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DNA Fingerprinting and Assessment of Genetic Diversity among 22 Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] Varieties Grown in Ghana  [PDF]
Benjamin A. Danso, Daniel K. Dzidzienyo, Ruth N. A. Prempeh, Marian D. Quain
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104938
Abstract:
Identification of varieties based on only morphological traits is limited by the influence of environment on such morphological traits. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fingerprinting offers an efficient system of identifying varieties at the DNA level without any environmental interference. This work used 20 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers to characterise twenty-two cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] varieties for the purposes of varietal protection and further assessed for genetic diversity. This study was conducted at the Biotechnology laboratory of Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Crops Research Institute, Ghana (CSIR-CRI). The varieties were made up of 15 cultivars released by CSIR-CRI, Ghana, 5 cultivars released by CSIR-Savannah Agricultural Research Institute, Ghana (SARI), 1 advanced line, 1 landrace and 1 exotic variety. Nineteen out of the 20 SSR markers used in this study were polymorphic. These polymorphic primers generated a range of 1 to 6 alleles per primer with polymorphic information content (PIC) varying from 0.107 (SSR-6608) to 0.656 (SSR-6613). Allele frequency ranged from 0.136 (SSR- 6371) to 0.841 (SSR-6608) with mean of 0.445. With the aid of Darwin software, dissimilarity matrix and a dendrogram were generated from the molecular data to evaluate and group the varieties based on genetic resemblance. Three pairs of varieties (Agyenkwa and Adom; Hewale and Ayiyi; Zamzam and Hewale) recorded the highest genetic distance of 0.652 each. The genetic information gathered for each variety has been made available to the breeding institutions. The genetic diversity detected among the varieties fingerprinted will be helpful to plant breeders in selecting parents for future cowpea improvement programmes.
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE FIELD PERFORMANCE OF FHIA-01 (HYBRID DESSERT BANANA) PROPAGATED FROM TISSUE CULTURE AND CONVENTIONAL SUCKER IN GHANA
DZOMEKU BELOVED MENSAH,QUAIN MARIAN DORCAS,BAM RALPH KWAME,DARKEY SOLOMON KODJO
Journal of Plant Development , 2012,
Abstract: Micro-propagated plants of FHIA-01 (exotic hybrid dessert banana) were grown and their shoot-tip cultures were produced following standard method. Suckers were taken from the same plants as with the shoot-tip culture samples. The design was the randomly complete block. The plant density was 1667 plants/ha. Plants were fertilized at the rate of 40t/ha poultry manure per year split over 3 equal applications. Statistical analysis of data was performed with ANOVA. The field performance of in vitro propagated (tissue culture) tetraploid banana (FHIA-01) plants was compared with that of sucker-derived plants. In vitro-propagated plants established and grew faster, taller (240 cm) and bigger than the conventional sucker-derived plants. The former produced heavier bunches (39.1 t/ha) and could be harvested earlier. They however produced smaller number of fingers than the conventional sucker-derived plants. Significant differences were observed between the plant height and plant girth (48.6 cm) (at one metre above ground) at harvest. No significant difference was observed in bunch weight, number of hands, number of fingers and the number of leaves at harvest. The nutrient used in the Tissue culture medium may have played a significant role in the growth vigour of FHIA-01. It may also be having an influence on the performance of the hybrid. This influence may improve the yield of the crop thus improving the economy of farmers.
THE IMPACT OF AGEING ON CHITIN SCARS IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE
Christopher D. Powell,David E. Quain,Katherine A. Smart
The Scientific World Journal , 2001, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2001.246
Abstract:
Human resource governance: what does governance mean for the health workforce in low- and middle-income countries?
