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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10258 matches for " Marina Kawaguchi-Suzuki "
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Current clinical evidence on pioglitazone pharmacogenomics
Marina Kawaguchi-Suzuki,Reginald F. Frye
Frontiers in Pharmacology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2013.00147
Abstract: Pioglitazone is the most widely used thiazolidinedione and acts as an insulin-sensitizer through activation of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ). Pioglitazone is approved for use in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but its use in other therapeutic areas is increasing due to pleiotropic effects. In this hypothesis article, the current clinical evidence on pioglitazone pharmacogenomics is summarized and related to variability in pioglitazone response. How genetic variation in the human genome affects the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pioglitazone was examined. For pharmacodynamic effects, hypoglycemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects, risks of fracture or edema, and the increase in body mass index in response to pioglitazone based on genotype were examined. The genes CYP2C8 and PPARG are the most extensively studied to date and selected polymorphisms contribute to respective variability in pioglitazone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. We hypothesized that genetic variation in pioglitazone pathway genes contributes meaningfully to the clinically observed variability in drug response. To test the hypothesis that genetic variation in PPARG associates with variability in pioglitazone response, we conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize the currently available data on the PPARG p.Pro12Ala polymorphism. The results showed that PPARG 12Ala carriers had a more favorable change in fasting blood glucose from baseline as compared to patients with the wild-type Pro12Pro genotype (p = 0.018). Unfortunately, findings for many other genes lack replication in independent cohorts to confirm association; further studies are needed. Also, the biological functionality of these polymorphisms is unknown. Based on current evidence, we propose that pharmacogenomics may provide an important tool to individualize pioglitazone therapy and better optimize therapy in patients with T2DM or other conditions for which pioglitazone is being used.
Atenolol Induced HDL-C Change in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) Study
Caitrin W. McDonough, Nancy K. Gillis, Abdullah Alsultan, Shin-Wen Chang, Marina Kawaguchi-Suzuki, Jason E. Lang, Mohamed Hossam A. Shahin, Thomas W. Buford, Nihal M. El Rouby, Ana C.C. Sá, Taimour Y. Langaee, John G. Gums, Arlene B. Chapman, Rhonda M. Cooper-DeHoff, Stephen T. Turner, Yan Gong, Julie A. Johnson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076984
Abstract: We sought to identify novel pharmacogenomic markers for HDL-C response to atenolol in participants with mild to moderate hypertension. We genotyped 768 hypertensive participants from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) study on the Illumina HumanCVD Beadchip. During PEAR, participants were randomized to receive atenolol or hydrochlorothiazide. Blood pressure and cholesterol levels were evaluated at baseline and after treatment. This study focused on participants treated with atenolol monotherapy. Association with atenolol induced HDL-C change was evaluated in 232 whites and 152 African Americans using linear regression. No SNPs achieved a Bonferroni corrected P-value. However, we identified 13 regions with consistent association across whites and African Americans. The most interesting of these regions were seven with prior associations with HDL-C, other metabolic traits, or functional implications in the lipid pathway: GALNT2, FTO, ABCB1, LRP5, STARD3NL, ESR1, and LIPC. Examples are rs2144300 in GALNT2 in whites (P=2.29x10-4, β=-1.85 mg/dL) and rs12595985 in FTO in African Americans (P=2.90x10-4, β=4.52 mg/dL), both with consistent regional association (P<0.05) in the other race group. Additionally, baseline GALNT2 expression differed by rs2144300 genotype in whites (P=0.0279). In conclusion, we identified multiple gene regions associated with atenolol induced HDL-C change that were consistent across race groups, several with functional implications or prior associations with HDL-C.
