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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 145291 matches for " Mariangela F.;Victora "
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Diferenciais socioecon?micos na realiza??o de exame de urina no pré-natal
Silveira,Mariangela F; Barros,Aluísio J D; Santos,Iná S; Matijasevich,Alicia; Victora,Cesar G;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102008000300001
Abstract: objective: urinalysis is an essential component of the prenatal routine, as urinary tract infections during pregnancy may lead to preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity. the objective of the study was to analyze factors associated to the solicitation of urinalysis during pregnancy. methods: during 2004, 4,163 women living in the urban area of pelotas (southern brazil) and who had received prenatal care were interviewed after delivery in the maternity hospitals of the city. prevalence of the non-performance of urinalysis was analyzed in relation to socioeconomic and demographic variables, as well as to characteristics of prenatal care. after a bivariate analysis, logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with the outcome, controlling for possible confusion factors at a 5% level of significance. results: the prevalence of not having had the test was 3%. the multivariate analysis showed that black skin color, poverty, low schooling, being unmarried and having fewer than six prenatal visits were associated with a higher probability of not carrying out the test. women who were black, poor and with low schooling presented a 10% probability of not being examined, compared to 0.4% for mothers who were white, wealthy and highly educated. conclusions: despite the fact that urinalysis is essential for preventing complications for the mother and newborn, 3% of the women were not screened. screening coverage may serve as an indicator to assess the quality of prenatal care. pregnant women who are black, poor, with low schooling and unmarried should be targeted in programs for improving the quality of care.
Determinants of preterm birth: Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, 2004 birth cohort
Silveira, Mariangela F.;Victora, Cesar G.;Barros, Aluísio J. D.;Santos, Iná S.;Matijasevich, Alicia;Barros, Fernando C.;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2010000100019
Abstract: prematurity is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and a global health problem that affects high, middle and low-income countries. several factors may increase the risk of preterm birth. in this article, we test the hypothesis that different risk factors determine preterm birth in different income groups by investigating whether risk factors for preterm deliveries in the 2004 pelotas (rio grande do sul state, brazil) birth cohort vary among those groups. a total of 4,142 women were included in the analysis. preterm births were equally common among women who had spontaneous vaginal deliveries as for those with induced or operative births. in the multivariate analysis the factors that remained significantly associated with preterm birth were black skin color, low education, poverty, young maternal age, primiparity, previous preterm birth, inadequacy of prenatal care and reported hypertension. in the analyses repeated after stratification by family income terciles, there was no evidence of effect modification by income and no clear difference between the socioeconomic groups. no association between cesarean section and preterm delivery was found. further studies are required to understand the causes of the epidemic of preterm births in brazil.
Aumento da prematuridade no Brasil: revis?o de estudos de base populacional
Silveira,Mariangela F; Santos,Iná S; Barros,Aluísio J D; Matijasevich,Alicia; Barros,Fernando C; Victora,Cesar G;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102008000500023
Abstract: objective: the greatest cause of infant mortality in brazil is perinatal conditions, mostly associated with preterm delivery. the objective of the study was to evaluate the evolution of preterm delivery rates in brazil. methods: a review was conducted using the medline and lilacs databases, including published studies in periodicals, thesis and dissertations since 1950. exclusion criteria were: studies related to clinical trials and those with complications at gestation and preterm delivery and care. inclusion criteria were: population-based studies on prevalence of preterm delivery in brazil, with representative sample of the studied population, and using primary data. out of 71 studies found, analysis was carried out on 12. results: the prevalence of preterm delivery found ranged from 3.4% to 15.0% in the southern and southeastern regions between 1978 and 2004, with a rising trend from the 1990s onwards. studies in the northeastern region between 1984 and 1998 found prevalences of preterm delivery ranging from 3.8% to 10.2%, also with a rising trend. conclusions: data from the national live birth information system do not corroborate these trends. rather, they show differences between the preterm rates given by this system and the rates measured in the studies included in this review. because of the important role of preterm birth in relation to infant mortality in brazil, it is important to identify the cause of these increases and to plan interventions that can diminish their occurrence.
