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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 71039 matches for " Maria Ragnarsdottir "
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Respiratory Movements of Patients with Severe Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Emphysema in Supine and Forward Standing Leaning  [PDF]
Asdis Kristjansdottir, Magdalena Asgeirsdottir, Hans Beck, Petur Hannesson, Maria Ragnarsdottir
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2015.51001
Abstract: Objective: To investigate respiratory movements in supine and forward standing leaning position among patients with emphysema and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during rest and dyspnea. Methodology: Nineteen patients with emphysema and severe COPD underwent lung function measurement and positional assessment of diaphragm. Respiratory movements during quiet and deep breathing were measured in supine and standing forward leaning using the Respiratory Movement Measuring Instrument (RMMI) (MTT, Arleyni 8, Reykjavik, Iceland). Patients then bicycled with the work rate 87% of the peak work rate tolerated in a pre-program incremental exercise test. Immediately after dismounting the bicycle, respiratory movements were measured in forward leaning. Results: For participants with mean age of 61 ± 7 years and mean body mass index of 23.59 ± 4.63, respiratory movements during quiet breathing in supine were significantly (abdominal p = 0.025, lower- and upper-thoracic p = 0.020) greater than in forward leaning. In the case forward leaning during dyspnea, lower- and upper-thoracic movements were significantly (p = 0.001; p = 0.005, respectively) less than abdominal. Conclusion: This study indicates that the diaphragm of patients with severe COPD and emphysema is active in forward leaning position during rest and dyspnea.
Re-partitioning of Cu and Zn isotopes by modified protein expression
Anette Büchl, Chris J Hawkesworth, K Vala Ragnarsdottir, David R Brown
Geochemical Transactions , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1467-4866-9-11
Abstract: Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) have essential roles in mammalian metabolism: copper in the formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells and Zn and Cu in several enzymes in a number of metabolic pathways. A number of neurodegenerative diseases are associated with abnormalities in the tissue distribution of these trace metals, such as Cu in prion disease [1,2], and Cu and Zn in Alzheimer's disease [3]. Cu has the two isotopes 65Cu and 63Cu, Zn has the five isotopes 64Zn, 66Zn, 67Zn, 68Zn and 70Zn. Different isotopes of the same element have different masses, which leads to different behaviour, and this contribution is concerned with the extent these isotopes are fractionated by small changes in a complex biological system, the brain.Precise analyses of the ratios of transition stable isotopes has only been possible since the development of multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers and associated extraction techniques [4-7]. Variations in the isotopic composition are expressed by delta notation [δ66Zn = (66Zn/64Znsample/66Zn/64Znstandard -1)*1000, and δ65Cu = (65Cu/63Cusample/65Cu/63Custandard -1)*1000 ], which is the deviation of a sample from an international standard in permil (1‰ = 0.1%). Variations in the isotopic composition of trace metals within organisms result from two effects. Biogeochemical processes in the environment lead to different isotopic compositions in, for example, soil, water, and plants. Isotope ratios may therefore be used to trace the origin, or source, of the element in question at the time it enters the body. Secondly, heavy stable isotope ratios fractionate during biochemical processes in organisms, and they are known to fractionate both during the uptake of trace metals into a cell, and as metals pass through membranes within the cell [8,9]. A study of Fe isotopes in human blood samples established that they were fractionated, and that the mean Fe isotope value is different in the blood of men and of women [10]. Such isotope
Host Imprints on Bacterial Genomes—Rapid, Divergent Evolution in Individual Patients
Jaroslaw Zdziarski equal contributor,Elzbieta Brzuszkiewicz equal contributor,Bj?rn Wullt,Heiko Liesegang,Dvora Biran,Birgit Voigt,Jenny Gr?nberg-Hernandez,Bryndis Ragnarsdottir,Michael Hecker,Eliora Z. Ron,Rolf Daniel,Gerhard Gottschalk,J?rg Hacker,Catharina Svanborg ,Ulrich Dobrindt
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001078
Abstract: Bacteria lose or gain genetic material and through selection, new variants become fixed in the population. Here we provide the first, genome-wide example of a single bacterial strain's evolution in different deliberately colonized patients and the surprising insight that hosts appear to personalize their microflora. By first obtaining the complete genome sequence of the prototype asymptomatic bacteriuria strain E. coli 83972 and then resequencing its descendants after therapeutic bladder colonization of different patients, we identified 34 mutations, which affected metabolic and virulence-related genes. Further transcriptome and proteome analysis proved that these genome changes altered bacterial gene expression resulting in unique adaptation patterns in each patient. Our results provide evidence that, in addition to stochastic events, adaptive bacterial evolution is driven by individual host environments. Ongoing loss of gene function supports the hypothesis that evolution towards commensalism rather than virulence is favored during asymptomatic bladder colonization.