Cholesterol Crystal Deposition in Basal Cell Carcinoma: An Investigation of 4 Cases  [PDF]
Ken Okamura, Takayuki Konno, Masakazu Kawaguchi, Yuko Abe, Yoriko Yaguchi, Sayaka Ajima, Yutaka Hozumi, Tamio Suzuki
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2015.53021
Abstract: Cholesterol crystals are a primary cause of cholesterol embolism if they appear in vessels. Various papers have reported the involvement of cholesterol crystal deposition in cutaneous diseases such as xanthoma. However, no cases of cholesterol crystal involvement in cutaneous cancer have been reported. We report four cases of basal cell carcinoma with cholesterol crystal deposition, and discuss the mechanism(s) of the condition. Disease duration, anatomical site, histopathological features, and serum lipid profiles were investigated. The median disease duration was 3.5 years, and the sites of the lesions were the scrotum (one patient) and the nose (three patients). Histopathologically, there was necrotized tissue around the clefts. In addition, we detected frequent apoptotic cells around the cholesterol clefts in two of the patients by using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling method. Serum lipid levels were slightly elevated in two of the patients. In conclusion, cholesterol crystal deposition in basal cell carcinoma was considered to relate to a long disease duration with a tumor in a region that was subject to external irritation. Histopathologically, apoptotic cells around the cholesterol clefts indicated that lipids from the tumor cell membranes were one of the causes of cholesterol crystal deposition.
Liraglutide Suppresses the Plasma Levels of Active and Des-Acyl Ghrelin Independently of Active Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Levels in Mice
Katsunori Nonogaki,Marina Suzuki
ISRN Endocrinology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/184753
Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an insulinotropic gastrointestinal peptide that is primarily produced by intestinal endocrine L-cells, stimulates satiety. Ghrelin, a hormone that is produced predominantly by the stomach stimulates hunger. There are two forms of ghrelin: active ghrelin and inactive des-acyl ghrelin. After depriving mice of food for 24?h, we demonstrated that the systemic administration of liraglutide (100?μg/kg), a human GLP-1 analog that binds to the GLP-1 receptor, increased (1.4-fold) the plasma levels of active GLP-1 and suppressed the plasma levels of active and des-acyl ghrelin after 1?h. Despite the elevated plasma levels of active GLP-1 (11-fold), liraglutide had no effect on the plasma levels of active or des-acyl ghrelin after 12?h. These findings demonstrated that liraglutide suppresses the plasma levels of active and des-acyl ghrelin independently of active GLP-1 levels in fasted mice, suggesting a novel in vivo biological effect of liraglutide beyond regulating plasma GLP-1. 1. Introduction Hunger is stimulated by ghrelin, a hormone that is primarily produced by the P/D1 cells that line the fundus of the stomach [1]. Plasma ghrelin levels increase during fasting and decrease after ingesting glucose or lipids but not protein [1]. The efferent vagus nerve contributes to the fasting-induced increase in ghrelin secretion [1, 2]. The ghrelin that is secreted in the stomach stimulates the afferent vagus nerve and promotes food intake [1]. Ghrelin exists in both inactive (des-acyl ghrelin) and active forms. Fasting increases both forms of ghrelin compared with the fed state. Hyperphagia and obesity decrease the plasma levels of des-acyl ghrelin but not of active ghrelin [1]. Satiety is stimulated by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone that is released from intestinal L-cells in response to nutrient ingestion [3–5]. The GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and the afferent vagal nerve terminals and contribute to the anorexic effect of GLP-1 [3–6]. GLP-1 potentiates glucose-dependent insulin secretion by activating the GLP-1Rs that are expressed on pancreatic islet β cells [3–5]. GLP-1 secretion increases after ingesting glucose and lipids but not protein [6]. In the isolated rat stomach, GLP-1 has been reported to suppress ghrelin release [7]. In addition, GLP-1 suppresses plasma ghrelin levels in humans via insulin secretion in the late postprandial period [8]. Once GLP-1 is released from the L cells into the bloodstream, it is rapidly degraded from its active form (7–36) to
Systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by Crohn’s disease: a case report and literature review
Yamashita Hiroyuki,Ueda Yo,Kawaguchi Hoshimi,Suzuki Akitake
BMC Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-12-174
Abstract: Background Although patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may experience various gastrointestinal disorders, SLE and Crohn’s disease (CD) rarely coexist. The diseases may have gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations, laboratory results, and radiographic findings that appear similar and consequently differentiating between GI involvement in CD and in SLE may be difficult. We present the case of a patient with SLE and CD who developed continuous GI bleeding and diarrhea that was initially treated as SLE-related colitis to little effect. Case presentation A 55-year-old Japanese woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed continuous gastrointestinal bleeding and diarrhea since the patient was aged 30 years that was initially treated as SLE-related colitis. Although a longitudinal ulcer and aphthous ulcers in the colon were observed every examination, biopsy showed only mild inflammation and revealed neither granuloma nor crypt abscess. The patient underwent surgery for anal fistulas twice at 50 and 54 years of age and her symptoms were atypical of lupus enteritis. Colonoscopy was performed again when the patient was 55 years of age because we suspected she had some type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Cobblestone-like inflammatory polyps and many longitudinal ulcers were detected between the descending colon and the cecum. Macroscopic examination strongly suggested CD. Histopathological examination revealed non-caseating granuloma and no evidence of vasculitis, consistent with CD. Introduction of infliximab dramatically relieved the patient’s melena and abdominal symptoms. Conclusion Diagnostic criteria for CD and SLE overlap, making them difficult to diagnose correctly. It is important to consider CD for patients who have SLE with gastrointestinal manifestations. The pathology of lupus enteritis should be clarified through the accumulation of cases of SLE combined with CD.
