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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 17616 matches for " Marie-Anne;Shimizu "
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Ce que disent les objets. Sens, affordance, cognition
Marie-Anne Paveau
Synergies Pays Riverains de la Baltique , 2012,
Abstract: Cet article propose de prendre la notion de contexte à la lettre de sa réalité, en prenant en compte le r le des objets dans les environnements dans lesquels sont produits les énoncés. Cela implique une conception du langage comme activité située et non plus autonome, articulée sur les autres activités humaines et inscrite dans l’environnement humain et non humain, et non plus seulement interindividuelle. Dans cette perspective, les objets naturels et artificiels constituent des contributeurs à la production des discours et non plus un simple décor de l’activité de langage. Après avoir décrit les cadres épistémologiques et théoriques du travail, on montre qu’une approche symétrique des phénomènes langagiers permet d’intégrer véritablement les contextes à l’analyse des discours. On décrit ensuite les observables que cette perspective construit, à partir d’exemples d’objets pris dans les élaborations langagières et discursives.
Trajectoires paysagères et poids des héritages dans les vallées normandes
Marie-Anne Germaine
M@ppemonde , 2010,
Abstract:
Althusser en Ha ti. De Port-au-Prince au polder Marie-Anne
Marie-Anne Paveau
Voix Plurielles , 2012,
Abstract: Cette contribution formule un témoignage personnel de Marie-Anne Paveau. L'auteure est intervenue à Port-au-Prince en 2006 auprès des étudiants de la Faculté de Linguistique appliquée, alors administrée par Pierre Vernet. Marie-Anne Paveau y présente notamment les éléments du cours qu'elle y a dispensé, illustrant de ce fait la collaboration conduite de 2005 à 2009 entre la Faculté et plusieurs universités de l'étranger.
Voix-off et voix(e) narrative : la conscience entre les lignes dans l’ uvre de Arnaud Desplechin
Marie-Anne Lieb
Cahiers de Narratologie , 2012, DOI: 10.4000/narratologie.6519
Abstract: L’ uvre d’Arnaud Desplechin est particulièrement intéressante à bien des égards et a fortiori pour sa virtuosité narrative. Cinéma romanesque et introspectif, la narration passe entre autres, par l’usage savant de la voix-off comme mode d’énonciation ou par celui des voix (es) narratives proches de la moving box propre à Terence Malick. Des aventures spirituelles, au marivaudage et aux quêtes existentielles, leur utilisation au sein de la filmographie confère aux personnages une tendance à l’affabulation. L’enjeu réside en ce que le cinéaste cherche à raconter une histoire autant que ses personnages tentent de se raconter eux-mêmes. Recomposant la complexité humaine, Desplechin déploie un cinéma dans lequel la voix-off ouvrent un peu plus les possibles narratifs en forme d’insularité humaine. Arnaud Desplechin’s work is particularly interesting in many respects but especially so for his narrative virtuosity. In his style of cinema, which combines both story-telling and introspection, the plot unfolds by the wise use, amongst other things, of voice-over as a means of statement or by narrative voices similar to the “moving box” technique used by Terence Malick. The use of such techniques, ranging from spiritual adventures to light hearted banter and existential quests, in the heart of filmography can give the impression that characters do not ring true. For the film-maker, the problem is how to balance the unfolding of the overall story-line with the exteriorisation of each character’s personal thoughts. By rearranging human complexity, Desplechin develops a cinema in which the voice-over progressively opens up the possible narratives reflecting human insularity.
A linear Stark shift in dressed atoms as a signal to measure a nuclear anapole moment with a cold atom fountain or interferometer
Marie-Anne Bouchiat
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.043003
Abstract: We demonstrate theoretically the existence of a linear dc Stark shift of the individual substates of an alkali atom in its ground state, dressed by a circularly polarized laser field. It arises from the electroweak nuclear anapole moment violating P but not T. It is characterized by the pseudoscalar equal to the mixed product formed with the photon angular momentum and static electric and magnetic fields. We derive the relevant left-right asymmetry with its complete signature in a field configuration selected for a precision measurement with cold atom beams. The 3,3 to 4,3 Cs hyperfine-transition frequency shift amounts to 7 $\mu$Hz for a laser power of about 1 kW at 877 nm, E=100 kV/cm and B larger than 0.5 G.
Linear Stark Shifts to Measure the Fr Weak Nuclear Charge with Small Atom Samples
Marie-Anne Bouchiat
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.123003
Abstract: We study the chirality of ground-state alkali atoms in E and B fields, dressed with a circularly-polarized laser beam close-detuned from an E-field-assisted forbidden transition, such as 7S-8S in Fr. We predict a parity violating energy shift of their sublevels, linear in E, and the weak nuclear charge Q_W$. A dressing beam of 10 kW/cm$^2$ at 506 nm produces a shift of $\sim100 \mu$Hz at E=100 V/cm, B $\gtrsim$30 mG. It should be observable with $\sim 10^4$ Fr atoms confined in an optical dipole trap. We discuss optimal conditions, parameter reversals and a calibration procedure to measure $Q_W$.
