Abstract:
one hundred cobb male broiler chickens with 42 days old were used to study the effect of different digestible lysine and crude proteins ratios on chemical composition and physical composition of the breast muscle meat. a completely randomized design and two hierarquic criteries of classification was used. the birds were raised and fed a basal diet until 21 days old and, from 22 to 42 days, they were fed a diet formulated with two crude protein (cp) levels (17.0 and 19.5%) and five digestible lysine and cp ratios, 5.9, 6.4, 6.9, 7.4 and 7.9% for ration with 17.0% cp and 5.3, 5.7, 6.1, 6.5, and 6.9% for ration with 19.5% cp, totaling 10 treatments with six replications. at 42 age days, two birds of each replicate were slaughtered for breast muscle meat sample collections. no effects were observed on breast muscle meat for the physical characteristics. in the chemical characteristics, effect in the 19.5% cp level was observed, in a way that the protein of the breast meat meat llinearly increased as the digestible lysine and cp ratio increases, not being evidenced differences for the others evaluated characteristic. the best ratio for protein deposition in the breast muscle meat in the 17.0% cp level was 5.9% (1.34% digestible lysine), and the worse in the 19.5% cp level was 5.3% (1.03% digestible lysine). however, as the others characteristic was not affected, the option to increase the digestible lysine content to improve the breast muscle meat protein deposition will depend on the cost of this operation. the protein level in the diet of broiler chickens in growth phase can be reduced up to 17.0% cp, with no effect on breast muscle meat quality of broiler chickens, by using an ideal protein concept.

Abstract:
In order to study the aging changes of intramitochondrial macromolecular synthesis in various organs of aging animals during the development and aging, 10 groups of developing and aging mice, each consisting of 3 individuals, total 30, from fetal day 19 to postnatal newborn at day 1, 3, 9, 14 and adult at month 1, 2, 6, 12 to 24 were injected with 3H-thymidine a DNA precurson, another 10 groups consisting of 3 individuals, total 30, were injected with 3H-uridine a RNA precursor, and another 10 groups of 30 individuals were injected with 3H-leucine a protein precursor, total 90 individuals. Then, all the animals were sacrificed 1 hr after the injections and the liver tissues, the lung tissues, the kidney tissues, the testis and ovary tissues, the adrenal tissues were taken out, fixed and processed for electron microscopic radioautography. On electron microscopic radioautograms obtained from each animal, ten photographs in respective groups, numbers of mitochondria per cell profile area, numbers of labeled mitochondria per cell and the mitochondrial labeling index (LI) labeled with 3H-thymidine showing DNA synthesis, LI labeled with 3H-uridine showing RNA synthesis, and LI labeled with 3H-leucine showing protein synthesis, in various organs, were counted and the results in various organs in respective aging groups were compared, respectively. From the results, it was demonstrated that the numbers of mitochondria in hepatocytes as well as in 3 zones of the adrenal cortex, the zona glomerulosa, fasciculata and reticularis of mice at various ages increased from fetal day 19 to postnatal month 1 due to development and aging of animals. On the other hand, the numbers of labeled mitochondria and the labeling indices of intramitochondrial DNA syntheses incorporating 3H-thymidine in hepatocytes and 3 zones of cortical cells increased from fetal day 19 to postnatal month 1 and decreased to month 24. The numbers of labeled mitochondria and the labeling indices of intramitochondrial RNA syntheses incorporating 3H-uridine in hepatocytes and 3 zones of cortical cells increased from fetal day 19 to postnatal month 1 and decreased to month 24. The numbers of labeled mitochondria and the labeling indices of intramitochondrial RNA syntheses incorporating 3H-uridine in hepatocytes and 3 ones of cortical cells increased from fetal day 19 to postnatal month 1 and decreased to month 24. Moreover, some other organs such as the lung and the testis were also review and discussed. From the results, it was shown that the activity of intramitochnodrial DNA synthesis, RNA synthesis,