A Genetic Basis of Susceptibility to Acute Pyelonephritis
Ann-Charlotte Lundstedt, Shane McCarthy, Mattias C.U. Gustafsson, Gabriela Godaly, Ulf Jodal, Diana Karpman, Irene Leijonhufvud, Carin Lindén, Jeanette Martinell, Bryndis Ragnarsdottir, Martin Samuelsson, Lennart Truedsson, Bj?rn Andersson, Catharina Svanborg
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000825
Abstract: Background For unknown reasons, urinary tract infections (UTIs) are clustered in certain individuals. Here we propose a novel, genetically determined cause of susceptibility to acute pyelonephritis, which is the most severe form of UTI. The IL-8 receptor, CXCR1, was identified as a candidate gene when mIL-8Rh mutant mice developed acute pyelonephritis (APN) with severe tissue damage. Methods and Findings We have obtained CXCR1 sequences from two, highly selected APN prone patient groups, and detected three unique mutations and two known polymorphisms with a genotype frequency of 23% and 25% compared to 7% in controls (p<0.001 and p<0.0001, respectively). When reflux was excluded, 54% of the patients had CXCR1 sequence variants. The UTI prone children expressed less CXCR1 protein than the pediatric controls (p<0.0001) and two sequence variants were shown to impair transcription. Conclusions The results identify a genetic innate immune deficiency, with a strong link to APN and renal scarring.
In the Shadow of the Serbian Paramilitary Units: Narrative Patterns about the Role of Paramilitary Units in Former Yugoslav Conflict  [PDF]
Maria Vivod
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2013.31004
Abstract:
This article1 offers several basic data about Serbian paramilitary units employed in the armed conflict of the 1990’s during the decomposition of the former Yugoslavia, with the goal to depict the transformation of the representation of the paramilitary unit members and their leaders essentially through Serbian media. Once, at the beginning of the conflicts, represented as the saviors, protectors of the Serbian nation, ever present as main figures of the public life of the 90s—they have fallen into oblivion after a decade. Their most notorious leaders are either dead or in prison. After the fall of the Milo?evi? regime (2000) their involvement in war crimes, looting and genocide reached Serbia. From being divinized gradually they become diabolized. The contemporary events and happenings in Serbia are explained in the light of the past of these paramilitary units.
The Future Human Lifespan: A Study on Italian Population  [PDF]
Maria Russolillo
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.511158
Abstract:

In the latter part of the 20th century, continued improvements in living standards, health behaviors, and medical care reduced mortality and produced amazing advances in life expectancy. These trends, followed by all industrial nations, decidedly affect the financial position of an insurance company, interested in the construction of updated life tables. The approach to this problem is faced in this paper by using the Lee-Carter methodology. In particular, in the present work, we are interested in modeling and forecasting mortality and life expectancy on a period basis through the use of a stochastic forecasting method which uses time-series models to make long-term forecasts.

