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Sensitivity of Solar Photovoltaic Panel Efficiency to Weather and Dust over West Africa: Comparative Experimental Study between Niamey (Niger) and Abidjan (C?te d’Ivoire)  [PDF]
Alima Dajuma, Saleye Yahaya, Siaka Touré, Arona Diedhiou, Rabani Adamou, Abdourahamane Konaré, Mariama Sido, Michel Golba
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2016.54012
Abstract: Energy demand is increasing while we are facing a depletion of fossils fuels, the main source of energy production in the world. These last years, photovoltaic (PV) system technologies are growing rapidly among alternative sources of energy to contribute to mitigation of climate change. However, PV system efficiency researches operating under West African weather conditions are nascent. The first objective of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of common monocrystalline PV efficiency to local meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity, solar radiation) in two contrasted cities over West Africa: Niamey (Niger) in a Sahelian arid area and Abidjan (Cote d’Ivoire) in atropical humid area. The second objective is to quantify the effect of dust accumulation on PV efficiency in Niamey (Niger). The preliminary results show that PV efficiency is more sensitive to high temperature change especially under Niamey climate conditions (warmer than Abidjan) where high ambient temperatures above 33°C lead to an important decrease of PV efficiency. Increase of relative humidity induces a decrease of PV efficiency in both areas (Niamey and Abidjan). A power loss up to 12.46% is observed in Niamey after 21 days of dust accumulation.
An Assessment of Seasonal Variation of Air Pollution in Benin City, Southern Nigeria  [PDF]
Verere Sido Balogun, Oluwagbenga Oluwapamilerin Isaac Orimoogunje
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2015.53015
Abstract: This study determined the effects of seasonality on air pollution in a tropical city of Southern Nigeria. This was with a view to acquiring data that would be useful in policy formulation and planning for proper management of ailments that result from seasonal variation of air pollution in the study area. Sampling for the study covered a period of six months, between mid-October 2013 and mid-April 2014. Air pollutants, taken into consideration, include particulate matter (PM0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10μm) and carbon monoxide (CO). Particulate matter was measured using a hand-held particle counter, while CO was measured with a single gas monitor (T40 Rattler). Five sampling points were selected based on stratified sampling technique, which represented five land use types monitored in the study area. Sampling was carried out twice in a week in accordance with the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board, Delhi India. Sampling height was two meters above ground level. The student T-test was used to determine significant differences in monthly mean concentration of air pollutants across dry and wet seasons. The results revealed the dry season with mean values of 248568.19, 64639.04, 11140.21, 2810.39, 665.84, 320.80 particle counts for PM0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10μm and 3.01 ppm for CO concentration, was characterized by higher concentration of pollutants, while the rainy season with a mean values of 94728.24, 24745.69, 4338.29, 1158.11, 262.69, 131.36 particle counts for PM0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10μm and 2.70 ppm for CO concentration was characterized with less concentration of pollutants. The study concludes that seasonality significantly influences the concentration of pollutants in the city.
Social and Health Care Access for the Physically Disabled in 19th Century French-Speaking Switzerland : A Double Process of Exclusion and Integration
Kaba, Mariama
Hygiea Internationalis : an Interdisciplinary Journal for the History of Public Health , 2007,
Abstract: During the 19th century, an unprecedented process of medicalisation and institutionalisation took place in Europe. The parallel development of urbanised and industrialised areas furthered the densification of a network of care institutions such as infirmaries and dispensaries, whilst medical tourism was developed among the upper classes stimulating the founding of new private clinics. A more institutional kind of care structure for people suffering from a disability also emerged. This medical and/or social care structure was part of a process of integration or exclusion, according to whether the disabled person’s state of health was likely to improve or not. This paper will focus on physically disabled persons, who were vaguely referred to as invalids or as “incurable” in 19th century institutional documents. Being mainly interested in French-speaking Switzerland, I will present the access to social and health care in the cantons of Geneva, Vaud and Neuchatel.
