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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 899 matches for " Mariko Noda "
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Sweepers in the CNS: Microglial Migration and Phagocytosis in the Alzheimer Disease Pathogenesis
Mariko Noda,Akio Suzumura
International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/891087
Abstract: Microglia are multifunctional immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS). In the neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), accumulation of glial cells, gliosis, occurs in the lesions. The role of accumulated microglia in the pathophysiology of AD is still controversial. When neuronal damage occurs, microglia exert diversified functions, including migration, phagocytosis, and production of various cytokines and chemokines. Among these, microglial phagocytosis of unwanted neuronal debris is critical to maintain the healthy neuronal networks. Microglia express many surface receptors implicated in phagocytosis. It has been suggested that the lack of microglial phagocytosis worsens pathology of AD and induces memory impairment. The present paper summarizes recent evidences on implication of microglial chemotaxis and phagocytosis in AD pathology and discusses the mechanisms related to chemotaxis toward injured neurons and phagocytosis of unnecessary debris. 1. Introduction Microglia are macrophage-like resident immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and possess both neurotoxic and neuroprotective function. Microglia accumulate in the lesions of a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis, and are thought to play both toxic and protective functions for neuronal survival [1]. Microglia are considered to be a first line defense and respond quickly to various stimuli. When activated, microglia undergo morphological changes to ameboid, proliferate, migrate toward injured areas, and release many soluble factors and phagocytosis of foreign substances or unwanted self-debris. Appropriate migration of microglia to damaged area is controlled by chemokines and nucleotide ATP [2, 3]. Phagocytosis seems to be important to prevent the senile plaque expansion in AD by removing amyloid β (Aβ) deposit [4]. Microglia not only engulf the Aβ protein but also phagocytose apoptotic cells and degenerated neuronal debris. Phagocytosis of apoptotic or degenerated neuronal debris is crucial to reduce inflammation and maintain healthy neuronal networks. Another type of phagocytosis, phagocytosis with inflammation, occurs in chronic inflammatory-related neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer disease [5–7]. Degenerated neurons releases several signaling molecules, including nucleotides, cytokines, and chemokines, to recruit microglia and enhance their activities [8, 9]. The phenomenon are now termed as find-me, eat-me, and help-me signals. In this paper, we focused on
The neuroprotective effects of milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 against oligomeric amyloid β toxicity
Endong Li, Mariko Noda, Yukiko Doi, Bijay Parajuli, Jun Kawanokuchi, Yoshifumi Sonobe, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Tetsuya Mizuno, Akio Suzumura
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-9-148
Abstract: The release of MFG-E8 from microglia treated with conditioned medium from neurons exposed to neurotoxic substances, glutamate or oligomeric amyloid β (oAβ) was measured by ELISA. The neuroprotective effects of MFG-E8 and MFG-E8???induced microglial phagocytosis of oAβ were assessed by immunocytochemistry. The effects of MFG-E8 on the production of the anti-oxidative enzyme hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) were determined by ELISA and immunocytochemisty.MFG-E8 was induced in microglia treated with conditioned medium from neurons that had been exposed to neurotoxicants, glutamate or oAβ. MFG-E8 significantly attenuated oAβ-induced neuronal cell death in a primary neuron???microglia coculture system. Microglial phagocytosis of oAβ was accelerated by MFG-E8 treatment due to increased CD47 expression in the absence of neurotoxic molecule production, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide, and glutamate. MFG-E8???treated microglia induced nuclear factor E(2)???related factor 2 (Nrf2)???mediated HO-1 production, which also contributed to neuroprotection.These results suggest that microglia release MFG-E8 in response to signals from degenerated neurons and that MFG-E8 protects oAβ-induced neuronal cell death by promoting microglial phagocytic activity and activating the Nrf2-HO-1 pathway. Thus, MFG-E8 may have novel roles as a neuroprotectant in neurodegenerative conditions.
