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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 71004 matches for " Maria Maslinska "
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Immune system as a new therapeutic target for antibiotics  [PDF]
Brygida Kwiatkowska, Maria Maslinska, Malgorzata Przygodzka, Joanna Dmowska-Chalaba, Justyna Dabrowska, Katarzyna Sikorska-Siudek
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.44A013
Abstract:

Since the discovery of penicillin by Fleming in 1928, the knowledge of the antibiotics’ spectrum and mechanism of action has been steadily increasing. Antibiotics became an effective tool in the fight against many pathogens, changing the prognosis of outcome for many serious diseases. It is already known that antibiotics not only have the antibacterial activity, but many of theme.g. macrolides, sulphonamides and tetracyclineshave immunomodulating effect, affecting functions of lymphocytes, macrophages and costimulatory molecules, macrophage migration and phagocytosis, as well as proinflammatory cytokine secretion. The expanding knowledge of the effects of antibiotics on the immune system has brought with it new applications of antibiotics in organ transplantation, invasive cardiology and treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or asthma.

In the Shadow of the Serbian Paramilitary Units: Narrative Patterns about the Role of Paramilitary Units in Former Yugoslav Conflict  [PDF]
Maria Vivod
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2013.31004
Abstract:
This article1 offers several basic data about Serbian paramilitary units employed in the armed conflict of the 1990’s during the decomposition of the former Yugoslavia, with the goal to depict the transformation of the representation of the paramilitary unit members and their leaders essentially through Serbian media. Once, at the beginning of the conflicts, represented as the saviors, protectors of the Serbian nation, ever present as main figures of the public life of the 90s—they have fallen into oblivion after a decade. Their most notorious leaders are either dead or in prison. After the fall of the Milo?evi? regime (2000) their involvement in war crimes, looting and genocide reached Serbia. From being divinized gradually they become diabolized. The contemporary events and happenings in Serbia are explained in the light of the past of these paramilitary units.
The Future Human Lifespan: A Study on Italian Population  [PDF]
Maria Russolillo
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.511158
Abstract:

In the latter part of the 20th century, continued improvements in living standards, health behaviors, and medical care reduced mortality and produced amazing advances in life expectancy. These trends, followed by all industrial nations, decidedly affect the financial position of an insurance company, interested in the construction of updated life tables. The approach to this problem is faced in this paper by using the Lee-Carter methodology. In particular, in the present work, we are interested in modeling and forecasting mortality and life expectancy on a period basis through the use of a stochastic forecasting method which uses time-series models to make long-term forecasts.