Promo o da saúde e seu alcance biopolítico: o discurso sanitário da sociedade contemporanea Health promotion and its biopolitical extend: the sanitary discourse of contemporary society
Mariama Furtado,Ana Szapiro
Saúde e Sociedade , 2012,
Abstract: O conceito de Promo o da Saúde vem sendo trabalhado por diferentes atores sociais ao longo dos últimos vinte anos e publica es teóricas e pesquisas têm contribuído para proceder à delimita o dos conceitos e práticas nesta área; em alguns casos, partindo de um ponto de vista crítico com rela o ao seu arcabou o teórico-conceitual. Este artigo analisa o discurso sanitário contemporaneo no contexto das políticas de promo o da saúde; identificando essas políticas como estratégias reguladas, sobretudo, pela manuten o do projeto biopolítico de controle social dos corpos. Reconhecemos, ent o, o atual discurso da Promo o da Saúde como um dispositivo de regula o da vida que se define, de certo modo, pela continuidade do projeto biopolítico moderno tal como descrito por Foucault. Porém, mais do que isso, a promo o da saúde apresenta-se como uma forma de controle e regula o dos corpos através de uma inflex o sobre a responsabilidade individual na administra o da vida. Desta forma, o discurso da promo o da saúde ajusta-se à perspectiva das doutrinas do fim do Estado de Bem-Estar Social; constituindo-se como um projeto de autonomiza o dos indivíduos através da atribui o de responsabilidade sobre seus próprios cuidados. Nosso olhar sobre o quadro conceitual da promo o da saúde busca, assim, inserir-se no atual debate travado no campo da saúde coletiva, sublinhando as transforma es nas concep es de saúde e doen a, seu compromisso com o fim do Estado de prote o e seus efeitos nas sociabilidades. Over the past twenty years, the concept of Health Promotion has been discussed by different social actors; research and theoretical publications have contributed to establish the demarcation of the concepts and practices in this area, in some cases from a critical point of view of its theoretical and conceptual framework. This article examines the sanitary discourse of contemporary society in the context of health promotion policies, identifying these policies as being regulated mainly by the maintenance of a biopolitical project of social control of bodies. We recognize the current discourse of health promotion as a device for regulating life that defines, in a sense, the continuity of the biopolitical project of modern society as described by Foucault. But more than this, health promotion is presented as a form of control and regulation of bodies through an inflection on individual responsibility in the management of risks. Thus, we believe that the discourse of health promotion fits the perspective of the end of the Welfare State doctrines, establishing itse
Soldiers’ Hypertension Prevalence in Military Garrisons in the City of Conakry  [PDF]
Alpha Oumar Bah, Mamadou Foinké Bah, Fatoumata Binta Fofana, Mariama Beavogui
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2016.64016
Abstract: High blood pressure (HBP) is a public health problem worldwide. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of hypertension in military garrisons in Conakry, the capital. Material and Methods: The study was done in military garrisons. The data concern 1025 soldiers. This prospective and cross-sectional study took place from 13 November 2014 to 13 February 2015. Only the military who had agreed to participate in the study were included. Sociodemographic, clinical data and urine dipsticks were collected. Results: Among 1025 soldiers, 222 cases of HPB were observed, that was 21.66%. They were 193 men (86.94%) and 29 women (13.06%). The mean age was 46.05 years (range: 18 - 77 years). HPB cases were discovered in 155 soldiers (69.82%) in random observations. Following the grade of hypertension: 124 were of grade I, 62 of grade II, 35 of grade III and 1 case of isolated systolic hypertension was identified. Urinary dipstick tests showed that, 3 patients had proteinuria, 26 patients suffered from leucocyturia, 11 patients suffered from glycosuria and 1 case of hematuria was also identified. More than half of the soldiers (41%) were in the army. Officers were strongly affected (80.18%), followed by non-commissioned officers (17.12%) and finally enlisted men (2.70%). Risk factors were multiple: 78.82% ate very salty food; emotional stress; physical inactivity was observed in over half of the cases. Conclusion: This study gives an overall picture of the prevalence of hypertension in the military in Guinea. The discovery of the symptom lies on the systematic measurement of blood pressure.
