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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19024 matches for " Mariam Al Azani "
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Facile, Direct Reaction of Benzaldehydes to 3-Arylprop-2-Enoic Acids and 3-Arylprop-2-Ynoic Acids in Aqueous Medium  [PDF]
Thies Thiemann, Mohamed W. Elshorbagy, Mostafa H. F. A. Salem, Siraj A. N. Ahmadani, Yosef Al-Jasem, Mariam Al Azani, Mazen A. M. Al-Sulaibi, Bassam Al-Hindawi
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2016.62014
Abstract: Wittig reactions of benzaldehydes, alkanals, and cycloalkanals as well as of acetophenones are carried out with alkoxycarbonyl methylidenetriphenylphosphoranes in 10 w% aqueous NaOH, where the cinnamates and alkenoates produced are hydrolysed in situ and the corresponding acids are obtained after mostly simple extractive work-up, often without employing organic solvents. Under the same conditions, benzaldehydes are reacted with alkoxycarbonyl bromomethy-lidenephosphorane to produce 3-arylprop-2-ynoic acids (arylpropiolic acids).
Adomian Decomposition Method for Solving Goursat's Problems  [PDF]
Mariam A. Al-Mazmumy
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.28134
Abstract: In this paper, Goursat’s problems for: linear and nonlinear hyperbolic equations of second-order, systems of nonlinear hyperbolic equations and fourth-order linear hyperbolic equations in which the attached conditions are given on the characteristics curves are transformed in such a manner that the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) can be applied. Some examples with closed-form solutions are studied in detail to further illustrate the proposed technique, and the results obtained indicate this approach is indeed practical and efficient.
Sequential Remediation Processes for a Low Level Pesticide Wastewater  [PDF]
Mariam T. Al hattab, Abdel E. Ghaly
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.32019
Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a remediation system for the treatment of a low-level pesticide wastewater that uses available onfarm organic matter as an absorption media, is capable of reducing the concentration of the pesticide to a safe level and is economically viable for implementation by farmers. The absorption capacity of chopped hay and soybean to the fungicide captan was evaluated under batch conditions and the effectiveness of the composting process in depredating captan in contaminated organic materials was evaluated. The results showed that both hay and soybean plant residues were very effective in absorbing 99.2% and 98.5% of captan form the wastewater after 4 hours, respectively. Because of its availability, hay can be used in an onfarm pesticide immobilization system that consists of shallow reinforced concrete pit (filled with hay) with steel bars across the top for machinery to roll onto and be washed. The wastewater can be retained for 24 hours which is a sufficient time for hay to absorb the captan. The contaminated hay can then be composted. The addition of used cooking oil raised the temperature of the composting mixture to 63?C. Small reductions in moisture content (from 60% to 58.9 %) and C:N ratio (from 30:1 to 28:1) were observed while reductions of 18.92%, 15.56% and 4.8% in the volatile solids, total carbon total Kjeldahl nitrogen were achieved after 10 d of composting, respectively. About 92.4% of the captan was degraded in the first 4 days of composting. Most of captan (92.4%) was degraded during the mesophilic stage (first 3 days). The degradation rate constant for the mesophilic stage (0.724 d-1) was 2.74 times the degradation rate constant for the thermophilic stage (0.264 d-1). An onfarm windrow composting process would be very effective in degrading captan contaminated hay. The captan contaminated hay could be mixed with equal amount poultry manure or dairy manure to provide the required bioavailable carbon and nutrients for the composting process. Some used cooking oil could also be added to maintain higher temperature within the compost matrix. The windrows should be mixed on a daily basis to provide sufficient oxygen for the composting microorganisms.