Abstract:
In order to study the aging changes of intramito-chondrial RNA synthesis of mouse adrenal cells, 10 groups of developing and aging mice, each consisting of 3 individuals, total 30, from fetal day 19 to postna-tal newborn at day 1, 3, 9, 14, adult at month 1, 2, 6 and senescent animals at month 12 (year 1) and 24 (year 2) were injected with 3H-uridine, an RNA pre-cursor, sacrificed 1 hr later and the adrenal tissues were fixed and processed for electron microscopic radioautography. On electron microscopic radio-autograms obtained from each animal, the number of mitochondria per cell, the number of labeled mito-chondria with 3H-uridine showing RNA synthesis per cell and the mitochondrial labeling index in each adreno-cortical cells, in 3 zones, as well as in each adreno-medullary cells, 2 types of cells in the medulla, the adrenalin cells and the noradrenalin cells, were calculated and the results in respective aging groups were compared with each others. The results demon-strated that the number of mitochondria in adreno-cortical cells in 3 zones, the zona glomerulosa, fasciculata and reticularis of respective mice at vari-ous ages increased from fetal day 19 to postnatal month 1 reaching the plateau from month 1 to 24 due to development and aging of animals, respectively, while the number of labeled mitochondria per cell and the labeling index of intramitochondrial RNA synthesis incorporating 3H-uridine increased from fetal day 19 to postnatal month 2, reaching the maxima and decreased slightly from month 6 to month 24. On the other hand, the number of mito-chondria per cell in the medulla increased from fetal day 19 to postnatal month 1 reaching the plateau from month 1 to 24, while the number of labeled mi-tochondria per cell and the labeling index of in-tramitochondrial RNA synthesis increased from fetal day 19 to postnatal day 14, reaching the maxima and decreased from month 1 to 24. From the results, it was demonstrated that the activity of intramitochno-drial RNA synthesis in both the cortical and me-dullary cells in developing and aging mice adrenals changed due to aging of individual animals.

Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the finite sample property of the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator for an AR(1) model with measurement error. We present the Edgeworth approximation for a finite distribution of OLS up to O(T^{1/2}). We introduce an instrumental variable estimator that is consistent in the presence of measurement error. Finally, a simulation study is conducted to assess the theoretical results and to compare the finite sample performances of these estimators.

Abstract:
Barros discusses that [Jose Acacio de Barros, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 50,
1828 (2011)] Nagata derives inconsistencies from quantum mechanics [K. Nagata,
Int. J. Theor. Phys. 48, 3532 (2009)]. Barros considers that the
inconsistencies do not come from quantum mechanics, but from extra assumptions
about the reality of observables. Here we discuss the fact that there is a
contradiction within the quantum theory. We discuss the fact that only one
expected value in a spin-1/2 pure state 〈σ_{x}〉rules out the reality of the
observable. We do not accept extra assumptions about the reality of
observables. We use the actually measured results of quantum measurements (raw
data). We use a single Pauli observable. We stress that we can use the quantum
theory even if we give up the axiomatic system for the quantum theory.

Abstract:
In this paper, we shed light on the Pareto
distribution of wealth on the basis of an overlapping generation model. We
deduce in the model that the basic reason for a particular shape of Pareto
distribution is attributed to the distribution of utility function among consumers.
More specifically, we show that a formula relating the distribution of utility
function to the distribution of wealth is analytically obtainable on the basis
of the Cobb-Douglas utility function. By simulation, we recognize that the
formula actually gives us a well approximation of a Pareto distribution.

