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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 221955 matches for " Marilyn C Roberts "
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Xylitol gummy bear snacks: a school-based randomized clinical trial
Kiet A Ly, Christine A Riedy, Peter Milgrom, Marilynn Rothen, Marilyn C Roberts, Lingmei Zhou
BMC Oral Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-8-20
Abstract: Children, first to fifth grade (n = 154), from two elementary schools in rural Washington State, USA, were randomized to xylitol 15.6 g/day (X16, n = 53) or 11.7 g/day (X12, n = 49), or maltitol 44.7 g/day (M45, n = 52). Gummy bear snacks were pre-packaged in unit-doses, labeled with ID numbers, and distributed three times/day during school hours. No snacks were sent home. Plaque was sampled at baseline and six weeks and cultured on modified Mitis Salivarius agar for S. mutans/sobrinus and Rogosa SL agar for Lactobacillus spp. enumeration.There were no differences in S. mutans/sobrinus and Lactobacillus spp. levels in plaque between the groups at baseline. At six weeks, log10 S. mutans/sobrinus levels showed significant reductions for all groups (p = 0.0001): X16 = 1.13 (SD = 1.65); X12 = 0.89 (SD = 1.11); M45 = 0.91 (SD = 1.46). Reductions were not statistically different between groups. Results for Lactobacillus spp. were mixed. Group X16 and M45 showed 0.31 (SD = 2.35), and 0.52 (SD = 2.41) log10 reductions, respectively, while X12 showed a 0.11 (SD = 2.26) log10 increase. These changes were not significant. Post-study discussions with school staff indicated that it is feasible to implement an in-classroom gummy bear snack program. Parents are accepting and children willing to consume gummy bear snacks daily.Reductions in S. mutans/sobrinus levels were observed after six weeks of gummy bear snack consumption containing xylitol at 11.7 or 15.6 g/day or maltitol at 44.7 g/day divided in three exposures. Lactobacillus spp. levels were essentially unchanged in all groups. These results suggest that a xylitol gummy bear snack may be an alternative to xylitol chewing gum for dental caries prevention. Positive results with high dose maltitol limit the validity of xylitol findings. A larger clinical trial is needed to confirm the xylitol results.[ISRCTN63160504]Mutans streptococci (MS), more specifically S. mutans and S. sobrinus, are implicated in the development of den
Linear response of mutans streptococci to increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN43479664]
Kiet A Ly, Peter Milgrom, Marilyn C Roberts, David K Yamaguchi, Marilynn Rothen, Greg Mueller
BMC Oral Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-6-6
Abstract: Participants (n = 132) were randomized to either active groups (10.32 g xylitol/day) or a placebo control (9.828 g sorbitol and 0.7 g maltitol/day). All groups chewed 12 pieces of gum per day. The control group chewed 4 times/day and active groups chewed xylitol gum at a frequency of 2 times/day, 3 times/day, or 4 times/day. The 12 gum pieces were evenly divided into the frequency assigned to each group. Plaque and unstimulated saliva samples were taken at baseline and five-weeks and were cultured on modified Mitis Salivarius agar for mutans streptococci enumeration.There were no significant differences in mutans streptococci level among the groups at baseline. At five-weeks, mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva showed a linear reduction with increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use at the constant daily dose. Although the difference observed for the group that chewed xylitol 2 times/day was consistent with the linear model, the difference was not significant.There was a linear reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and saliva with increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a constant daily dose. Reduction at a consumption frequency of 2 times per day was small and consistent with the linear-response line but was not statistically significant.Xylitol is a naturally occurring sugar alcohol that has been shown to markedly reduce tooth decay. The substitution of xylitol for sucrose in confections and foods may significantly decrease dental caries (for reviews see [1-3]). Published studies and prevention programs using xylitol have followed the dose and frequency of earlier studies which showed reductions in caries and where the daily xylitol dose varied from 4 to 11 g divided into three to five doses and delivered primarily via chewing gum. Studies using dose of 4 to 5 g or less of xylitol per day have reported conflicting results [4,5]. Table 1 summarizes selected published clinical trials where different formulations of xylit
A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of Xylitol-containing products