Disposal and Treatment Methods for Pesticide Containing Wastewaters: Critical Review and Comparative Analysis  [PDF]
Mariam T. Al Hattab, Abdel E. Ghaly
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.35054
Abstract: Pesticides provide the primary means for controlling organisms that compete with man for food and fibre or cause injury to man, livestock and crops. They played a vital role in the economic production of wide ranges of vegetable, fruit, cereal, forage, fibre and oil crops which now constitute a large part of successful agricultural industry in many countries. After application to the target areas, pesticide residues are removed from applicators by rinsing with water which results in the formation of a toxic wastewater that represents a disposal problem for many farmers. Pesticides can adversely affect people, pets, livestock and wildlife in addition to the pests they are intended to destroy. The phenomenon of biomagnification of some pesticides has resulted in reproductive failure of some fish species and egg shell thinning of birds such as peregrine falcons, sparrow hawk and eagle owls. Pesticide toxicity to humans include skin and eye irritation and skin cancer. Therefore, care must be exercised in the application, disposal and treatment of pesticides. Currently, disposal of pesticide wastewater is carried out by: 1) land cultivation, 2) dumping in soil pits, plastic pits and concrete pits or on land and in extreme cases in streams near the rinsing operation, 3) use of evaporation beds and 4) land filling. These methods of disposal are unsafe as the surface run off will reach streams, rivers and lakes and the infiltration of the wastewater into the local soil will eventually reach ground water. The treatment methods currently used for pesticide wastewater include: 1) incineration (incinerators and open burning), 2) chemical treatments (O3/UV, hydrolysis, Fenton oxidation and KPEG), 3) physical treatments (inorganic, organic absorbents and activated carbon) and 4) biological treatments (composting, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation). Therefore, the choice of safe, on farm disposal techniques for agricultural pesticides is very important. A comparative analysis was performed on 18 methods of pesticide disposal/treatment using six criteria: containment, detoxification ability, cost, time, suitability for on farm use, size and evaporation efficiency. The results indicated that of the 18 methods evaluated, 9 scored above 80/100 and can be used on farm. They were organic absorbents (97), composting (94), bioaugmentation (92), inorganic absorbents (90), Fenton oxidation (86), O3/UV (83), activated carbon (82), hydrolysis (82), and land cultivation (80). The other methods are not suitable for on farm use as they suffered from containment problems, high
Restarted Adomian Decomposition Method for Solving Volterra’s Population Model  [PDF]
Mariam Al-Mazmumy, Safa Otyuan Almuhalbedi
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2017.72016
Abstract: In this paper, we used an efficient algorithm to obtain an analytic approximation for Volterras model for population growth of a species within a closed system, called the Restarted Adomian decomposition method (RADM) to solve the model. The numerical results illustrate that RADM has the good accuracy.
Studying the Effect of Urban Furniture on Satisfaction of Domestic Tourists in Isfahan Bus Terminals  [PDF]
Zahra Nadim, Mehri Azani
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2016.69077
Abstract: Terminals and stations as one of the most important parts of transportation systems and also as the arteries of the countrys economy life undertake significant role in adjustment and regulation of the traffic pulse of cities and roads. Urban furniture is one of the components considered in urban designing and as a part of the whole city, it defines the urban identity and structure. In todays world, the importance of designing the urban equipment and furniture is to an extent that even active architects in the field of industrial designing are invited for designing and performing the urban furniture and equipment. Urban designing is a thing beyond making some flower box in squares and determining bus and taxi stations. Evidently, what gives identity to the city or according to the saying of Sansovini, what has tranquility for the citys residents and creates attraction for foreigner tourists, not only include the mass buildings and streets traffic, but also include landscape, parks and furniture of the city. Standard designing of bus terminals like other urban furniture influences on urban face and it can have significant role in satisfaction of domestic tourists and increase and propagation of using of terminals. In this research, it has been attempted that the effect of furniture in the terminals of Isfahan city on domestic tourists should be studied that for this purpose, descriptive-analytic method has been used and data have been collected through field and library studies and secondary sources by using of SWOT model.
