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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8878 matches for " Marie Reilly "
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A constant risk for familial breast cancer? A population-based family study
Kamila Czene, Marie Reilly, Per Hall, Mikael Hartman
Breast Cancer Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2260
Abstract: We analyzed a Swedish population-based cohort with complete family links and calculated incidence rates of breast cancer in mothers of 48,259 daughters diagnosed with breast cancer.The risk for breast cancer in mothers of breast cancer patients is elevated relative to the background population at all ages. Mothers have an overall incidence of 0.34%/year at ages older than a daughter's age at diagnosis. This rate is not affected to any large extent by the daughter's age at diagnosis. A constant incidence rate of 0.40%/year from age 35 years onward is seen in mothers of breast cancer patients diagnosed before 35 years of age. For mothers of daughters diagnosed at age 35 to 44 years the incidence pattern is less clear, with the rate being stable for approximately 20 years after the daughter's age at diagnosis and rising thereafter. Older age at a daughter's diagnosis (≥ 45 years) appears to confer an age-dependent increase in incidence in the mother.Incidence of familial breast cancer in first-degree relatives may increase to a high and constant level by a predetermined age that is specific to each family. This phenomenon appears inconsistent with accepted theories of malignant transformation.Studies of familial aggregation of breast cancer identify a family history of breast cancer as one of the strongest risk factors for the disease [1,2]. Familial risks for female breast cancer have been the subject of numerous epidemiological studies [3-7]. A study that re-analyzed 52 epidemiological studies of familial breast cancer presented summary risk ratios of 1.80 and 2.93 for one and two affected first-degree relatives, respectively [8].Young age at onset of disease within a family has long been regarded as a particularly strong risk factor for breast cancer [9-11]. Several studies have investigated the familial risk for breast cancer in relation to both the proband's age at diagnosis and the age of the person at risk [3,12]. The results are similar, regardless of whether s
Constructing a Population-Based Research Database from Routine Maternal Screening Records: A Resource for Studying Alloimmunization in Pregnant Women
Brian K. Lee, Alexander Ploner, Zhongxing Zhang, Gunilla Gryfelt, Agneta Wikman, Marie Reilly
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027619
Abstract: Background Although screening for maternal red blood cell antibodies during pregnancy is a standard procedure, the prevalence and clinical consequences of non-anti-D immunization are poorly understood. The objective was to create a national database of maternal antibody screening results that can be linked with population health registers to create a research resource for investigating these issues. Study Design and Methods Each birth in the Swedish Medical Birth Register was uniquely identified and linked to the text stored in routine maternal antibody screening records in the time window from 9 months prior to 2 weeks after the delivery date. These text records were subjected to a computerized search for specific antibodies using regular expressions. To illustrate the research potential of the resulting database, selected antibody prevalence rates are presented as tables and figures, and the complete data (from more than 60 specific antibodies) presented as online moving graphical displays. Results More than one million (1,191,761) births with valid screening information from 1982–2002 constitute the study population. Computerized coverage of screening increased steadily over time and varied by region as electronic records were adopted. To ensure data quality, we restricted analysis to birth records in areas and years with a sustained coverage of at least 80%, representing 920,903 births from 572,626 mothers in 17 of the 24 counties in Sweden. During the study period, non-anti-D and anti-D antibodies occurred in 76.8/10,000 and 14.1/10,000 pregnancies respectively, with marked differences between specific antibodies over time. Conclusion This work demonstrates the feasibility of creating a nationally representative research database from the routine maternal antibody screening records from an extended calendar period. By linkage with population registers of maternal and child health, such data are a valuable resource for addressing important clinical questions, such as the etiological significance of non-anti-D antibodies.