Christine A Riedy, Peter Milgrom, Kiet A Ly, Marilynn Rothen, Gregory Mueller, Mary K Hagstrom, Ernie Tolentino, Lingmei Zhou, Marilyn C Roberts
BMC Oral Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-8-5
Abstract: A within-subjects design was used for both studies. Study 1, adults (N = 15) received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum (2.6 g), gummy bears (2.6 g), and commercially available stick gum (Koolerz, 3.0 g)); Study 2, a second group of adults (N = 15) received three xylitol-containing products (pellet gum, gummy bears, and a 33% xylitol syrup (2.67 g). For both studies subjects consumed one xylitol product per visit with a 7-day washout between each product. A standardized protocol was followed for each product visit. Product order was randomly determined at the initial visit. Saliva samples (0.5 mL to 1.0 mL) were collected at baseline and up to 10 time points (~16 min in length) after product consumption initiated. Concentration of xylitol in saliva samples was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Area under the curve (AUC) for determining the average xylitol concentration in saliva over the total sampling period was calculated for each product.In both studies all three xylitol products (Study 1: pellet gum, gummy bears, and stick gum; Study 2: pellet gum, gummy bears, and syrup) had similar time curves with two xylitol concentration peaks during the sampling period. Study 1 had its highest mean peaks at the 4 min sampling point while Study 2 had its highest mean peaks between 13 to 16 minutes. Salivary xylitol levels returned to baseline at about 18 minutes for all forms tested. Additionally, for both studies the total AUC for the xylitol products were similar compared to the pellet gum (Study 1: pellet gum – 51.3 μg.min/mL, gummy bears – 59.6 μg.min/mL, and stick gum – 46.4 μg.min/mL; Study 2: pellet gum – 63.0 μg.min/mL, gummy bears – 55.9 μg.min/mL, and syrup – 59.0 μg.min/mL).The comparison method demonstrated high reliability and validity. In both studies other xylitol-containing products had time curves and mean xylitol concentration peaks similar to xylitol pellet gum suggesting this test may be a surrogate for longer studies com
Impacts of Air Pollution on Productivity Growth in the Air and Truck Transportation Industries in the US: an Application of the Data Envelopment Analysis Malmquist Environmental Productivity Index  [PDF]
Jaesung Choi, David C. Roberts
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.32016
Abstract: Air pollution worsens work environment and increases the likelihood of health risks and even premature death for humans. Owing to the fundamental structure of growth through the combustion of fossil fuels, productivity growth in the transportation industry has affected the natural environment. In this study, the authors use the Malmquist environmental productivity index to consider the effects of air pollution on productivity growth in the air and truck transportation industries, which are the biggest air polluters in the US. This study finds that on average, the air transportation industry does not increase actual productivity with an air pollution reduction, but the truck transportation industry positively grows with a reduction in one of the air pollutants studied (carbon monoxide, particulate matter) or both from 2008 to 2011, suggesting entering a period of environmentally sustainable transportation industry growth.
How Does the Change of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Affect Transportation Productivity? A Case Study of the US Transportation Sector from 2002 to 2011  [PDF]
Jaesung Choi, David C. Roberts
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.32013
Abstract: A variety of research fields has analyzed actual productivity change from environmental pollution through the Malmquist environmental productivity index, but to our best knowledge, no research has thus far been conducted in the transportation sector to evaluate the effects of a CO2 emissions change on actual productivity. For this reason, this study reviews how actual productivity in the US transportation sector has been affected by the CO2 emissions change for 2002-2012 and then reveals the driving forces behind it. We find that the CO2 emissions increase from 2002 to 2007 has a negative effect on actual productivity in the US transportation sector, but the CO2 emissions reduction for 2008-2011 increases actual productivity. A state mainly showing a sustainable growing pattern (decrease in CO2 emissions and increase in actual productivity) experiences a higher technological innovation increase than an efficiency decrease. This finding suggests that using fuel-efficient and carbon reduction technologies as well as alternative transportation energy sources may be essential factors to both grow transportation and prevent global warming.