Clostridiumdifficile and C. perfringens are enteric pathogens affecting a variety of mammals. This study evaluated the molecular enterotoxigenicity of Clostridium swine isolates by PCRs.One hundred and ten swine faeces were analyzed by culture assay. The faecal samples were from sixty-seven healthy animals and 43 with gastrointestinal tract disease.C. difficile strains were PCR-screened for the presence of tcdA/tcdB and cdtA/cdtB genes. All C. perfringens isolates were tested for the characterization of the toxinotype.Overall, sixty-five swine resulted positive: 38 for C. difficileand 17 for C. perfringens. One sample tested C. perfringens and C. difficile-positive, at the same time: on the whole, 39 C. difficile strains were isolated. Thirty-eight C. difficile isolates (all from healthy animals) resulted tcdA/tcdB and cdtA/cdtB-negative by PCRs and toxins A/B-negative by immunological tests. All C. perfringens strains were type A; eight were also cpb2-positive. In the sample (diarrhoeic), with double infection, C. difficile tested tcdA/tcdB and cdtA/cdtB-positive by PCRs and toxins A/B-positive by immunoassays; C. perfringens resulted cpb2-positive.The molecular genotypeing/toxinotyping should be applied to establish a final diagnosis and to assess properly the full implications and the epidemiological impact of these findings in particular in samples of healthy animals and aid in the development of effective intervention methods for controlling clostridial disease outbreaks.

Abstract:
We discuss the fact that there is a crucial contradiction within Von Neumann’s theory. We derive a proposition concerning a quantum expected value under an assumption of the existence of the orientation of reference frames in N spin-1/2 systems (1 ≤ N < +∞). This assumption intuitively depictures our physical world. However, the quantum predictions within the formalism of Von Neumann’s projective measurement violate the proposition with a magnitude that grows exponentially with the number of particles. We have to give up either the existence of the directions or the formalism of Von Neumann’s projective measurement. Therefore, Von Neumann’s theory cannot depicture our physical world with a violation factor that grows exponentially with the number of particles. The theoretical formalism of the implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm relies on Von Neumann’s theory. We investigate whether Von Neumann’s theory meets the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. We discuss the fact that the crucial contradiction makes the quantum-theoretical formulation of Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm questionable. Further, we discuss the fact that projective measurement theory does not meet an easy detector model for a single Pauli observable. Especially, we systematically describe our assertion based on more mathematical analysis using raw data. We propose a solution of the problem. Our solution is equivalent to changing Planck’s constant to a new constant . It may be said that a new type of the quantum theory early approaches Newton’s theory in the macroscopic scale than the old quantum theory does. We discuss how our solution is used in an implementation of Deutsch’s algorithm.

Abstract:
We investigate the violation factor of the original Bell-Mermin inequality. Until now, we have used an assumption that the results of measurement are . In this case, the maximum violation factor is as follows: and . The quantum predictions by n-partite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state violate the Bell-Mermin inequality by an amount that grows exponentially with n. Recently, a new measurement theory is proposed [K. Nagata and T. Nakamura, International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 49, 162 (2010)]. The values of measurement outcome are . Here we use the new measurement theory. We consider a multipartite GHZ state. We use the original Bell-Mermin inequality. It turns out that the original Bell-Mermin inequality is satisfied irrespective of the number of particles. In this case, the maximum violation factor is as follows: and . Thus the original Bell-Mermin inequality is satisfied by the new measurement theory. We propose the following conjecture: All the two-orthogonal-settings experimental correlation functions admit local realistic theories irrespective of a state if we use the new measurement theory.

Abstract:
Feynman pointed out a logic and mathematical paradox in particle physics. The paradox is that we get for the same entity only local dependence and global dependence at the time. This contradiction is coming from the dual nature of the particle viewed as a wave. In the first capacity it has only local dependence; in the second (wave) capacity it has a global dependence. The classical logic has difficulties in resolving this paradox. Changing the classical logic to logic makes the paradox apparent. Particle has the local property or zero dependence with other particles, media has total dependence so it is a global unique entity. Now, in set theory, any element is independent from the other so disjoint set has no elements in common. With this condition we have known that the true/ false logic can be applied and set theory is the principal foundation. Now with conditional probability and dependence by copula the long distance dependence has an effect on any individual entity that now is not isolate but can have different types of dependence or synchronism (constrain) whose effect is to change the probability of any particle. So particle with different degree of dependence can be represented by a new type of set as fuzzy set in which the boundary is not completely defined or where we cannot separate a set in its parts as in the evidence theory. In conclusion the Feynman paradox and Bell violation can be explained at a new level of complexity by many valued logics and new types of set theory.