Radiation Induced Bystander Effect: From in Vitro Studies to Clinical Application  [PDF]
Maria Widel
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2016.51001
Abstract: In the past 20 years, the classic paradigm in radiobiology recognizing DNA as the main target for the action of radiation has changed. The new paradigm assumes that both targeted and non-targeted effects of radiation determine the final outcome of irradiation. Radiotherapy is one of the main modality treatments of neoplastic diseases with intent to cure, or sometimes to palliate only, thus radiation-induced non-targeted effect, commonly referred to as the radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) may have a share in cancer treatment. RIBE is mediated by molecular signaling from radiation targeted cells to their non-irradiated neighbors, and comprises such phenomena as bystander effect, genomic instability, adaptive response and abscopal effect. Whereas first three phenomena may appear both in vitro and in vivo, an abscopal effect is closely related to partial body irradiation and is a systemic effect mediated by immunologic system which synergizes with radiotherapy. From the clinical point of view abscopal effect is particularly interesting due to both its possible valuable contribution to the treatment of metastases, and the potential harmful effects as induction of genetic instability and carcinogenesis. This review summarized the main results of investigations of non-targeted effects coming from in vitro monolayer cultures, 3-dimentional models of tissues, preclinical studies on rodents and clinically observed beneficial abscopal effects with particular emphasis on participation of immunotherapy in the creation of abscopal effects.
On Universality of Transition to Chaos Scenario in Nonlinear Systems of Ordinary Differential Equations of Shilnikov’s Type  [PDF]
Maria Zaitseva
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.45095
Abstract: Several nonlinear three-dimensional systems of ordinary differential equations are studied analytically and numerically in this paper in accordance with universal bifurcation theory of Feigenbaum-Sharkovskii-Magnitsky [1] [2]. All systems are autonomous and dissipative and display chaotic behaviour. The analysis confirms that transition to chaos in such systems is performed through cascades of bifurcations of regular attractors.
Thinking Fast and Slow in Computer Problem Solving  [PDF]
Maria Csernoch
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2017.101002
Abstract: Research in spreadsheet management proved that the overuse of slow thinking, rather than fast thinking, is the primary source of erroneous end-user computing. However, we found that the reality is not that simple. To view end-user computing in its full complexity, we launched a project to investigate end-user education, training, support, activities, and computer problem solving. In this project we also set up the base and mathability-extended typology of computer problem solving approaches, where quantitative values are assigned to the different problem solving methods and activities. In this paper we present the results of our analyses of teaching materials collected in different languages from all over the world and our findings considering the different problem solving approaches, set in the frame of different thinking modes, the characteristics of expert teachers, and the meaning system model of teaching approaches. Based on our research, we argue that the proportions of fast and slow thinking and most importantly their manifestation are responsible for erroneous end-user activities. Applying the five-point mathability scale of computer problem solving, we recognized slow thinking activities on both tails and one fast thinking approach between them. The low mathability slow thinking activities, where surface navigation and language details are focused on, are widely accepted in end-user computing. The high mathability slow thinking problem solving activities, where the utilization of concept based approaches and schema construction take place, is hardly detectable in end-user activities. Instead of building up knowledge which requires slow thinking and then using the tools with fast thinking, end-users use up their slow thinking in aimless wandering in huge programs, making wrong decisions based on their untrained, clueless intuition, and distributing erroneous end-user documents. We also found that the dominance of low mathability slow thinking activities has its roots in the education system and through this we point out that we are in great need of expert teachers and institutions and their widely accepted approaches and methods.
Head Teachers, Women and Hesitation to Discuss Gender Issues  [PDF]
Maria Hedlin
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.56021
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore how a group of Swedish head teachers approaches the importance of gender issues in terms of their work. The empirical material is from so-called research circles, which were part of a gender equality project conducted in southern Sweden. A research circle is similar to a focus group interview. The group, which consists of eight women who were head teachers within compulsory education, met on six occasions. The results show that the women initially expressed strong hesitation about whether discussing gender issues in relation to the role of head teacher was beneficial at all. The entire gender equality project was called into question by the suggestion that the connection between head teacher and gender implied a weakening of women. However, examples of gender playing a role within educational settings were increasingly noted. By highlighting female head teachers ambivalence towards discussing issues related to gender and gender equality, this paper contributes to the discussion about why these issues do not occupy a stronger position within schools. Also, the female head teachers hesitation and ambivalence are connected to the decline in status of the head teacher profession due to the restructuring of education, for which women in educational leadership in Sweden have been blamed.
Assessing Actuarial Projections Accuracy: Traditional vs. Experimental Strategy  [PDF]
Maria Russolillo
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2017.74042
Abstract: This paper gives an overview of the Lee Carter method and reiterates the feasibility of using it to construct mortality forecast for the population data. In a first step, the model is fitted in a traditional way and used to extrapolate forecast of the time-varying mortality index. The observed pattern of the mortality rates shows a different variability at different ages, highlighting that the homoscedasticity hypothesis is quite unrealistic. Thus, in a second step, the paper aims to produce more reliable mortality forecasting, focusing on the errors in the estimation of the model parameters. The robustness of the estimated parameter is analysed throughout an experimental strategy which allows to assess the robustness of the Lee Carter model by inducing the errors to satisfy the homoscedasticity hypothesis. The graphical and numerical results are tested by means of a comparison in terms of prediction accuracy.
Catalytic Esterification of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids: Kinetic Investigations  [PDF]
Maria Kulawska, Maria Organek, Wies?aw Organek
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2017.74028
Abstract: Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are straight-chain fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 6 - 12 carbons, which can form medium-chain triglycerides. They are found mostly in animal fats and in the tropical vegetable oils. Because of their wide applications in industry, there is a growing demand of esters of medium-chain fatty acids production. The aim of our work was investigations of the kinetics of the synthesis of esters of MCFA in the presence of dowex catalyst in wide range of process parameters. Hexanoic, octanoic and decanoic acids were esterified with n-octyl alcohol in the presence of sulfuric acid and commercial dowex W50X8 as catalysts in an experimental semi-periodic glass tank reactor with instantaneous and complete water removal. Because of complete removal of water from the reacting mixture, thus eliminating the reverse hydrolysis reaction, the esterification can be assumed as irreversible reaction. The temperature range was 393 - 423 K, the range of initial mole ratio of alcohol to acid was 3 - 10. The kinetic parameters are given. The reaction kinetics appeared to be of the first order with respect to the acid. The effect of temperature on the reaction rate follows the Arrhenius equation well.
GIS Based Landslide Susceptibility Mapping with Application of Analytical Hierarchy Process in District Ghizer, Gilgit Baltistan Pakistan  [PDF]
Irum Rahim, Syeda Maria Ali, Maria Aslam
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2018.62003
Abstract: District Ghizer is a rugged mountainous territory which experiences several landslides each year. There are 16 major landslide areas and 53 villages that are at high risk to hazards. Keeping in view the severity of natural hazards, the present study was designed to generate landslide susceptibility map based on twelve causative factors viz., slope, aspect, elevation, drainage network, Stream Power Index (SPI), Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), lithological units, fault lines, rainfall, road network, land cover and soil texture. Soil texture was determined by particle size analysis and data for other factors were acquired from freely available sources. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was employed to identify major landslide causative factors in the district Ghizer. Further, a temporal assessment from 1999 till 2015 was generated to assess the impact of land cover change on landslides. It indicated that the barren soil/ exposed rocks and glaciers have reduced while the vegetation and water classes have shown increment. The total area that lies in moderate to very high landslide susceptible zones was 74.38%, while slope is the main landslide causative factor in the district Ghizer. Validation of the susceptibility map showed 88.1% of the landslides in the study area had occurred in the moderate to very high susceptible zones.
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