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Im Dialog mit den Daten das eigene Erz hlen der Geschichte finden. über die Kodierverfahren der Grounded-Theory-Methodologie From Dialoguing with Data to Finding One's Own Way of Telling the Story. On Grounded Theory Methodology Coding Procedures Del diálogo con los datos al encuentro del estilo propia de decir la historia. Sobre los procedimientos de codificación en
Charles Berg,Marianne Milmeister
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2008,
Abstract: Kodierverfahren in der Grounded-Theory-Methodologie (GTM) sind das Thema des vorliegenden Beitrags. Ziel ist die Verbesserung der Kodierpraxis und die Explizierung unterschiedlicher Grundannahmen der GTM. Besonders betont wird sowohl die Notwendigkeit eines Dialogs mit den Daten als auch die Entwicklung einer Storyline. Ausgangspunkt des Beitrags ist die allgemeine Beschreibung des Kodierens, der dann eine Diskussion der verschiedenen Kodieretappen (offenes, axiales beziehungsweise theoretisches und selektives Kodieren) folgt. Abschlie end wird das Bild eines reflektiv-interpretativen Umgangs mit der GTM entworfen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802138 Grounded Theory Methodology (GTM) coding procedures are the topic of the current contribution. The article aims at improving coding practice and at making explicit different aspects underpinning GTM. Special emphasis is placed on linking both the dialogue with data and the development of a storyline. The starting point is a general description of coding, followed by a discussion of the different stages of coding (open, axial/theoretical and selective coding) and the conclusion puts forward the idea of a reflective-interpretive handling of GTM. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802138 Los procedimientos de codificación en la metodología de teoría fundamentada (MTF) son el tema de esta contribución. El artículo pretende mejorar la práctica de la codificación y hacer explícitos diferentes aspectos que subyacen a la MTF. Se pone especial énfasis en vincular el diálogo con los datos al desarrollo de una historia. El punto de inicio es la descripción general de la codificación, seguida por una discusión de las diferentes etapas de la codificación (abierta, central/teórica y selectiva) y la conclusión avanza la idea de un manejo reflexivo-interpretativo de la MTF. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802138
Genetic and Epigenetic Traits as Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer
Marianne Berg,Kjetil S?reide
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12129426
Abstract: Colorectal cancer is a major health burden, and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in industrialized countries. The steady improvements in surgery and chemotherapy have improved survival, but the ability to identify high- and low-risk patients is still somewhat poor. Molecular biology has, over the years, given insight into basic principles of colorectal cancer initiation and development. These findings include aberrations increasing risk of tumor development, genetic changes associated with the stepwise progression of the disease, and errors predicting response to a specific treatment. Potential biomarkers in colorectal cancer are extensively studied, and how the molecular aberrations relate to clinical features. Yet, little of this knowledge has been possible to transfer into clinical practice. In this review, an overview of colorectal cancer genetics will be given, as well as how aberrations found in this tumor type are proposed as biomarkers for risk prediction, as diagnostic tools, for prognosis or prediction of treatment outcome.
Severe male infertility after failed ICSI treatment-a phenomenological study of men's experiences
Marianne Johansson, Anna-Lena Hellstr?m, Marie Berg
Reproductive Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-8-4
Abstract: Eight men with obstructive azoospermia, who had terminated Swedish public health system ART treatment two years previously without subsequent childbirth, were interviewed using a descriptive phenomenological method.The essence of the phenomenon is expressed with a metaphor: climbing a mountain step by step with the aim of reaching the top, i.e. having a child and thus a family with a child. Four constituents are included (1) inadequacy followed by a feeling of redress (2) marginalisation, (3) chivalry (4) extension of life and starting a family as driving forces.Knowledge of men's experiences of their own infertility is important as a supporting measure to increase the quality of care of infertile couples. By adopting this facet of gender perspective in fertility treatment guidelines, care can hopefully be optimized.Reproduction and childbirth is one of the central themes of life [1], occurring when planned and wished in many but not all cases. The prevalence of infertility is debated. A recent study by Boivin et al. [2]reported that 9% of fertile-age couples suffer either primary or secondary infertility, a prevalence that is confirmed by the authors of this article [3]. Insemination with donor sperm was the only treatment for severe male-factor infertility before the in vitro fertilization (IVF) era [4]. However, while childlessness associated with female-factor infertility has often been solved by IVF, conventional IVF has not yielded the same successful outcome in cases of male-factor infertility [5]. Today, biological fatherhood is possible in certain cases of severe male-factor infertility due to the development of intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) [6]. Azoospermia, i.e. the absence of sperm in the ejaculate, is seen in 10% of male-factor infertility cases [7]; it can be either obstructive or non-obstructive/testicular. Surgical sperm retrieval, i.e. spermatozoa collection from either the epididymis or the testis, is required to treat obstructive azoos
Comparison of CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) Frequency in Colon Cancer Using Different Probe- and Gene-Specific Scoring Alternatives on Recommended Multi-Gene Panels
Marianne Berg, Hanne R. Hagland, Kjetil S?reide
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086657
