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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 560975 matches for " Maria da Gra?a Bompastor Borges; "
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Dificuldades com inferências inválidas entre adultos: tentativa de supera??o
Dias, Maria da Graa Bompastor Borges;
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-79722000000300008
Abstract: studies among children and adults showed that valid syllogistic problems (modus tollens and modus ponens) are easier to solve than invalid ones (affirmation of consequent and negation of antecedent) where subjects? performance is very low. in this study we tried to diminish the great number of errors in the invalid problems using another alternative for the responses and counter-example. university subjects obtained a great number of correct responses in the invalid forms, however their performance was low in the valid forms. the adults with low education and the illiterates did not seem to be influenced by the control variables introduced, showing a better level of performance in the valid forms then in the invalid ones, as others studies had shown.
Dificuldades com inferências inválidas entre adultos: tentativa de supera o
Dias Maria da Graa Bompastor Borges
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2000,
Abstract: Estudos entre crian as e adultos demonstram que problemas silogísticos válidos (Modus Ponens e Modus Tollens) s o de fácil solu o, ao contrário daqueles que envolvem formas inválidas (Afirma o do Conseqüente e Nega o do Antecedente), nos quais o desempenho dos sujeitos é muito baixo. No presente estudo, tentou-se minimizar o grande número de erros que ocorre nos silogismos inválidos utilizando inclus o de outra alternativa de resposta e contra-exemplo. Sujeitos universitários conseguiram grande número de acertos nessas formas, no entanto, o desempenho decaiu nas formas válidas. Já os adultos com pouca ou nenhuma escolariza o parecem n o ter sido influenciados pelas variáveis introduzidas, obtendo um melhor nível de desempenho nas formas válidas do que nas inválidas, como ocorreu em outros estudos.
A habilidade para diferenciar se de quando
Dias, Maria da Graa Bompastor Borges;Vanderlei, Renata Bahia;
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-79721999000100013
Abstract: bowerman (1979) and reilly (1986) argued that constructions using the conditional if, albeit being similar morphologically and syntactically to sentences that involve, for example, and, when and because, and also having similar meanings, are the last to appear in children?s productions. if is used to express situations whose occurence is possible but unsure; whereas when is used to express events that present a higher grade of certainty. we tried to identify in what age children are able to differenciate the meaning of if and when in cases where they are synonyms and in case where they cannot be superposed. three and 5 year-old children were presented different classes of conditional sentences (predictive, present, and past) which started with if and when. children identified among three pictures which one represented what had been read. three year-olds were able to identify sentences in which the two are synonyms, but when they are not (predictive and past), children?s performance in both age groups decline, mainly with the sentences involving if. one of the explanations is that the temporal when usually expresses affirmations about events of the real world, whereas the conditional if specifies hypothetical situations that involve abilities which develop later.
A teoria da lógica mental: e os estudos empíricos em crian?as e adultos
Dias, Maria da Graa Bompastor Borges;Roazzi, Antonio;
Psicologia em Estudo , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-73722003000100007
Abstract: in this paper we discuss mental logic theory and the controversies originated from studies which made use of the standard logic truth table and empirical studies with children and adults that support the propositional and predicative logic.
A teoria da lógica mental: e os estudos empíricos em crian as e adultos
Dias Maria da Graa Bompastor Borges,Roazzi Antonio
Psicologia em Estudo , 2003,
Abstract: Discorremos sobre a teoria da lógica mental como hoje se apresenta, as controvérsias oriundas dos estudos que utilizam a Tabela de Verdade da Lógica Padr o e os estudos empíricos com crian as e adultos que d o suporte à lógica proposicional e à lógica predicativa.
A habilidade para diferenciar se de quando
Dias Maria da Graa Bompastor Borges,Vanderlei Renata Bahia
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 1999,
Abstract: Bowerman (1979) e Reilly (1986) argumentam que o condicional se, apesar de ser morfológica e sintaticamente similar às ora es que envolvem por exemplo e, quando, porque, assim, e também possuir significados semelhantes, ele é o último a aparecer nas produ es das crian as. O se é utilizado em situa es cuja ocorrência é possível porém incerta; e quando em eventos que apresentam maior grau de certeza. Procurou-se identificar em que idade as crian as s o capazes de distinguir o significado de se e quando no caso em que s o sin nimos e naqueles que n o podem sobrepor-se. Crian as de 3 e 5 anos foram apresentadas a diferentes tipos de senten as condicionais (preditivas presente e passado) iniciadas por se e por quando. Deveriam identificar dentre três desenhos qual representava o que havia sido lido. Aos 3 anos s o capazes de identificar senten as nas quais os dois s o sin nimos. Já em senten as nas quais se e quando n o s o sin nimos, o desempenho das crian as decresce, principalmente naquelas envolvendo se. Uma das explica es seria que o temporal quando geralmente faz afirma es sobre eventos do mundo real e o condicional se especifica situa es hipotéticas cujas habilidades envolvidas surgem mais tarde.