Kaplan Avril D,Dominis Sarah,Palen John GH,Quain Estelle E
Human Resources for Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4491-11-6
Abstract: Background Research on practical and effective governance of the health workforce is limited. This paper examines health system strengthening as it occurs in the intersection between the health workforce and governance by presenting a framework to examine health workforce issues related to eight governance principles: strategic vision, accountability, transparency, information, efficiency, equity/fairness, responsiveness and citizen voice and participation. Methods This study builds off of a literature review that informed the development of a framework that describes linkages and assigns indicators between governance and the health workforce. A qualitative analysis of Health System Assessment (HSA) data, a rapid indicator-based methodology that determines the key strengths and weaknesses of a health system using a set of internationally recognized indicators, was completed to determine how 20 low- and middle-income countries are operationalizing health governance to improve health workforce performance. Results/discussion The 20 countries assessed showed mixed progress in implementing the eight governance principles. Strengths highlighted include increasing the transparency of financial flows from sources to providers by implementing and institutionalizing the National Health Accounts methodology; increasing responsiveness to population health needs by training new cadres of health workers to address shortages and deliver care to remote and rural populations; having structures in place to register and provide licensure to medical professionals upon entry into the public sector; and implementing pilot programs that apply financial and non-financial incentives as a means to increase efficiency. Common weaknesses emerging in the HSAs include difficulties with developing, implementing and evaluating health workforce policies that outline a strategic vision for the health workforce; implementing continuous licensure and regulation systems to hold health workers accountable after they enter the workforce; and making use of health information systems to acquire data from providers and deliver it to policymakers. Conclusions The breadth of challenges facing the health workforce requires strengthening health governance as well as human resource systems in order to effect change in the health system. Further research into the effectiveness of specific interventions that enhance the link between the health workforce and governance are warranted to determine approaches to strengthening the health system.
The Cysteine Protease–Cysteine Protease Inhibitor System Explored in Soybean Nodule Development
Barend Juan Vorster,Urte Schlüter,Magdeleen du Plessis,Stefan van Wyk,Matome Eugene Makgopa,Ignatious Ncube,Marian Dorcas Quain,Karl Kunert,Christine Helen Foyer
Agronomy , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agronomy3030550
Abstract: Almost all protease families have been associated with plant development, particularly senescence, which is the final developmental stage of every organ before cell death. Proteolysis remobilizes and recycles nitrogen from senescent organs that is required, for example, seed development. Senescence-associated expression of proteases has recently been characterized using large-scale gene expression analysis seeking to identify and characterize senescence-related genes. Increasing activities of proteolytic enzymes, particularly cysteine proteases, are observed during the senescence of legume nodules, in which a symbiotic relationship between the host plant and bacteria ( Rhizobia) facilitate the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. It is generally considered that cysteine proteases are compartmentalized to prevent uncontrolled proteolysis in nitrogen-fixing nodules. In addition, the activities of cysteine proteases are regulated by endogenous cysteine protease inhibitors called cystatins. These small proteins form reversible complexes with cysteine proteases, leading to inactivation. However, very little is currently known about how the cysteine protease-cysteine protease inhibitor (cystatin) system is regulated during nodule development. Moreover, our current understanding of the expression and functions of proteases and protease inhibitors in nodules is fragmented. To address this issue, we have summarized the current knowledge and techniques used for studying proteases and their inhibitors including the application of “omics” tools, with a particular focus on changes in the cysteine protease-cystatin system during nodule development.
The influence of cluster type economic agglomerations on the entrepreneurship, in Romania
Adriana REVEIU,Marian D?RDAL?
Theoretical and Applied Economics , 2012,
Abstract: Regional clusters and entrepreneurship have become very popular research topic in many areas, such as: economics, regional science, and economic geography.A large number of scientific papers published in the last years investigate the empirical evidence for clusters, their definition, and their implications for economic policy. Also, a series of working tools for regional cluster analyses have been proposed.Entrepreneurial activities interact and their characteristics are normally bound to the region. Entrepreneurial activities take place in interaction with other economic activities conducted at the local level, and the interaction between them can be the starting point of an economic cluster.There are lots of arguments for the hypothesis that existing regional clusters have positive impact on the entrepreneurial activities. But only few analyses exist referring to the relationship between clusters attributes of a region and the entrepreneurial activities in the same region. From my knowledge, it is not such of analyses about Romania.This paper aims to identify regions with potential industrial clusters, from Romania, and to analyse their impact on the entrepreneurial environment. Data about all the companies acting in Romania, in 2011 are used to elaborate the spatial clusters in the most concentrated Romania industries. A second data set with information about new establishments in last year is used, from the National Trade Register Office statistics. This data set serves to assess the relationship between regional clusters and entrepreneurial activities. The paper tests the empirically proven hypothesis which stipulates that the existence of one or several cluster type agglomerations in a region has a positive impact on the number of start-ups in the same region.The results obtained from descriptive and regression analyses have shown that there is a positive relationship between the number of cluster type agglomerations and the entrepreneurial activities.