Preterm births, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction in three birth cohorts in Southern Brazil: 1982, 1993 and 2004
Barros, Fernando C.;Victora, Cesar G.;Matijasevich, Alicia;Santos, Iná S.;Horta, Bernardo L.;Silveira, Mariangela F.;Barros, Aluísio J. D.;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2008001500004
Abstract: three birth cohort studies from 1982, 1993 and 2004, in pelotas, southern brazil provided the data for this study of trends in preterm births, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. we found a slight increase in the period in the low birth weight prevalence from 9% to 10%. intrauterine growth restriction decreased from 14.8% in 1982 to 9.4% in 1993, and subsequently increased to 12% in 2004, whereas preterm births increased markedly, from 6.3% in 1982 to 14.7% in 2004. this striking increment could not be explained by changes in maternal characteristics, as mothers in 2004 were heavier, smoked less during pregnancy and attended antenatal clinics more often and earlier than those of previous cohorts. however, pregnancy interruptions due either to caesarean sections or to inductions significantly increased. caesareans increased from 28% in 1982 to 45% in 2004, and inductions were 2.5% in 1982 but 11.1% in 2004. the increase in preterms could be partially explained by the growing number of pregnancy interruptions, but there must be other causes since this increase was also observed among babies born by non-induced vaginal deliveries.
Impacto de interven??es no uso de preservativos em portadores do HIV
Silveira,Mariangela F; Santos,Iná dos;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102005000200023
Abstract: in order to identify educational interventions promoting male condom use during intercourse among hiv+ persons, we conducted a systematic review of publications. lilacs/bireme, medline and popline data sets and cdc and unaids sites were searched without time limit. uniterms used were: women; men; interventions; hiv; aids; hiv positive; risk behaviors; sexual risk behaviors; and intervention studies. fourteen interventions were included, eight of which reported a positive result. most frequent methodological weaknesses observed were lack of randomization, no control for confounding, high rates of losses to follow-up, small sample sizes, and outcome of condom use stated by patient self-report. publication bias favoring studies showing a beneficial effect has to be considered. effective interventions aiming to promote condom use among hiv positive persons are currently an important tool in the prevention of hiv dissemination.
Factors associated with condom use in women from an urban area in southern Brazil
Silveira, Mariangela Freitas da;Santos, Iná Silva dos;Béria, Jorge Umberto;Horta, Bernardo Lessa;Tomasi, Elaine;Victora, Cesar Gomes;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2005000500029
Abstract: this study investigated the prevalence of factors associated with condom use during last sexual intercourse in 15-49-year-old women in a probabilistic sample from the urban area of pelotas, southern brazil. a questionnaire administered by an interviewer, investigating socioeconomic characteristics and habits, and another (self-administered) questionnaire on sexual behavior-related variables were used. poisson regression, following a hierarchical model, was used for data analysis. 1,543 women were included, and losses and refusals amounted to 3.5%. prevalence of condom use in last sexual intercourse was 28.0%. condom use was positively associated with younger age, greater schooling, non-white color, single marital status, and greater number of sex partners in the previous three months. this suggests that the group most vulnerable to stds/aids due to lack of condom use is white, adult women, in stable unions, with fewer sexual partners.
Patterns of deliveries in a Brazilian birth cohort: almost universal cesarean sections for the better-off
Barros,Aluísio J D; Santos,Iná S; Matijasevich,Alicia; Domingues,Marlos Rodrigues; Silveira,Mariangela; Barros,Fernando C; Victora,Cesar G;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102011005000039
Abstract: objective: to describe the patterns of deliveries in a birth cohort and to compare vaginal and cesarean section deliveries. methods: all children born to mothers from the urban area of pelotas, brazil, in 2004, were recruited for a birth cohort study. mothers were contacted and interviewed during their hospital stay when extensive information on the gestation, the birth and the newborn, along with maternal health history and family characteristics was collected. maternal characteristics and childbirth care financing - either private or public healthcare (sus) patients - were the main factors investigated along with a description of c-sections distribution according to day of the week and delivery time. standard descriptive techniques, χ2 tests for comparing proportions and poisson regression to explore the independent effect of c-section predictors were the methods used. results: the overall c-section rate was 45%, 36% among sus and 81% among private patients, where 35% of c-sections were reported elective. c-sections were more frequent on tuesdays and wednesdays, reducing by about a third on sundays, while normal deliveries had a uniform distribution along the week. delivery time for c-sections was markedly different among public and private patients. maternal schooling was positively associated with c-section among sus patients, but not among private patients. conclusions: c-sections were almost universal among the wealthier mothers, and strongly related to maternal education among sus patients. the patterns we describe are compatible with the idea that c-sections are largely done to suit the doctor's schedule. drastic action is called for to change the current situation.