History of Pregnancy Loss Increases the Risk of Mental Health Problems in Subsequent Pregnancies but Not in the Postpartum
Catherine Chojenta, Sheree Harris, Nicole Reilly, Peta Forder, Marie-Paule Austin, Deborah Loxton
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095038
Abstract: While grief, emotional distress and other mental health conditions have been associated with pregnancy loss, less is known about the mental health impact of these events during subsequent pregnancies and births. This paper examined the impact of any type of pregnancy loss on mental health in a subsequent pregnancy and postpartum. Data were obtained from a sub-sample (N = 584) of the 1973-78 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a prospective cohort study that has been collecting data since 1996. Pregnancy loss was defined as miscarriage, termination due to medical reasons, ectopic pregnancy and stillbirth. Mental health outcomes included depression, anxiety, stress or distress, sadness or low mood, excessive worry, lack of enjoyment, and feelings of guilt. Demographic factors and mental health history were controlled for in the analysis. Women with a previous pregnancy loss were more likely to experience sadness or low mood (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.76, p = 0.0162), and excessive worry (AOR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.24 to 3.24, p = 0.0043) during a subsequent pregnancy, but not during the postpartum phase following a subsequent birth. These results indicate that while women who have experienced a pregnancy loss are a more vulnerable population during a subsequent pregnancy, these deficits are not evident in the postpartum.
Improved salt iodation methods for small-scale salt producers in low-resource settings in Tanzania
Vincent D Assey, Thorkild Tyllesk?r, Philip B Momburi, Michael Maganga, Nicholaus V Mlingi, Marie Reilly, Ted Greiner, Stefan Peterson
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-187
Abstract: We studied three salt facilities on the Bagamoyo coast, investigating procedures for preparing potassium-iodate solution, salt spraying and mixing. Different concentrations of solution were prepared and tested using different iodation methods, with the aim of attaining correct and homogeneous iodine levels under real-life conditions. Levels achieved by manual mixing were compared to those achieved by machine mixing.The overall median iodation level in samples of salt iodated using previously existing methods was 10.6 ppm (range 1.1 – 110.0 ppm), with much higher levels in the top than the bottom layers of the salt bags, p < 0.0001. Experimentation using knapsack-sprayers and manual mixing led to the reliable achievement of levels (60.9 ppm ± 7.4) that fell within the recommended range of 40 – 80 ppm. The improved methods yielded homogenous iodine concentrations in all layers of salt-bags (p = 0.58) with 96% of the samples (n = 45) falling within 40 – 80 ppm compared to only 9% (n = 45) before the experiment and training (p < 0.0001). For knapsack-spraying, a machine mixer improved the iodine levels and homogeneity slightly compared to manual mixing (p = 0.05).Supervised, standardized salt iodation procedures adapted to local circumstances can yield homogeneous iodine levels within the required range, overcoming a major obstacle to universal salt iodation.Eliminating iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is now considered "within grasp" [1,2]. Globally, households' use of iodated salt had increased from 10% to 70% by 2006 [3]. Accomplishing the last-mile of iodization of the remaining un-iodized salt will no doubt prove a challenge in many cases and it is the most expensive part of the business [4,5]. Nevertheless, it is worth the effort because those not covered will often prove to be those most needing it. Furthermore, even in otherwise well-nourished populations, consumption of less iodine than is required by the human bodies have serious consequences for mental and p
Gender, Culture, and Sex-Typed Cognitive Abilities
David Reilly
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039904
Abstract: Although gender differences in cognitive abilities are frequently reported, the magnitude of these differences and whether they hold practical significance in the educational outcomes of boys and girls is highly debated. Furthermore, when gender gaps in reading, mathematics and science literacy are reported they are often attributed to innate, biological differences rather than social and cultural factors. Cross-cultural evidence may contribute to this debate, and this study reports national gender differences in reading, mathematics and science literacy from 65 nations participating in the 2009 round of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Consistently across all nations, girls outperform boys in reading literacy, d = ?.44. Boys outperform girls in mathematics in the USA, d = .22 and across OECD nations, d = .13. For science literacy, while the USA showed the largest gender difference across all OECD nations, d = .14, gender differences across OECD nations were non-significant, and a small female advantage was found for non-OECD nations, d = ?.09. Across all three domains, these differences were more pronounced at both tails of the distribution for low- and high-achievers. Considerable cross-cultural variability was also observed, and national gender differences were correlated with gender equity measures, economic prosperity, and Hofstede’s cultural dimension of power distance. Educational and societal implications of such gender gaps are addressed, as well as the mechanisms by which gender differences in cognitive abilities are culturally mediated.