Evaluating a Student MIS in the Tertiary Education Sector: Addressing Functional-Operational Misalignment through Continuous Participative Evaluation  [PDF]
Marian Carcary
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2010.31004
Abstract: The Information and Communications Technology (ICT) evaluation literature spans several decades. ICT evaluation approaches range from objective and positivistic to subjective and interpretive. While positivistic approaches have dominated the past, there is increasing recognition of the value of interpretivist methods and the need for ongoing project evaluation. Formative continuous participative evaluation (CPE) offers several benefits in terms of project control, enhanced stakeholder relationships and benefit realisation; nonetheless this is often ignored in practice. There is a paucity of ICT evaluation within the Higher Education sector. The 14 Irish Institutes of Technology (IoTs) recently underwent an extensive transformation of their ICT systems, through a nationwide implementation of a suite of integrated IS. This research study, centred on the evaluation of the Student MIS implementation was interpretive in nature; case studies were conducted in five IoTs. This paper focuses specifically on one issue uncovered through the research i.e. the misalignment between the Student MIS and the IoTs requirements. The paper proposes a set of guidelines for addressing this issue through focusing on the theoretical underpinnings of CPE and its importance for organisational learning and benefit realisation.
Cancer Status: Mocb and tPSA Prostate Cancer Markers  [PDF]
Marian Surma
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.36144
Abstract: On the basis of the results of magneto-optical studies and their comparison with the outcome of medical tests magneto-optical MOCB and tPSA serum markers of cancer/recovered patient are presented. Status of the cancer serum donor is recognized as presence of the laevorotatory optical active molecules of (-)p density in serum while status of the recovered donor is recognized as quantitative domination of the dextrorotatory (+)p molecules in serum. These molecular information carriers (-)p and (+)p are recorded by the magneto-optical circular birefringence MOCB effect in B2 magnetic field. The laevo/dextrorotatory carriers are enantiomers in the case of (-)p = (+)p relations fulfilled for any individual cancer and the same recovered patient. The positive predictive value PPV of MOCB results is 100%.
Enantiomers Present in Serum Carry Cancer and/or Recovery Status Information  [PDF]
Marian Surma
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.56071
Abstract:

Human blood serum of cancer, cancer-recovered and healthy patients contains laevorotatory and dextrorotatory B2 active molecules. The laevorotatory B2 active carriers in patient serum carry information on the cancer status while the dextrorotatory B2 active carriers carry information on the recovered and/or healthy patient status. Their magneto-optical characteristic is analysed by the B2 Magneto Optical Circular Birefringence. By applying the MOCB experimental technique, it is possible to differentiate between the cancer and non-cancer patients. The paper introduces a purely molecular physics approach for description of the cancer/recovered and also non-cancer patients status.

“To Understand Russia”? Question about Russia as a Philosophical Problem  [PDF]
Marian Broda
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.44063
Abstract: The aim of this article is to identify and explain the cognitive possibilities which—for the sake of analysis of the questions about Russia and the efforts to “understand Russia”, for centuries central to the Russian intellectual and cultural tradition—are offered by the post-Kantian philosophical perspective. The fundamental research method is the analysis of texts in which representative members of the Russian philosophical and broader intelectual-cultural tradition undertake selfcoqnitive attempts, asking questions about Russia. The analyses which I have undertaken, show that in the post-Kantian theoretical perspective it is possible to strive for recognition of the basic assumptions, structures, properties and conditions of the sense-making processes, which are invisible for such a subject, which is directly involved in a specific cognitive relation. It is then possible and required to determine which forms and structures can appear—and why—within those basic assumptions or conditions as important—from the perspective of subject, object or axiology—the recognition of factors, conditions and limits of heterogenization of the basic structural and substantial solutions, the recurring relations of senses and the types of their specifications, and the scope and methods of permitted self-problematization. In conclusion, I wish to state that the questions about Russia are, therefore, truly questions of their authors about themselves and their way of understanding the world.
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