Evaluation of Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Power, and Antioxidant Potential of Breastmilk of Breast-Feeding Mothers  [PDF]
Naoko Kuramoto, Mariko Kitagawa
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.98083
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress, antioxidant power, and antioxidant potential of breastmilk of breast-feeding mothers from the early postpartum period to the first 3 months postpartum, and to examine the dynamics and the relationships among them. Method: For 47 pu-erperant women who gave vaginal birth without any pregnancy complications, the oxidative stress levels (d-ROMs levels) and antioxidant power (BAP levels) in the maternal plasma as well as antioxidant potential of breastmilk (BAP levels in breastmilk) were measured 3 times, i.e., in the early puerperium (4 or 5 days after giving birth), one month after giving birth, and 3 months after giving birth. Results: The d-ROMs levels in the maternal plasma were significantly high in the early puerperium (p < 0.001), and decreased gradually in the post-partum period (p < 0.001). On the other hand, BAP levels were significantly low in the early puerperium (p < 0.001), and increased to the almost normal level during one month after giving birth. BAP levels in breastmilk were significantly high in the early puerperium compared with the other periods (p < 0.001), and decreased gradually until 3 months after giving birth (p < 0.001). BAP levels in breastmilk in the early puerperium were higher compared with the maternal BAP levels, and there was a positive correlation between BAP levels in breast-milk and those in the maternal plasma (p < 0.05). Discussion: Regarding the oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system of breast-feeding mothers, the d-ROMs level was highest and the BAP level was lowest in the early puerperium. The BAP level then showed a clear tendency to recover in the first 3 months after giving birth. Conclusion: When the maternal antioxidant potential remains at a low level after giving birth, careful consideration should be given to the mother’s health and wellbeing because there is a possibility that it might affect the antioxidant potential of breastmilk.
Effects of Nonuniform Outflow and Buoyancy on Drag Coefficient Acting on a Spherical Particle  [PDF]
Mariko Watanabe, Joji Yahagi
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization (JFCMV) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jfcmv.2017.54008
Abstract: Pyrolysis gas jets out from the surface of a solid fuel particle when heated. This study experimentally observes the occurrence of gas jetsfrom heated solid fuel particles. Results reveal a local gas jet occurs from the particle’s surface when its temperature reaches the point at which a pyrolysis reaction occurs. To investigate the influence of the gas jet on particle motion, a numerical simulation of the uniform flow around a spherical particle with a nonuniform outflow or high surface temperature is conducted, and the drag force acting on the spherical particle is estimated. In the numerical study, the magnitude of the outflow velocity, direction of outflow, and Rayleigh number,?i.e., particle surface temperature, are altered, and outflow velocities and the Rayleigh number are set based on the experiment. The drag coefficient is found to decrease when an outflow occurs in the direction against the mainstream; this drag coefficient at a higher Rayleigh number is slightly higher than that at a Rayleigh number of zero.
A Pilot Study of Antibody Drug Therapy to Regulate Cell Adhesion in Dental Implants  [PDF]
Mariko Kawai, Kiyoshi Ohura
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2017.711046
Abstract: Dental implant therapy is a highly effective treatment for recovering occlusion after tooth loss. An important factor in the success of dental implants is establishing strong osseointegration. If more epithelial cells migrate to the implant-bone interface than mesenchymal stem cells, effective osseointegration may fail. Therefore, controlling epithelial cell adhesion and motility would be an effective strategy to increase the success rate of osseointegration. Laminin-332 is a major component of the basement membrane and is composed of three chains (α3, β3 and γ2). It is well-known that laminin-332 regulates cellular functions such as adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. These biological functions depend on changes in the structural arrangement of laminin-332 by proteolytic cleavage. It is well-known that cleavage of the α3 chain between its LG domains gives laminin-332 its biological function. In this study, we focused on LG domain cleavage and developed antibodies that target the LG domain cleavage site. We attempted to change the biological function of laminin-332 to control cell adhesion for the purpose of regulating dental implant therapy.
