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Clostridium difficile and C. perfringens are enteric pathogens affecting a variety of mammals. This study evaluated the molecular enterotoxigenicity of Clostridium swine isolates by PCRs. One hundred and ten swine faeces were analyzed by culture assay. The faecal samples were from sixty-seven healthy animals and 43 with gastrointestinal tract disease. C. difficile strains were PCR-screened for the presence of tcdA/tcdB and cdtA/cdtB genes. All C. perfringens isolates were tested for the characterization of the toxinotype. Overall, sixty-five swine resulted positive: 38 for C. difficile and 17 for C. perfringens. One sample tested C. perfringens and C. difficile-positive, at the same time: on the whole, 39 C. difficile strains were isolated. Thirty-eight C. difficile isolates (all from healthy animals) resulted tcdA/tcdB and cdtA/cdtB-negative by PCRs and toxins A/B-negative by immunological tests. All C. perfringens strains were type A; eight were also cpb2-positive. In the sample (diarrhoeic), with double infection, C. difficile tested tcdA/tcdB and cdtA/cdtB-positive by PCRs and toxins A/B-positive by immunoassays; C. perfringens resulted cpb2-positive. The molecular genotypeing/toxinotyping should be applied to establish a final diagnosis and to assess properly the full implications and the epidemiological impact of these findings in particular in samples of healthy animals and aid in the development of effective intervention methods for controlling clostridial disease outbreaks.
Background: Cri-du-Chat Syndrome (CdCS) is a rare genetic disorder
characterized by a severe mental delay, minimal verbal abilities and severe
learning difficulties. Methods: Here, we report two neuropsychological
assessments of an Italian girl (FS) with CdCS who was affected by a moderate
mental delay. The first assessment was made at 2.3 years and second at 6.5
years. Results: Her cognitive profile was characterized by a discrepancy
between social-communicative and visual-motor skills. Specifically, her linguistic skills were better than her ability to copy a drawing or play with a set of
building blocks. FS showed good lexical competence in both comprehension and production. Differently, her grammatical skills (i.e. comprehension
and production) were somewhat defective. Conclusion: The FS’s case, due to
her moderate mental delay and her preserved linguistic skills, allowed investigating some aspects of this syndrome never explored before.