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Search Results: 1 - 8 of 8 matches for " Mariolina "
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Linking Inflammation to Natural Killer T Cell Activation
Mariolina Salio,Vincenzo Cerundolo
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000226
Abstract:
Linking Inflammation to Natural Killer T Cell Activation
Mariolina Salio,Vincenzo Cerundolo
PLOS Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000226
Abstract:
L'email per imparare l'italiano: aspetti linguistici e contenutistici della comunicazione telematica in italiano L2
Pais Marden, Mariolina,Absalom, Matthew
FULGOR : Flinders University Languages Group Online Review , 2003,
Abstract: The integration of electronic communication into the teaching and learning of languages has opened up new horizons. This paper discusses a project involving the use of email exchanges in the Italian program at the Australian National University. Approximately eighty students participated in the project which consisted of two iterations of a one-to-one email conversation. This article examines the language and content of the messages constructed by students in terms of the following features: -the implications of the physical, psychological and temporal distance inherent in email communication -the differences between email communication of native speakers and learners -the dialogic nature of email communication and its relationship to both written and spoken communication -the importance of “empty” messages -the creativity of expression and the relationship between form and content.
Private Parties and the Annulment Procedure: Can the Gap in the European System of Judicial Protection Be Closed?
Mariolina Eliantonio,Betül Kas
Journal of Politics and Law , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/jpl.v3n2p121
Abstract: The restrictions imposed on the possibility for an individual to challenge European law measures and the restrictive interpretation of the notion of ‘individual concern’ given by the European Court of Justice have been highly criticised by legal scholars and members of the European judiciary as being against the principle of effective judicial protection. This paper shows how the restrictive interpretation of the notion of ‘individual concern’ developed in the case law of the European Court of Justice. Furthermore, the paper discusses possible improvements to the current system of judicial protection, such as the possibility to introduce a fundamental rights complaint procedure and the obligation of Member States to provide for effective judicial remedies before national courts. Finally, the impact of the modifications made by the Lisbon Treaty to the annulment procedure is assessed.
Centriole polarisation to the immunological synapse directs secretion from cytolytic cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems
Jane C Stinchcombe, Mariolina Salio, Vincenzo Cerundolo, Daniela Pende, Maurizo Arico, Gillian M Griffiths
BMC Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-9-45
Abstract: NK cells were conjugated with B-cell targets lacking major histocompatibility complex class I 721.221 cells, and iNKT cells were conjugated with glycolipid-pulsed CD1-bearing targets, then prepared for thin-section electron microscopy. High-resolution electron micrographs of the immunological synapse formed between NK and iNKT cytolytic cells with their targets revealed that in both NK and iNKT cells, the centrioles could be found associated (or 'docked') with the plasma membrane within the immunological synapse. Secretory clefts were visible within the synapses formed by both NK and iNKT cells, and secretory lysosomes were polarised along microtubules leading towards the docked centrosome. The Golgi apparatus and recycling endosomes were also polarised towards the centrosome at the plasma membrane within the synapse.These results reveal that, like CTLs of the adaptive immune system, the centrosomes of NK and iNKT cells (cytolytic cells of the innate immune system) direct secretory lysosomes to the immunological synapse. Morphologically, the overall structure of the immunological synapses formed by NK and iNKT cells are very similar to those formed by CTLs, with both exocytic and endocytic organelles polarised towards the centrosome at the plasma membrane, which forms a focal point for exocytosis and endocytosis within the immunological synapse. We conclude that centrosomal polarisation provides a rapid, responsive and precise mechanism for secretory lysosome delivery to the immunological synapse in CTLs, NK cells and iNKT cells.Cells of the immune system defend the body against pathogens. The immune response can be broadly divided into the innate and adaptive responses, with cells of the innate system providing an initial broad-specificity response to pathogens and cells of the adaptive system providing a later, more specific response. Differing recognition patterns of innate versus adaptive cells is accomplished via the use of distinct receptors. Cytotoxic T lymph
NGF-Induced Cell Differentiation and Gene Activation Is Mediated by Integrative Nuclear FGFR1 Signaling (INFS)
Yu-Wei Lee, Ewa K. Stachowiak, Barbara Birkaya, Christopher Terranova, Mariolina Capacchietti, Peter Claus, John M. Aletta, Michal K. Stachowiak
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068931
Abstract: Nerve growth factor (NGF) is the founding member of the polypeptide neurotrophin family responsible for neuronal differentiation. To determine whether the effects of NGF rely upon novel Integrative Nuclear FGF Receptor-1 (FGFR1) Signaling (INFS) we utilized the PC12 clonal cell line, a long-standing benchmark model of sympathetic neuronal differentiation. We demonstrate that NGF increases expression of the fgfr1 gene and promotes trafficking of FGFR1 protein from cytoplasm to nucleus by inhibiting FGFR1 nuclear export. Nuclear-targeted dominant negative FGFR1 antagonizes NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, doublecortin (dcx) expression and activation of the tyrosine hydroxylase (th) gene promoter, while active constitutive nuclear FGFR1 mimics the effects of NGF. NGF increases the expression of dcx, th, βIII tubulin, nurr1 and nur77, fgfr1and fibroblast growth factor-2 (fgf-2) genes, while enhancing binding of FGFR1and Nur77/Nurr1 to those genes. NGF activates transcription from isolated NurRE and NBRE motifs. Nuclear FGFR1 transduces NGF activation of the Nur dimer and raises basal activity of the Nur monomer. Cooperation of nuclear FGFR1 with Nur77/Nurr1 in NGF signaling expands the integrative functions of INFS to include NGF, the first discovered pluripotent neurotrophic factor.