Abstract: Background In colorectal cancer a distinct subgroup of tumours demonstrate the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). However, a consensus of how to score CIMP is not reached, and variation in definition may influence the reported CIMP prevalence in tumours. Thus, we sought to compare currently suggested definitions and cut-offs for methylation markers and how they influence CIMP classification in colon cancer. Methods Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA), with subsequent fragment analysis, was used to investigate methylation of tumour samples. In total, 31 CpG sites, located in 8 different genes (RUNX3, MLH1, NEUROG1, CDKN2A, IGF2, CRABP1, SOCS1 and CACNA1G) were investigated in 64 distinct colon cancers and 2 colon cancer cell lines. The Ogino gene panel includes all 8 genes, in addition to the Weisenberger panel of which only 5 of the 8 genes included were investigated. In total, 18 alternative combinations of scoring of CIMP positivity on probe-, gene-, and panel-level were analysed and compared. Results For 47 samples (71%), the CIMP status was constant and independent of criteria used for scoring; 34 samples were constantly scored as CIMP negative, and 13 (20%) consistently scored as CIMP positive. Only four of 31 probes (13%) investigated showed no difference in the numbers of positive samples using the different cut-offs. Within the panels a trend was observed that increasing the gene-level stringency resulted in a larger difference in CIMP positive samples than increasing the probe-level stringency. A significant difference between positive samples using ‘the most stringent’ as compared to ‘the least stringent’ criteria (20% vs 46%, respectively; p<0.005) was demonstrated. Conclusions A statistical significant variation in the frequency of CIMP depending on the cut-offs and genes included in a panel was found, with twice as many positives samples by least compared to most stringent definition used.
Tailoring Properties of Biocompatible PEG-DMA Hydrogels with UV Light  [PDF]
Sania B?ckstr?m, Juana Benavente, Rolf W. Berg, Karin Stibius, Marianne S. Larsen, Henrik Bohr, Claus Hélix-Nielsen
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2012.36060
Abstract: Hydrogels are highly water-absorbent hydrophilic polymer networks, which show potential in many biocompatible applications. In previous work, we demonstrated the feasibility of using poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEG-DMA) gels polymerized with a photoinitiator for encapsulation and stabilization of painted biomimetic membrane arrays for novel separation technologies or biosensor applications. These gels were formed from PEG-DMA monomers suspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution and gelated by radical polymerization in the presence of the photoinitiator Darocur 1173. In this work, we show that the properties of a PEG-DMA hydrogel formed by photoinitiated polymerizetion can be tailored by varying the photocrosslinking time. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy (RS) showed that the optimal crosslinking time for the gel was 6 - 10 minutes and that the water content of the gels could be tuned in the range of 50 - 90 wt%. The resistivity was between 0.8 - 3.5 Ωm, which is comparable to that of PBS. The low resistivity of the gel makes it compatible for encapsulating membranes for (ion channel based) biosensor applications. With FTIR and RS we identified spectral features of the hydrogel, which may serve as a diagnostic tool to monitor changes in the gels due to variation in parameters such as time, pH, temperature, aging or exposure to chemicals or biological material.
Copy number variations of the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCC6 gene and its pseudogenes
Marianne K Kringen, Camilla Stormo, Runa M Grimholt, Jens P Berg, Armin P Piehler
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-425
Abstract: Genomic DNA from healthy individuals from five populations, Chinese (n?=?24), Middle East (n?=?20), Mexicans (n?=?24), Caucasians (n?=?50) and Africans (n?=?24), were examined for copy number variations of ABCC6 and its pseudogenes by pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. Copy number variation of ABCC6 was very rare (2/142; 1.4%). However, one or three copies of ABCC6P1 were relatively common (3% and 8%, respectively). Only one person had a single copy of ABCC6P2 while none had three copies. In Chinese, deletions or duplications of ABCC6P1 were more frequent than in any other population (9/24; 37.5%). The transcription pattern of ABCC6P2 was highly similar to ABCC6 and ABCC6P1, with highest transcription in liver and kidney. Interestingly, the total transcription level of pseudogenes, ABCC6P1?+?ABCC6P2, was higher than ABCC6 in most tissues, including liver and kidney.Copy number variations of the ABCC6 pseudogenes are quite common, especially in populations of Chinese ancestry. The expression pattern of ABCC6P2 in 39 human tissues was highly similar to that of ABCC6 and ABCC6P1 suggesting similar regulatory mechanisms for ABCC6 and its pseudogenes.The ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCC6 belongs to a large family of membrane proteins (ABC transporters) that are a highly conserved and present in all organisms from bacteria to man [1,2]. The ABCC6 gene (Entrez Gene ID 368) is located on the short arm of chromosome 16 along with two shorter, almost identical (> 99% sequence identity), pseudogenes; ABCC6P1 (Entrez Gene ID 653190) and ABCC6P2 (Entrez Gene ID 730013) (Figure 1) [3]. Pseudogenes are generally defined as non-functional genes, meaning that they usually do not produce a transcript or a functional protein [4,5]. Transcription of ABCC6 pseudogenes have been described [3,6,7], and recently we found strong evidence for a regulatory interdependency between ABCC6 and its pseudogene ABCC6P1[7].Mutations and deletions in ABCC6 are known to cause the rare (prevalenc
A novel 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) splice variant with an alternative exon 1 potentially encoding an extended N-terminus
Stormo Camilla,Kringen Marianne K,Grimholt Runa M,Berg Jens P