Radiation Induced Bystander Effect: From in Vitro Studies to Clinical Application  [PDF]
Maria Widel
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2016.51001
Abstract: In the past 20 years, the classic paradigm in radiobiology recognizing DNA as the main target for the action of radiation has changed. The new paradigm assumes that both targeted and non-targeted effects of radiation determine the final outcome of irradiation. Radiotherapy is one of the main modality treatments of neoplastic diseases with intent to cure, or sometimes to palliate only, thus radiation-induced non-targeted effect, commonly referred to as the radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) may have a share in cancer treatment. RIBE is mediated by molecular signaling from radiation targeted cells to their non-irradiated neighbors, and comprises such phenomena as bystander effect, genomic instability, adaptive response and abscopal effect. Whereas first three phenomena may appear both in vitro and in vivo, an abscopal effect is closely related to partial body irradiation and is a systemic effect mediated by immunologic system which synergizes with radiotherapy. From the clinical point of view abscopal effect is particularly interesting due to both its possible valuable contribution to the treatment of metastases, and the potential harmful effects as induction of genetic instability and carcinogenesis. This review summarized the main results of investigations of non-targeted effects coming from in vitro monolayer cultures, 3-dimentional models of tissues, preclinical studies on rodents and clinically observed beneficial abscopal effects with particular emphasis on participation of immunotherapy in the creation of abscopal effects.
On Universality of Transition to Chaos Scenario in Nonlinear Systems of Ordinary Differential Equations of Shilnikov’s Type  [PDF]
Maria Zaitseva
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.45095
Abstract: Several nonlinear three-dimensional systems of ordinary differential equations are studied analytically and numerically in this paper in accordance with universal bifurcation theory of Feigenbaum-Sharkovskii-Magnitsky [1] [2]. All systems are autonomous and dissipative and display chaotic behaviour. The analysis confirms that transition to chaos in such systems is performed through cascades of bifurcations of regular attractors.
Thinking Fast and Slow in Computer Problem Solving  [PDF]
Maria Csernoch
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2017.101002
Abstract: Research in spreadsheet management proved that the overuse of slow thinking, rather than fast thinking, is the primary source of erroneous end-user computing. However, we found that the reality is not that simple. To view end-user computing in its full complexity, we launched a project to investigate end-user education, training, support, activities, and computer problem solving. In this project we also set up the base and mathability-extended typology of computer problem solving approaches, where quantitative values are assigned to the different problem solving methods and activities. In this paper we present the results of our analyses of teaching materials collected in different languages from all over the world and our findings considering the different problem solving approaches, set in the frame of different thinking modes, the characteristics of expert teachers, and the meaning system model of teaching approaches. Based on our research, we argue that the proportions of fast and slow thinking and most importantly their manifestation are responsible for erroneous end-user activities. Applying the five-point mathability scale of computer problem solving, we recognized slow thinking activities on both tails and one fast thinking approach between them. The low mathability slow thinking activities, where surface navigation and language details are focused on, are widely accepted in end-user computing. The high mathability slow thinking problem solving activities, where the utilization of concept based approaches and schema construction take place, is hardly detectable in end-user activities. Instead of building up knowledge which requires slow thinking and then using the tools with fast thinking, end-users use up their slow thinking in aimless wandering in huge programs, making wrong decisions based on their untrained, clueless intuition, and distributing erroneous end-user documents. We also found that the dominance of low mathability slow thinking activities has its roots in the education system and through this we point out that we are in great need of expert teachers and institutions and their widely accepted approaches and methods.
Head Teachers, Women and Hesitation to Discuss Gender Issues  [PDF]
Maria Hedlin
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.56021
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore how a group of Swedish head teachers approaches the importance of gender issues in terms of their work. The empirical material is from so-called research circles, which were part of a gender equality project conducted in southern Sweden. A research circle is similar to a focus group interview. The group, which consists of eight women who were head teachers within compulsory education, met on six occasions. The results show that the women initially expressed strong hesitation about whether discussing gender issues in relation to the role of head teacher was beneficial at all. The entire gender equality project was called into question by the suggestion that the connection between head teacher and gender implied a weakening of women. However, examples of gender playing a role within educational settings were increasingly noted. By highlighting female head teachers ambivalence towards discussing issues related to gender and gender equality, this paper contributes to the discussion about why these issues do not occupy a stronger position within schools. Also, the female head teachers hesitation and ambivalence are connected to the decline in status of the head teacher profession due to the restructuring of education, for which women in educational leadership in Sweden have been blamed.
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