Effects of Silvicultural Alternatives on Model-Based Financial Evaluation of Teak (Tectona grandis L.) Farm Forestry Management for Small-Scale Farmers in Northeast Thailand  [PDF]
Iwao Noda, Woraphun Himmapan
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2014.45060
Abstract: Teak (Tectona grandis L.) plantation management is said to be profitable, but small-scale farmers with teak plantations need to find appropriate and effective choices for plantation management because of their small plots. There have been few studies on how combinations of site quality, rotation and plant spacing affect financial evaluations of teak plantation management quantitatively. In this study, we introduced the yield table for teak plantations in Northeast Thailand, and investigated the effects of site quality with rotation (15-year and 20-year) and spacing (2 m × 4 m and 4 m × 4 m) on the financial evaluation of teak plantation management using discounted cash flow analysis. The equivalent annual incomes (EAI) and benefit/cost ratios (BCR) were negative and <1, respectively, at site indexes (SI) of 14 and 18, but increased ~2 - 3 times as SI rose from 22 (site of medium quality) to 26 and 26 to 30. The 20-year rotation was generally preferable to the 15-year one, especially at SI 22. At SI 30, 2 m × 4 m was more profitable than 4 m × 4 m for both rotations, but at SI 22, 20-year rotation with 4 m × 4 m was the most profitable, followed by 20-year with 2 m × 4 m.
Erratum to “Effects of Silvicultural Alternatives on Model-Based Financial Evaluation of Teak (Tectona grandis L.) Farm Forestry Management for Small-Scale Farmers in Northeast Thailand” [Open Journal of Forestry, 4 (2014) 558-569]  [PDF]
Iwao Noda, Woraphun Himmapan
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.55048
Abstract: The original online version of this article (Noda, I. et al. (2014). Effects of Silvicultural Alternatives on Model-Based Financial Evaluation of Teak (Tectona grandis L.) Farm Forestry Management for Small-Scale Farmers in Northeast Thailand. Open Journal of Forestry, 4, 558-569. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojf.2014.45060) was published in October. The author wishes to correct Table 5.
The only constant is change
Mariko Hall
Forced Migration Review , 2011,
Abstract: Can the humanitarian community’s providers of telecommunications services keep up with the pace of change – and the pace of demand?
Expanding a Care Network for People with Dementia and their Carers Through Musicking: Participant Observation with
Mariko Hara
Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy , 2011,
Abstract: Music use in dementia care often takes place within a music therapy context, where music therapy sessions aim to reduce agitated behaviour, access emotions or enhance inter-personal communication. Such sessions usually take place within care homes and their effect has been evaluated by a number of studies. However, there is little research on music use that takes place outside of care homes (e.g. in community centres) for people with dementia who are cared for at home by their family. This paper discusses this type of music use, focusing on the meaning of weekly local music making activities in relation to every day dementia care. I use empirical data from a study of a community based music activity called "Singing for the Brain" (SFTB) run by the Alzheimer's Society in the UK. The data was collected through extensive participant observation research and interviews with organisers, carers and care receivers. The preliminary findings from the data analysis are discussed: how SFTB can be seen as a ecological practice; its various “spin-off’ effects in the everyday care of the members with dementia; how SFTB, together with other local music groups, constitute the music and care world in the town; and how this develops into fluid support networks to support local people with dementia and their carers.
Music in Dementia Care: Increased Understanding Through Mixed Research Methods
Mariko Hara
Music and Arts in Action , 2011,
Abstract: Over the past decade there has been an increased interest in the wide variety of issues involved in the care of individuals with dementia. One particular area of research is the effect of music on those with dementia, commonly studied through the perspectives of neuroscience and (the more applied) music therapy. There is, however, a black box common to both these fields: music is seen as an input and its effect as a simple output. In treating the human (brain) as merely an object to stimulate with music or sound, the socio-cultural context of musical interaction is omitted from the analysis. This article discusses the employment of mixed research methods adapted specifically to explore the use of music in dementia care and to open this black box. In particular, this article explores the use of ethnographic participant observations and semi-structured interviews with individuals with dementia, their families/carers and (volunteer) staff of Singing for the Brain (SFTB) in a British town. The article concludes with a discussion of the preliminary themes generated by this mixed-methods approach (such as the importance of ‘relationships’), and the importance of examining music as a ‘catalyst’ in building relationships. Although the issues examined in this article are specific to dementia, similar sensitive issues may be found in research on health and other creative (therapeutic) activities for people with dementia.
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