Democracy and higher education by S Peters, H Boyte, T Alter & N Schwartzbach
Marilyn C. Krogh
Gateways : International Journal of Community Research & Engagement , 2012,
Modeling Rift Valley Fever with Treatment and Trapping Control Strategies  [PDF]
Jonnes Lugoye, Josephine Wairimu, C. B. Alphonce, Marilyn Ronoh
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/am.2016.76051
Abstract: We consider a rift valley fever model with treatment in human and livestock populations and trapping in the vector (mosquito) population. The basic reproduction number R 0 is established and used to determine whether the disease dies out or is established in the three populations. When R 0 ≤ 1, the disease-free equilibrium is shown to be globally asymptotically stable and the disease does not spread and when R 0 > 1, a unique endemic equilibrium exists which is globally stable and the disease will spread. The mathematical model is analyzed analytically and numerically to obtain insight of the impact of intervention in reducing the burden of rift valley fever disease’s spread or epidemic and also to determine factors influencing the outcome of the epidemic. Sensitivity analysis for key parameters is also done.
Reshaping Tribal Road Network Using Public Information  [PDF]
Jaesung Choi, EunSu Lee, David C. Roberts
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2014.66049
Abstract: The area with the fastest growing Native American population in North Dakota is the Fort Berthold Reservation. State and federal road information available to the public is not identical in terms of the number of physical road segments or in the attribute information provided for the road network. In this study we develop: 1) a navigable road network achieved by improving connectivity among road segments, updating road information, and making a comprehensive network; and 2) a standard process for integrating the state and federal local road information. The standard process broadly consists of three Parts: 1) combining road segments from each source; 2) providing legitimacy to snapping distance; and 3) performing a snapping based on the result of Part 2 to connect those road segments, which remained unconnected from Part 1. The findings show that data on local roads on the Fort Berthold Reservation from the two different sources are joined through the standard process, and the process saves considerable time and resources required for fixing the road network. The standard process that has been developed here can be applied to a variety of other Indian road information integration projects to join not only physical road segments, but also plural attribute information. The process will also be useful for a variety of other projects integrating road information, which is available to the public, in order to overcome financial and time limitations.
Productivity Growth in the Transportation Industries in the United States: An Application of the DEA Malmquist Productivity Index  [PDF]
Jaesung Choi, David C. Roberts, EunSu Lee
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2015.51001
Abstract: This study reviews productivity growth in the five major transportation industries in the United States (airline, truck, rail, pipeline, and water) and the pooled transportation industry from 2004 to 2011. We measure the average productivity for these eight years by state in each transportation industry and the annual average productivity by transportation industry. The major findings are that the U.S. transportation industry shows strong and positive productivity growth except that in the years of the global financial crisis in 2007, 2008, and 2010, and among the five transportation industries, the rail and water sectors show the highest productivity growth in 2011.
Forecasting Oil Production in North Dakota Using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (S-ARIMA)  [PDF]
Jaesung Choi, David C. Roberts, EunSu Lee
Natural Resources (NR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.61003
Abstract: North Dakota’s oil production has been rapidly increasing during the past several years. The state’s oil production in March 2013 even increased to more than twice the quantity produced in March 2011, and the estimated Bakken Formation reserves were reported very large compared with those of the United Arab Emirates. It eventually makes a question to us of how much oil will be able to be actually extracted with currently available technologies. To answer this question, this paper forecasts future oil development trend in North Dakota using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (S-ARIMA) model. Nonstationarity derived from a stochastic trend and the abrupt structural change of oil industry was a big potential problem, but through the Quandt Likelihood Ratio test, we found break points, which allowed us to select a model fitting period suitable for the S-ARIMA method to provide accurate statistical inference for the historical period. The seven major oil producing counties were investigated to determine whether the current oil boom was consistent across all oil fields in North Dakota. Empirical estimates show that North Dakota’s oil production will be more than double in the next five years. What we can predict with great certainty is that North Dakota’s influence over domestic and global oil supply systems will increase in the near future, especially over the next five to six years. This is good news for those who are concerned about domestic energy security in the USA.
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