BMC Molecular Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2199-13-29
Abstract: Background The major rate-limiting enzyme for de novo cholesterol synthesis is 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR). HMGCR is sterically inhibited by statins, the most commonly prescribed drugs for the prevention of cardiovascular events. Alternative splicing of HMGCR has been implicated in the control of cholesterol homeostasis. The aim of this study was to identify novel alternatively spliced variants of HMGCR with potential physiological importance. Results Bioinformatic analyses predicted three novel HMGCR transcripts containing an alternative exon 1 (HMGCR-1b, -1c, -1d) compared with the canonical transcript (HMGCR-1a). The open reading frame of the HMGCR-1b transcript potentially encodes 20 additional amino acids at the N-terminus, compared with HMGCR-1a. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to examine the mRNA levels of HMGCR in different tissues; HMGCR-1a was the most highly expressed variant in most tissues, with the exception of the skin, esophagus, and uterine cervix, in which HMGCR-1b was the most highly expressed transcript. Atorvastatin treatment of HepG2 cells resulted in increased HMGCR-1b mRNA levels, but unaltered proximal promoter activity compared to untreated cells. In contrast, HMGCR-1c showed a more restricted transcription pattern, but was also induced by atorvastatin treatment. Conclusions The gene encoding HMGCR uses alternative, mutually exclusive exon 1 sequences. This contributes to an increased complexity of HMGCR transcripts. Further studies are needed to investigate whether HMGCR splice variants identified in this study are physiologically functional.
Leadership Ideas—A Study with Prospective Nursing Leaders  [PDF]
Marianne Frilund
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.55054
Abstract: Introduction: The study is based on P. Kostenbaums theory about leadership as greatness. His theory distinguishes four interdependent leadership “orientations”: ethics, vision, courage and reality. People with qualities have developed greatness and wisdom in their mind, as well as competence to act ethically. The leadership research has shaped a leadership figure that can be described as a picture of a hero. Aim: The aim of this paper is to find out the idea of leadership based on earlier research and analyse their relevancy for nursing-management. Method: The study is a qualitative study based on earlier studies with focus on the basic idea of leadership with relevancy for nursing management and leadership. Sex students, from a master degree program in Finland, collected data based on earlier research. Findings and Interpretation: The ideas of leadership consist of three basic ideas: leadership as greatness, leadership as interactions and relations, and leadership based on the idea of shared leadership. Discussion: The prospects for leading others are to master the balance between the degree of freedom and control, to build trust, and to provide directives and control until confidence. To lead without “meeting” makes that the employers never give desired results. The purposes of the ideas of leadership are to create trust, confidence and understanding of where the other person is located. Being seen and being confirmed is fundamental to pace an individual and create opportunities to lead within nursing care.
Mapping Trajectories of Attention to Drug Related Issues in Estonian Main Dailies  [PDF]
Marianne Paimre
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2015.32005
Abstract: Illicit drugs have been a burning social issue in Estonia over the last fifteen years. Estonia has taken the lead in Europe with regard to drug-related deaths and prevalence of HIV among injecting drug users. Experimental drug use among Estonian students is more widespread than the European average. It is important to study press coverage, because according to agenda setting theory, the media plays an important role in influencing the salience of social issues on the public agenda. The aim of this article is to map fluctuations in attention received from Estonian two major dailies to different drug related issues during the last 25 years. The author focuses on issues highlighted in national and international drug reports such as drug addiction, drug related crime, spread of HIV among addicts, drug-induced deaths, drug problem in schools etc. Content analysis of almost 1000 press articles reflecting drug problems in Estonia was carried out from 1990 to 2014. The study revealed that since 1995, attention received from the major newspapers to drug related crime has been high and quite stable compared to other drug issues. Press interest with regard to problem drug use and HIV was notice a bleat the turn of the millennium and in the beginning of the new century, but almost lost by 2014. More intense periods of coverage were triggered by specific events. Only a few articles have reflected drug induced death despite the fact that Estonia is the undisputed leader in the EU regarding this indicator. This reflects that the coverage was not been in line with the drug situation in Estonia. It seems that the attention of the press depends rather on newsworthiness of the issue and the agenda setting processes.
Multicultural Working Teams and Safety Awareness: How Effective Leadership Can Motivate Safety Behaviour  [PDF]
Marianne Starren
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.77102
Abstract: This empirical study focuses on the diversity of cultural values and leadership preferences in multicultural working teams and how this interaction makes it difficult to guarantee and motivate safety at the workfloor. It is often hypothesized that when employees from different national identities have to work together in one team, their different cultural backgrounds make a common mental state of safety awareness very complex. In managing this diversity of cultural values, the role of leadership style could be crucial. The results show that a cultural value as uncertainty avoidance clearly has its influence on safety awareness and that this outcome is mediated by the motivating leadership style.
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