Synthesis with Nitriles: Synthesis of Some New Mercaptopyridazine, Mercaptopyridazino[1,6-a]quinazoline and Thiophene Derivatives
Mariam A. Al-Sheikh
Molecules , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/molecules13112750
Abstract: 2-(1-(4-Bromophenyl)-2-thiocyanatoethylidene)malononitrile (3) undergoes azo coupling with diazotized aromatic amines to afford arylhydrazone derivatives, which are readily cyclized to afford the corresponding 3(2H)-pyridazinimine derivatives upon reflux in aqueous NaOH. Under similar condition an o-cyanoarylhydrazone derivative was cyclized into 6H-pyridazino[1,6-a]quinazolin-6-imine, which in turn was easily transformed into 6H-pyridazino[1,6-a]quinazolin-6-one on reflux in ethanolic/HCl. Compound 3 afforded substituted 5-acetylthiophene derivatives upon reflux in AcOH/HCl mixtures.
Hezbollah: Between the I.D.F.'s Withdrawal and the Establishment of a Lebanese Unity Government --Another Step on the Way to an Islamic Republic in Lebanon
Eitan Azani
Circunstancia , 2009,
Abstract: In July 2008, Fuad Seniora established the National Unity Government in Lebanon which was comprised of 30 ministers. With eleven of these ministers belonging to the opposition headed by Hezbollah, Nasrallah earned the right to veto government decisions. This development, brought Nasrallah one step closer to his organization's goal of establishing an Islamic Republic in Lebanon .An analysis of the processes in the Lebanese arena and of the power structure between various players, since the 2000 withdrawal until the unity government, demonstrates that Hezbollah's standing in Lebanon has improved despite the Second Lebanon War. In addition, Nasrallah has systematically advanced along the path of turning Lebanon into an Islamic Republic, characterized by two parallel efforts: (1) from inside the political system, in order to gain positions of power and influence; and (2) from outside the system, by establishing a military power.The Lebanese government has no choice but to acquiesce to the movement's demands, support the resistance and its goals, and avoid carrying out U.N. Resolution 1701, which requires the country to dismantle the movement's arms capabilities. The balance of power falls significantly in favor of the movement, as it stands strong relative to a weak government and a divided society of many ethnic groups, unwilling to pay the price of a confrontation with Hezbollah.So long as there are no significant changes in the balance of power within Lebanon , Hezbollah will continue to retain control over the Lebanese system.
A New Approach for Database Fragmentation and Allocation to Improve the Distributed Database Management System Performance  [PDF]
Rizik M. H. Al-Sayyed, Fawaz A. Al Zaghoul, Dima Suleiman, Mariam Itriq, Ismail Hababeh
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2014.711080
Abstract: The efficiency and performance of Distributed Database Management Systems (DDBMS) is mainly measured by its proper design and by network communication cost between sites. Fragmentation and distribution of data are the major design issues of the DDBMS. In this paper, we propose new approach that integrates both fragmentation and data allocation in one strategy based on high performance clustering technique and transaction processing cost functions. This new approach achieves efficiently and effectively the objectives of data fragmentation, data allocation and network sites clustering. The approach splits the data relations into pair-wise disjoint fragments and determine whether each fragment has to be allocated or not in the network sites, where allocation benefit outweighs the cost depending on high performance clustering technique. To show the performance of the proposed approach, we performed experimental studies on real database application at different networks connectivity. The obtained results proved to achieve minimum total data transaction costs between different sites, reduced the amount of redundant data to be accessed between these sites and improved the overall DDBMS performance.
Enhancing ERS-A Algorithm for Pattern Matching (EERS-A)  [PDF]
Dima Suleiman, Mariam Itriq, Aseel Al-Anani, Rola Al-Khalid, Amjad Hudaib
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2015.83015
Abstract: Pattern matching is a very important topic in computer science. It has been used in various applications such as information retrieval, virus scanning, DNA sequence analysis, data mining, machine learning, network security and pattern recognition. This paper has presented a new pattern matching algorithm—Enhanced ERS-A, which is an improvement over ERS-S algorithm. In ERS-A, two sliding windows are used to scan the text from the left and the right simultaneously. The proposed algorithm also scans the text from the left and the right simultaneously as well as making comparisons with the pattern from both sides simultaneously. The comparisons done between the text and the pattern are done from both sides in parallel. The shift technique used in the Enhanced ERS-A is the four consecutive characters in the text immediately following the pattern window. The experimental results show that the Enhanced ERS-A has enhanced the process of pattern matching by reducing the number of comparisons performed.
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