Evaluation of Effective Dose Using the k-Factor of Optimal Scan Range for CT Examination  [PDF]
Masanao Kobayashi, Yasuki Asada, Kosuke Matsubara, Tomonobu Haba, Yuta Matsunaga, Ai Kawaguchi, Kazuhiro Katada, Hiroshi Toyama, Kichiro Koshida, Ryoichi Kato, Shouichi Suzuki
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2015.53021
Abstract: The American College of Radiology opened the computed tomography (CT) dose index registry (DIR) for general participation by all facilities in 2011. For each CT examination, data on volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), and, for body examinations, size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) were collected. However, effective dose is not estimated in DIR. The primary objective of this study was to estimate k-factor profile in detail at various scan positions with modified the ImPACT CT patient dosimetry. A tool that easily estimates the k-factor of suitable scan areas is essential for practical dose estimation in the DIR. We evaluated k-factor (effective dose/ DLP) profiles between a medical international radiation dose-five (MIRD-5) phantom positions using aImPACT software. As a result of this study, practicality of the k-factor profile method in clinical use was clarified. We speculate that a flexible k-factor improves the appropriateness of the E in hospital settings.
Limnological variables and nutritional content of submerged aquatic macrophytes in a tropical lagoon
Esteves, Bruno dos Santos;Suzuki, Marina Satika;
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia , 2010, DOI: 10.4322/actalb.02202008
Abstract: aim: the aim of this study was to evaluate elemental composition (c, n and p) and carbohydrate and lipids content of aquatic macrophytes egeria densa, ceratophyllum demersum and najas marina found in a lagoon of norte fluminense and relate these data to limnological parameters measured in the same period; methods: the samples were obtained from 10 sites throughout the lagoon in july/2001 (dry season) and january/2002 (rainy season) with determinations limnological parameters and quantification of nutrient content and biochemical composition of the aquatic macrophytes; results: high values of electrical conductivity and alkalinity explain the spatial distribution of the studied macrophytes; and the ph values (<9.0), o2 super-saturation and co2 sub-saturation suggest a high primary production of both phytoplankton and submersed aquatic macrophytes. for nutrients assessed on aquatic macrophytes, significant seasonal variations were observed in total phosphorus content (p < 0.05), total nitrogen and total carbon, however, without a clear pattern between seasons and macrophytes there was a tendency to higher concentrations of p in the tissues of macrophytes in the rainy season, as well as carbohydrates and lipids, suggesting that this period presents better conditions to ceratophyllum demersum and egeria densa development in the campelo lagoon; conclusions: there was no clear association between the nutrient content and reserves found in macrophytes with limnological and environmental parameters.
