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The purpose of the study was to examine whether retrospective self-reported weight changes during childhood and adolescence were associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in Mexican young adults. Mexican college applicants to the Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Mexico, 18 to 25 years old (n = 4187) who had applied for the 2009 academic year were included in the study. Participants underwent a health screening—anthropometrics and blood drawn—and completed a questionnaire. Five major weight change categories were defined based on self-reported weight during childhood and adolescence: consistently normal, consistently underweight, consistently overweight/ obese, weight gain, and weight loss. Most participants self-reported being normal weight during childhood (58.7%) and adolescence (58.3%). Only a small proportion reported being overweight or obese during childhood (10.1%) or adolescence (15.9%). Weight change patterns during childhood and adolescence were marked by overall stability: 40.1% of participants were consistently normal, 15.6% underweight and 3.6% overweight/obese. Among those whose weight changed, 25.0% gained weight and 15.7% lost weight. In regression analyses, weight change categories based on self-reported weight statuses during childhood and adolescence were not associated with current metabolic syndrome risk factors after controlling for measured current BMI. Studies addressing the association between weight gains in early life with metabolic syndrome outcomes in early adulthood should not rely on recalled weight status during early life alone.
The rise in metabolic syndrome (MetS) is accompanied by a decrease in milk and dairy consumption and an increase in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, with SSB possibly displacing dairy products in the diet. Our main objective was to determine whether young individuals not meeting the dairy recommendations of 3 servings per day were at greater risk for MetS. In a cross-sectional design, a food frequency questionnaire was answered by Mexican college applicants (n = 339). Medical examination at a primary health care center and evaluation for presence of MetS risk factors was completed as part of an ongoing collaborative project. Relative risk analyses were used to assess the impact of meeting or not the dairy recommendations for the presence of MetS. The MetS prevalence was 10. Three-fourths (76%) of participants were not meeting the daily recommendations. Individuals who failed to meet dairy recommendations were at 2.9 times greater risk for MetS when controlling for age, sex, family history of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and physical activity. We did not found that SSB were displacing dairy products in the diet. Still, our data support the importance of meeting daily dairy recommendations for the prevention of MetS in young adults.