Intrapulmonal dislocation of a totally implantable venous access device
Thilo Hackert, Christin Tjaden, Angelika Kraft, Bernd Sido, Hendrik Dienemann, Markus W Buchler
World Journal of Surgical Oncology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-3-19
Abstract: We present the case of a 49-year-old patient with the rare complication of a intrapulmonal catheter dislocation of a totally implantable venous access system. Treosulfane for chemotherapy of metastatic breast cancer was infused via the catheter causing instant coughing and dyspnoea which lead to the diagnosis of catheter dislocation. The intrapulmonal part of the catheter was removed under thoracoscopic control without further complications.Intrapulmonal catheter dislocation is a rare complication of a totally implantable venous access device which can not be avoided by any prophylactic measures. Therefore, the infusion system should be tested before each use and each new symptom, even when not obviously related to the catheter should be carefully documented and evaluated by expert physicians to avoid severe catheter-associated complications.Totally implantable venous access devices are widely used for infusion of chemotherapy or parenteral nutrition [1-4]. Implantation and use of these systems offer a high level of safety and convenience for patients and physicians. Device associated complications include technical operative problems, infections, paravasal infusions and catheter or punction chamber dislocation [1,2]. We present the case of a patient with the rare complication of an intrapulmonal catheter dislocation in a totally implantable venous access system.A 49-year-old female with metastatic breast cancer (supraclavicular lymph node metastases) presented with dyspnoea, intermittent coughing and general weakness. The patient had undergone chemotherapy with treosulfane via a totally implantable venous access port catheter the day before.The venous silicone catheter system (Fresenius Intraport, Fresenius Kabi, Bad Homburg, Germany) had been implanted 2 years before via the left cephalic vein by tangential incision of the vein after distal ligation without intra- or postoperative complications in our department. Correct placement had been documented by x-ray of t
Gene autoregulation via intronic microRNAs and its functions
Carla Bosia, Matteo Osella, Mariama Baroudi, Davide Corà, Michele Caselle
BMC Systems Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-0509-6-131
Abstract: Autoregulation via intronic microRNAs is widespread in the human regulatory network, as confirmed by our bioinformatic analysis, and can perform several regulatory tasks despite its simple topology. Our analysis, based on analytical calculations and simulations, indicates that this circuitry alters the dynamics of the host gene expression, can induce complex responses implementing adaptation and Weber’s law, and efficiently filters fluctuations propagating from the upstream network to the host gene. A fine-tuning of the circuit parameters can optimize each of these functions. Interestingly, they are all related to gene expression homeostasis, in agreement with the increasing evidence suggesting a role of microRNA regulation in conferring robustness to biological processes. In addition to model analysis, we present a list of bioinformatically predicted candidate circuits in human for future experimental tests.The results presented here suggest a potentially relevant functional role for negative self-regulation via intronic microRNAs, in particular as a homeostatic control mechanism of gene expression. Moreover, the map of circuit functions in terms of experimentally measurable parameters, resulting from our analysis, can be a useful guideline for possible applications in synthetic biology.microRNAs (miRNAs) are small (about 22 nucleotides) single-strand RNAs able to interfere post-transcriptionally with the protein production of their targets. Targeting a vast proportion of protein-coding genes [1-3], miRNA-mediated regulation composes an important layer in gene regulatory networks. The implication of miRNAs in several core cellular processes [4-7] as well as in many human diseases [8,9] further confirms their biological importance.Approximately half of the miRNA genes can be found in intergenic regions (between genes), whereas the intragenic miRNAs (inside genes) are predominantly located inside introns and usually oriented on the same DNA strand of the host gene [1
Compara o antropométrica, for a muscular e equilíbrio entre idosos praticantes e n o praticantes de muscula o