Avalia??o de eficácia do Programa de Controle da Doen?a de Chagas: aspectos metodológicos
Carneiro, Mariangela;Antunes, Carlos M. F.;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1994, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1994000800004
Abstract: the efficacy of the chagas' disease control program was estimated in minas gerais state. areas with different intervention times (10 and 5 years) and without intervention (control) were compared in order to verify a possible reduction in trypanosoma cruzi infection incidence rates among those born after the control program. the program efficacy was estimated comparing this study's infection rates with rates published by the chagas' disease serological survey, conducted between 1975-1980. the cross-sectional comparison for the 2-6-year age group showed a reduction of 94.7%, 63.2%, and 65.2% respectively, in areas where interventions had been carried for 10 years, 5 years, and in control areas. cohort comparison, however indicated that reduction (52.6) occurred only in the area with 10 years of intervention. the data routinely collected by the control program were also analyzed and correlated with the incidence of t. cruzi infection. the results showed association between the control program and reduction in t. cruzi infection, measured by serological tests.
Avalia o de eficácia do Programa de Controle da Doen a de Chagas: aspectos metodológicos
Carneiro Mariangela,Antunes Carlos M. F.
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1994,
Abstract: A eficácia do Programa de Controle da Doen a de Chagas (PCDCh) foi estimada em um estudo conduzido no Estado de Minas Gerais. áreas com diferentes tempos de interven o (cinco e 10 anos) e sem interven o (controle) foram comparadas para verificar possível redu o na incidência da infec o pelo Trypanosoma cruzi nos habitantes nascidos após a implanta o do PCDCh. A eficácia do PCDCh foi estimada pela compara o dos resultados da infec o pelo T. cruzi, com resultados obtidos pelo Inquérito Sorológico Nacional (1975-1980), realizado antes do início do Programa. A compara o seccional para a faixa etária de 2-6 anos indicou redu o nos índices de infec o de 94,7% (área de 10 anos), 63,2% (área de cinco anos) e 65,2% (área sem interven o). Entretanto, a análise de coorte, para as faixa etárias de 2-6 anos e 7-14 anos, mostrou que a redu o observada (52,6%) ocorreu somente na área com 10 anos de interven o. A análise dos dados sobre triatomíneos coletados na rotina do PCDCh estabeleceu correla o com a redu o de infec o pelo T. cruzi, observada na área com interven o. Os resultados encontrados mostraram associa o entre as a es do PCDCh e a redu o da infec o pelo T. cruzi, estimada por testes sorológicos.
Co-Inoculation of Soybean with Bradyrhizobium and Azospirillum Promotes Early Nodulation  [PDF]
Amaral Machaculeha Chibeba, Maria de Fátima Guimar?es, Osmar Rodrigues Brito, Marco Antonio Nogueira, Ricardo Silva Araujo, Mariangela Hungria
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.610164
Abstract: Soybean inoculation with elite strains of Bradyrhizobium to improve nodulation, N2 fixation, and grain yield is well established worldwide. However, when grown in soils where N is deficient, soybean undergoes an initial phase of N starvation that may last up to 20 days after seedling germination due to the lack of synchronism between the phase when seed N reserves are exhausted and the moment when plants begin to benefit from the nitrogen fixed by the bacteria. Practices that promote early nodulation may play a key role in reducing the N starvation period. Azospirillum is a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that can stimulate root hair formation and root growth, creating more sites for early root infection and nodule formation by N2-fixing Bradyrhizobium spp. In this study, the effects of co-inoculating soybeans with Bradyrhizobium spp. and Azospirillum brasilense on nodulation precocity and N2 fixation were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions. Nodule number and dry weight, as well as plant and root dry weight and N accumulated in shoots at 15, 18, 21, 24 and 30 days after emergence (DAE) were evaluated in response to inoculation with Bradyrhizobium spp. alone or when co-inoculated with Azospirillum sp. In the greenhouse, co-inoculated plants nodulated precociously as indicated by a significant increase (p < 0.05) in nodule biomass observed at (include) 21 DAE. More pronounced effects of co-inoculation were observed in the field as early as 18 DAE, suggesting that the presence of Azospirillum helps plants to overcome environmental stresses.
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