficients for the omega-3 functional foods, suggests unfamiliarity may be problematic when measuring intakes from these food sources.
Quantum plasmonic excitation in graphene and robust-to-loss propagation
George W. Hanson,S. A. Hassani Gangaraj,Changhyoup Lee,Dimitris G. Angelakis,Mark Tame
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.013828
Abstract: We investigate the excitation of quantum plasmonic states of light in graphene using end-fire and prism coupling. In order to model the excitation process quantum mechanically we quantize the transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes in graphene. A selection of regimes are then studied that enable the excitation of SPPs by photons and we show that efficient coupling of photons to graphene SPPs is possible at the quantum level. Futhermore, we study the excitation of quantum states and their propagation under the effects of loss induced from the electronic degrees of freedom in the graphene. Here, we investigate whether it is possible to protect quantum information using quantum error correction techniques. We find that these techniques provide a robust-to-loss method for transferring quantum states of light in graphene over large distances.
Progressive, Transgenerational Changes in Offspring Phenotype and Epigenotype following Nutritional Transition
Graham C. Burdge,Samuel P. Hoile,Tobias Uller,Nicola A. Thomas,Peter D. Gluckman,Mark A. Hanson,Karen A. Lillycrop
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028282
Abstract: Induction of altered phenotypes during development in response to environmental input involves epigenetic changes. Phenotypic traits can be passed between generations by a variety of mechanisms, including direct transmission of epigenetic states or by induction of epigenetic marks de novo in each generation. To distinguish between these possibilities we measured epigenetic marks over four generations in rats exposed to a sustained environmental challenge. Dietary energy was increased by 25% at conception in F0 female rats and maintained at this level to generation F3. F0 dams showed higher pregnancy weight gain, but lower weight gain and food intake during lactation than F1 and F2 dams. On gestational day 8, fasting plasma glucose concentration was higher and β-hydroxybutyrate lower in F0 and F1 dams than F2 dams. This was accompanied by decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and increased PPARα and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 mRNA expression. PEPCK mRNA expression was inversely related to the methylation of specific CpG dinucleotides in its promoter. DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) 3a2, but not Dnmt1 or Dnmt3b, expression increased and methylation of its promoter decreased from F1 to F3 generations. These data suggest that the regulation of energy metabolism during pregnancy and lactation within a generation is influenced by the maternal phenotype in the preceding generation and the environment during the current pregnancy. The transgenerational effects on phenotype were associated with altered DNA methylation of specific genes in a manner consistent with induction de novo of epigenetic marks in each generation.
Comparing Effects of Lake- and Watershed-Scale Influences on Communities of Aquatic Invertebrates in Shallow Lakes
Mark A. Hanson, Brian R. Herwig, Kyle D. Zimmer, John Fieberg, Sean R. Vaughn, Robert G. Wright, Jerry A. Younk
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044644
Abstract: Constraints on lake communities are complex and are usually studied by using limited combinations of variables derived from measurements within or adjacent to study waters. While informative, results often provide limited insight about magnitude of simultaneous influences operating at multiple scales, such as lake- vs. watershed-scale. To formulate comparisons of such contrasting influences, we explored factors controlling the abundance of predominant aquatic invertebrates in 75 shallow lakes in western Minnesota, USA. Using robust regression techniques, we modeled relative abundance of Amphipoda, small and large cladocera, Corixidae, aquatic Diptera, and an aggregate taxon that combined Ephemeroptera-Trichoptera-Odonata (ETO) in response to lake- and watershed-scale characteristics. Predictor variables included fish and submerged plant abundance, linear distance to the nearest wetland or lake, watershed size, and proportion of the watershed in agricultural production. Among-lake variability in invertebrate abundance was more often explained by lake-scale predictors than by variables based on watershed characteristics. For example, we identified significant associations between fish presence and community type and abundance of small and large cladocera, Amphipoda, Diptera, and ETO. Abundance of Amphipoda, Diptera, and Corixidae were also positively correlated with submerged plant abundance. We observed no associations between lake-watershed variables and abundance of our invertebrate taxa. Broadly, our results seem to indicate preeminence of lake-level influences on aquatic invertebrates in shallow lakes, but historical land-use legacies may mask important relationships.
The Compositional Nature of Event Representations in the Human Brain
Andrei Barbu,N. Siddharth,Caiming Xiong,Jason J. Corso,Christiane D. Fellbaum,Catherine Hanson,Stephen José Hanson,Sébastien Hélie,Evguenia Malaia,Barak A. Pearlmutter,Jeffrey Mark Siskind,Thomas Michael Talavage,Ronnie B. Wilbur
Quantitative Biology , 2015,
Abstract: How does the human brain represent simple compositions of constituents: actors, verbs, objects, directions, and locations? Subjects viewed videos during neuroimaging (fMRI) sessions from which sentential descriptions of those videos were identified by decoding the brain representations based only on their fMRI activation patterns. Constituents (e.g., "fold" and "shirt") were independently decoded from a single presentation. Independent constituent classification was then compared to joint classification of aggregate concepts (e.g., "fold-shirt"); results were similar as measured by accuracy and correlation. The brain regions used for independent constituent classification are largely disjoint and largely cover those used for joint classification. This allows recovery of sentential descriptions of stimulus videos by composing the results of the independent constituent classifiers. Furthermore, classifiers trained on the words one set of subjects think of when watching a video can recognise sentences a different subject thinks of when watching a different video.
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