Camila Jarek,Mariama Henequin Oliveira,Waldir Rodrigo Nantes,Leandra Ulbricht
Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Envelhecimento Humano , 2010,
Abstract: A perda de for a, massa muscular e equilíbrio podem estar comprometidos com o envelhecimento em detrimento do declínio dos processos fisiológicos. O estudo tem por objetivo comparar a massa corporal, for a muscular e equilíbrio entre idosos praticantes e n o praticantes de muscula o. Foram avaliados 20 indivíduos idosos, dez praticantes de muscula o (64,4 ± 7,72 anos) e dez n o praticantes (68,7 ± 6,20 anos). A antropometria avaliou o peso, estatura, IMC, circunferência de bra o e coxa. A for a muscular foi mensurada através do teste submáximo para estimar 1 RM e teste de equilíbrio proposto por Berg para analisar o equilíbrio estático e dinamico. Verificou-se que os idosos treinados em muscula o, comparados n o treinados, apresentaram valores significativamente maiores para estatura, equilíbrio e nos testes de repeti o submáxima no Supino e no Leg Press. Concluiu-se que os indivíduos que realizam treinamento resistido, apresentaram melhor desempenho no teste de equilíbrio, bem como nos teste de for a muscular.
An epidemiological study of RSV infection in the Gambia
Weber Martin W.,Milligan Paul,Sanneh Mariama,Awemoyi Agnes
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in a developing country. METHODS: The work was carried out in three hospitals for primary cases and in the community for secondary cases in the western region of the Gambia, West Africa. RSV infection was diagnosed by immunofluorescence of nasopharyngeal aspirate samples in children younger than two years admitted to hospital with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI). Routine records of all children with ALRI were analysed, and the incidence rates of ALRI, severe RSV-associated respiratory illness and hypoxaemic RSV infections were compared. A community-based study was undertaken to identify secondary cases and to obtain information about spread of the virus. FINDINGS: 4799 children with ALRI who were younger than two years and lived in the study area were admitted to the study hospitals: 421 had severe RSV-associated respiratory illness; 55 of these were hypoxaemic. Between 1994 and 1996, the observed incidence rate for ALRI in 100 children younger than one year living close to hospital was 9.6 cases per year; for severe RSV-associated respiratory illness 0.83; and for hypoxaemic RSV-associated respiratory illness 0.089. The proportion of all ALRI admissions due to RSV was 19%. Overall, 41% of children younger than five years in compounds in which cases lived and 42% in control compounds had evidence of RSV infection during the surveillance period. CONCLUSION: RSV is an important cause of ALRI leading to hospital admission in the Gambia. Morbidity is considerable and efforts at prevention are worthwhile.
Global Transmission Dynamics of a Schistosomiasis Model and Its Optimal Control  [PDF]
Mouhamadou Diaby, Mariama Sène, Abdou Sène
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/am.2019.106029
Abstract: Drug treatment, snail control, cercariae control, improved sanitation and health education are the effective strategies which are used to control the schistosomiasis. In this paper, we consider a deterministic model for schistosomiasis transmission dynamics in order to explore the role of the several control strategies. The global stability of a schistosomiasis infection model that involves mating structure including male schistosomes, female schistosomes, paired schistosomes and snails is studied by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functions. We derive the basic reproduction number R0 for the deterministic model, and establish that the global dynamics are completely determined by the values of R0. We show that the disease can be eradicated when R0?≤1; otherwise, the system is persistent. In the case where R0?>1, we prove the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of an endemic steady state. Sensitivity analysis and simulations are carried out in order to determine the relative importance of different control strategies for disease transmission and prevalence. Next, optimal control theory is applied to investigate the control strategies for eliminating schistosomiasis using time dependent controls. The characterization of the optimal control is carried out via the Pontryagins Maximum Principle. The simulation results demonstrate that the insecticide is important in the control of schistosomiasis.
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