Processos que levam à compreens?o de textos
Andrade, Maria Waleska Camboim Lopes de;Dias, Maria da Graa Bompastor Borges;
Psicologia em Estudo , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-73722006000100017
Abstract: "all children learn to talk. this natural tendency to acquire language is a gift inscribed in the genetic inheritance that is ours by virtue of being human" - boysson-bardies (1999). how do people deal with language? what one knows about both cognitive and social processes that are involved on this relation? what is a comprehension and how one comprehends? this work has as aim to describe succinctly some perspectives through which different authors explain theirs ideas and research results. particularly it was observed how to look the reading, writing and comprehension phenomena as a specific human capacity; the idea that an individual and an acquired ability is needed in order to control volunteer or unconsciously its own comprehension process. one basic aspect is presented as background: the relation between language and human cognition. it was concluded that further studies are needed for researchers to get a thorough understanding of the consequences of learning spoken and written language.
O Desenvolvimento de Valores Humanos dos Cinco aos 14 Anos de Idade: Um Estudo Exploratório
Maria Waleska Camboim Lopes de Andrade,Cleonice Camino,Maria da Graa Bompastor Borges Dias
Revista Interamericana de Psicología , 2008,
Abstract: Many Social and Human Sciences researchers have been investigating the existence of individual and cultural values. How those values emerge during the mental development? On present research, one observes the development of the human values, based on Jean Piaget s theory. It focuses on the following three crucial moments of personality development: (1) First childhood; (2) Second childhood, and (3) Adolescence, considering four values: Obedience; Cooperation; Responsibility and Creativity. 116 children and adolescents, both gender, students of three privates schools from the city of Jo o Pessoa, Brazil have participated. They defined some values as names. Their answers were analyzed in order to find particular characteristics on each one of three developmental segments - 5 to 8 years old; 9 to 11 years old and 12 to 14 years old. Categories were organized from lower to higher level of descentration, and named as: (1) Undefined; (2) Intrapersonal; (3) Interpersonal, and (4) Impersonal ones. The results indicated significant differences between the ways participants defined values. Children under 9 years old gave Intrapersonal answers to all values. Those who were between 9 to 11 years old presented Interpersonal answers tending alternatively to Intrapersonal and Impersonal categories. The adolescents hardly used Intrapersonal resources on values definitions.
Tentativa de crian?as em lidar com as emo??es de raiva e tristeza
Dias, Maria da Graa Bompastor Borges;Vikan, Arne;Grav?s, Sissel;
Estudos de Psicologia (Natal) , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-294X2000000100004
Abstract: the present study focus on children's cognitions of how to stop feeling sad and angry, which implies an exploration of their meta mood strategies, i.e. thoughts about how to regulate emotions. it was asking 5, 7, and 9-year-old brazilian and norwegian children how sadness and anger could be stopped in 4 different contexts for each emotion. the results showed that er strategies varied with context and age, that brazilian children used more social interaction and norwegian children more cognitive strategies for anger, but not for sadness, and that even three year old children could state different strategies in different emotion contexts. there was not observed a clear difference in er strategy for sadness and anger.
Raciocínio lógico na compreens?o de texto
Rodrigues, Amariles Alves;Dias, Maria da Graa Bompastor Borges;Roazzi, Antonio;
Estudos de Psicologia (Natal) , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-294X2002000100012
Abstract: lea, o'brien, fish, noveck e braine (1990) investigated a variety of inferences in text of comprehension with undergraduate psychology students and the results showed that subjects carried out the proposional logical inferences spontaneous by automatically manner. these investigation explores whether mathematic students demonstrate logic reasoning better than letters students. students from the two courses were studied with the aim of knowning whether the students could solve the logical reasoning tasks. the subjects performed two tasks: a task of conclusion and a task of recognition. on the first task, the subjects answered sylogistic problems and on the second they had to distinguish sentences with the aim to observe if they could recognized if the informations were in the text or were inferences made. the first task confirmed that the subjects authomaticaly used the inferences. on the second task, the subjects believed that the paraphases of the model had been explicitly presented in the text, and rarely believed that the sentences were results of inferences that they had made. the performance of literature students were better than mathematic students.
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