Atomic Parity Violation. Early days, present results, prospects
Marie-Anne Bouchiat
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: This is a personal recollection of the time when the search for APV was beginning. In spite of today's remarkable results, summarized here, there are still important goals to be achieved. I indicate a possible way to tackle the remaining experimental challenges, by adapting methods now of frequent use in precision metrology.
An inversion in the wiring of an intercellular signal: evolution of Wnt signaling in the nematode vulva
Marie-Anne Félix
Quantitative Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1002/bies.20275
Abstract: Signal transduction pathways are largely conserved throughout the animal kingdom. The repertoire of pathways is limited and each pathway is used in different intercellular signaling events during the development of a given animal. For example, Wnt signaling is recruited, sometimes redundantly with other molecular pathways, in four cell specification events during Caenorhabditis elegans vulva development, including the activation of vulval differentiation. Strikingly, a recent study finds that Wnts act to repress vulval differentiation in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, demonstrating evolutionary flexibility in the use of intercellular signaling pathways.
Evolution of Susceptibility to Ingested Double-Stranded RNAs in Caenorhabditis Nematodes
Isabelle Nuez, Marie-Anne Félix
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029811
Abstract: Background The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is able to take up external double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and mount an RNA interference response, leading to the inactivation of specific gene expression. The uptake of ingested dsRNAs into intestinal cells has been shown to require the SID-2 transmembrane protein in C. elegans. By contrast, C. briggsae was shown to be naturally insensitive to ingested dsRNAs, yet could be rendered sensitive by transgenesis with the C. elegans sid-2 gene. Here we aimed to elucidate the evolution of the susceptibility to external RNAi in the Caenorhabditis genus. Principal Findings We study the sensitivity of many new species of Caenorhabditis to ingested dsRNAs matching a conserved actin gene sequence from the nematode Oscheius tipulae. We find ample variation in the Caenorhabditis genus in the ability to mount an RNAi response. We map this sensitivity onto a phylogenetic tree, and show that sensitivity or insensitivity have evolved convergently several times. We uncover several evolutionary losses in sensitivity, which may have occurred through distinct mechanisms. We could render C. remanei and C. briggsae sensitive to ingested dsRNAs by transgenesis of the Cel-sid-2 gene. We thus provide tools for RNA interference studies in these species. We also show that transgenesis by injection is possible in many Caenorhabditis species. Conclusions The ability of animals to take up dsRNAs or to respond to them by gene inactivation is under rapid evolution in the Caenorhabditis genus. This study provides a framework and tools to use RNA interference and transgenesis in various Caenorhabditis species for further comparative and evolutionary studies.
Role of Pleiotropy in the Evolution of a Cryptic Developmental Variation in Caenorhabditis elegans
Fabien Duveau,Marie-Anne Félix
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001230
Abstract: Robust biological systems are expected to accumulate cryptic genetic variation that does not affect the system output in standard conditions yet may play an evolutionary role once phenotypically expressed under a strong perturbation. Genetic variation that is cryptic relative to a robust trait may accumulate neutrally as it does not change the phenotype, yet it could also evolve under selection if it affects traits related to fitness in addition to its cryptic effect. Cryptic variation affecting the vulval intercellular signaling network was previously uncovered among wild isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans. Using a quantitative genetic approach, we identify a non-synonymous polymorphism of the previously uncharacterized nath-10 gene that affects the vulval phenotype when the system is sensitized with different mutations, but not in wild-type strains. nath-10 is an essential protein acetyltransferase gene and the homolog of human NAT10. The nath-10 polymorphism also presents non-cryptic effects on life history traits. The nath-10 allele carried by the N2 reference strain leads to a subtle increase in the egg laying rate and in the total number of sperm, a trait affecting the trade-off between fertility and minimal generation time in hermaphrodite individuals. We show that this allele appeared during early laboratory culture of N2, which allowed us to test whether it may have evolved under selection in this novel environment. The derived allele indeed strongly outcompetes the ancestral allele in laboratory conditions. In conclusion, we identified the molecular nature of a cryptic genetic variation and characterized its evolutionary history. These results show that cryptic genetic variation does not necessarily accumulate neutrally at the whole-organism level, but may evolve through selection for pleiotropic effects that alter fitness. In addition, cultivation in the laboratory has led to adaptive evolution of the reference strain N2 to the laboratory environment, which may modify other phenotypes of interest.
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