THE EU STRUCTURAL AND COHESION FUNDS: SOLUTION OR SMOKESCREEN TO EUROPE'S REGIONAL DISPARITIES?
Adrian Reilly
Romanian Journal of European Affairs (RJEA) , 2004,
Abstract: The EU has long had a goal of ‘reducing economic and social disparities.’ Since the reforms to the European Structural Funds in 1988 the Commission has encouraged enhanced subnational actor participation in policy-making, although subsequent reforms in 1993 and 1999 have been seen as attempts to ‘renationalize’ the policy. This paper argues that the minimal effect the Funds have had on the ground results not from renationalization but from inherent differences between multilevel actors on one of the key principles of Structural Funding i.e. partnership. The research findings show that whilst intergovernmental mechanisms have not changed since 1988, neither has the acceptance of the need for partnership between national and regional actors, especially in federal or quasi-federal states. The inability of the Funds to reduce disparities and the lack of understanding of partnership both provide lessons for new entrants to the EU: transforming domestic governance arrangements to accommodate the requirements of EU regional funding may only be successful if there are wider understandings of changes in ‘governance’; Europe’s poorer regions have not been able to close the gap with their richer neighbours with the implication that the regions of the Accession States will be in no better position in ten years time than they are now when compared to other regions throughout the EU.
Disabilities among refugees and conflict-affected populations
Rachael Reilly
Forced Migration Review , 2010,
Abstract: In 2007 the Women’s Refugee Commission launched a major research project to assess the situation for those living with disabilities among displaced and conflict-affected populations.
Unforgettable, I Wish You Were
Stephen Reilly
Humanising Language Teaching , 2013, DOI: 17559715
Abstract:
Classification and diagnosis of the inherited neuropathies
Reilly Mary
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology , 2009,
Abstract:
Pattern Recognition in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Defined by High Content Peptide Microarray Chip Analysis Representing 61 Proteins from M. tuberculosis
Simani Gaseitsiwe, Davide Valentini, Shahnaz Mahdavifar, Isabelle Magalhaes, Daniel F. Hoft, Johannes Zerweck, Mike Schutkowski, Jan Andersson, Marie Reilly, Markus J. Maeurer
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003840
Abstract: Background Serum antibody-based target identification has been used to identify tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) for development of anti-cancer vaccines. A similar approach can be helpful to identify biologically relevant and clinically meaningful targets in M.tuberculosis (MTB) infection for diagnosis or TB vaccine development in clinically well defined populations. Method We constructed a high-content peptide microarray with 61 M.tuberculosis proteins as linear 15 aa peptide stretches with 12 aa overlaps resulting in 7446 individual peptide epitopes. Antibody profiling was carried with serum from 34 individuals with active pulmonary TB and 35 healthy individuals in order to obtain an unbiased view of the MTB epitope pattern recognition pattern. Quality data extraction was performed, data sets were analyzed for significant differences and patterns predictive of TB+/?. Findings Three distinct patterns of IgG reactivity were identified: 89/7446 peptides were differentially recognized (in 34/34 TB+ patients and in 35/35 healthy individuals) and are highly predictive of the division into TB+ and TB?, other targets were exclusively recognized in all patients with TB (e.g. sigmaF) but not in any of the healthy individuals, and a third peptide set was recognized exclusively in healthy individuals (35/35) but no in TB+ patients. The segregation between TB+ and TB? does not cluster into specific recognition of distinct MTB proteins, but into specific peptide epitope ‘hotspots’ at different locations within the same protein. Antigen recognition pattern profiles in serum from TB+ patients from Armenia vs. patients recruited in Sweden showed that IgG-defined MTB epitopes are very similar in individuals with different genetic background. Conclusions A uniform target MTB IgG-epitope recognition pattern exists in pulmonary tuberculosis. Unbiased, high-content peptide microarray chip-based testing of clinically well-defined populations allows to visualize biologically relevant targets useful for development of novel TB diagnostics and vaccines.
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