Group cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with generalized social anxiety disorder in Japan: outcomes at 1-year follow up and outcome predictors
Kawaguchi A, Watanabe N, Nakano Y, Ogawa S, Suzuki M, Kondo M, Furukawa TA, Akechi T
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S41365
Abstract: oup cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with generalized social anxiety disorder in Japan: outcomes at 1-year follow up and outcome predictors Original Research (848) Total Article Views Authors: Kawaguchi A, Watanabe N, Nakano Y, Ogawa S, Suzuki M, Kondo M, Furukawa TA, Akechi T Published Date February 2013 Volume 2013:9 Pages 267 - 275 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S41365 Received: 09 December 2012 Accepted: 18 January 2013 Published: 20 February 2013 Akiko Kawaguchi,1 Norio Watanabe,1 Yumi Nakano,2 Sei Ogawa,1 Masako Suzuki,1 Masaki Kondo,1 Toshi A Furukawa,3 Tatsuo Akechi1 1Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Sugiyama Jogakuen University School of Human Sciences, Nisshin, Japan; 3Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders worldwide. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment option for patients with SAD. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of group CBT for patients with generalized SAD in Japan at 1-year follow-up and investigated predictors with regard to outcomes. Methods: This study was conducted as a single-arm, naturalistic, follow-up study in a routine Japanese clinical setting. A total of 113 outpatients with generalized SAD participated in group CBT from July 2003 to August 2010 and were assessed at follow-ups for up to 1 year. Primary outcome was the total score on the Social Phobia Scale/Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SPS/SIAS) at 1 year. Possible baseline predictors were investigated using mixed-model analyses. Results: Among the 113 patients, 70 completed the assessment at the 1-year follow-up. The SPS/SIAS scores showed significant improvement throughout the follow-ups for up to 1 year. The effect sizes of SPS/SIAS at the 1-year follow-up were 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.41–0.95)/0.76 (0.49–1.03) in the intention-to-treat group and 0.77 (0.42–1.10)/0.84 (0.49–1.18) in completers. Older age at baseline, late onset, and lower severity of SAD were significantly associated with good outcomes as a result of mixed-model analyses. Conclusions: CBT for patients with generalized SAD in Japan is effective for up to 1 year after treatment. The effect sizes were as large as those in previous studies conducted in Western countries. Older age at baseline, late onset, and lower severity of SAD were predictors for a good outcome from group CBT.
Corrective Feedback, Negotiation of Meaning and Grammar Development: Learner-Learner and Learner-Native Speaker Interaction in ESL  [PDF]
Satomi Kawaguchi, Yuan Ma
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2012.22008
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the role of corrective feedback and negotiation of meaning within an Interactionist Approach (Long, 1996) in native speaker-Second Language learner and L2 learner-L2 learner interactions. While negotiation of meaning (NoM) and corrective feedback (CF) between native and nonnative speakers has been shown to be helpful for the nonnatives, it remains unclear whether CF and NoM between learners of equivalent or different proficiency produce greater negotiation of meaning and successful uptake of corrective feedback compared to the more traditional native-nonnative interaction. The key issue in this study is whether CF and NoM in different interactional combinations of interlocutors make a difference, in quantitative and qualitative terms. The study adopts a pretest-treatment-posttest design with six participants: two native English speakers, two Chinese L1 NNSs of high English proficiency level (NNS High) and two Chinese L1 NNSs of low English proficiency level (NNS Low). These informants generated 14 different dyads and produced 2377 turns while engaging in task-based interaction. By introducing the notions of group (i.e., NS-NNS versus NNS-NNS groups), combinations (e.g., NS-NNS High versus NNS High-NNS Low), and dyads, it is possible to compare results across groups, combinations and individuals. Results confirm that CF and NoM happen in NNS-NNS interaction yet they differ, qualitatively and quantitatively, according to the type of combination. Significantly, the best rate of success was obtained in the combination of learners with different proficiency levels i.e., the NNS High-NNS Low combination. In addition, error rates decreased from pre-test to post-test in all learners, especially NNS Low, which lends support to the notion that CF and NoM promote second language development also in interaction between learners.
The Promotion Rule under Imperfect Observability of the Employee’s Ability  [PDF]
Shota Araki, Daiji Kawaguchi
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.48084
Abstract: This note provides the closed-form solution for the model by Lazear [1]. The employer adjusts the performance standard for promotion when the employer observes only the imperfect index of the employee’s ability. The adjustment margin is larger when the performance depends heavily on luck and depends lightly on the employee’s ability.
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