Immune Activation and CD8+ T-Cell Differentiation towards Senescence in HIV-1 Infection
Laura Papagno,Celsa A. Spina,Arnaud Marchant,Mariolina Salio,Nathalie Rufer,Susan Little,Tao Dong,Gillian Chesney,Anele Waters,Philippa Easterbrook,P. Rod Dunbar,Dawn Shepherd,Vincenzo Cerundolo,Vincent Emery,Paul Griffiths,Christopher Conlon,Andrew J. McMichael,Douglas D. Richman,Sarah L. Rowland-Jones,Victor Appay
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020020
Abstract: Progress in the fight against the HIV/AIDS epidemic is hindered by our failure to elucidate the precise reasons for the onset of immunodeficiency in HIV-1 infection. Increasing evidence suggests that elevated immune activation is associated with poor outcome in HIV-1 pathogenesis. However, the basis of this association remains unclear. Through ex vivo analysis of virus-specific CD8+ T-cells and the use of an in vitro model of na?ve CD8+ T-cell priming, we show that the activation level and the differentiation state of T-cells are closely related. Acute HIV-1 infection induces massive activation of CD8+ T-cells, affecting many cell populations, not only those specific for HIV-1, which results in further differentiation of these cells. HIV disease progression correlates with increased proportions of highly differentiated CD8+ T-cells, which exhibit characteristics of replicative senescence and probably indicate a decline in T-cell competence of the infected person. The differentiation of CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells towards a state of replicative senescence is a natural process. It can be driven by excessive levels of immune stimulation. This may be part of the mechanism through which HIV-1-mediated immune activation exhausts the capacity of the immune system.
Immune Activation and CD8+ T-Cell Differentiation towards Senescence in HIV-1 Infection
Laura Papagno,Celsa A Spina,Arnaud Marchant,Mariolina Salio,Nathalie Rufer,Susan Little,Tao Dong,Gillian Chesney,Anele Waters,Philippa Easterbrook,P. Rod Dunbar,Dawn Shepherd,Vincenzo Cerundolo,Vincent Emery,Paul Griffiths,Christopher Conlon,Andrew J McMichael,Douglas D Richman,Sarah L Rowland-Jones,Victor Appay
PLOS Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020020
Abstract: Progress in the fight against the HIV/AIDS epidemic is hindered by our failure to elucidate the precise reasons for the onset of immunodeficiency in HIV-1 infection. Increasing evidence suggests that elevated immune activation is associated with poor outcome in HIV-1 pathogenesis. However, the basis of this association remains unclear. Through ex vivo analysis of virus-specific CD8+ T-cells and the use of an in vitro model of na?ve CD8+ T-cell priming, we show that the activation level and the differentiation state of T-cells are closely related. Acute HIV-1 infection induces massive activation of CD8+ T-cells, affecting many cell populations, not only those specific for HIV-1, which results in further differentiation of these cells. HIV disease progression correlates with increased proportions of highly differentiated CD8+ T-cells, which exhibit characteristics of replicative senescence and probably indicate a decline in T-cell competence of the infected person. The differentiation of CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells towards a state of replicative senescence is a natural process. It can be driven by excessive levels of immune stimulation. This may be part of the mechanism through which HIV-1-mediated immune activation exhausts the capacity of the immune system.
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