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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14739 matches for " Marcelo Chiara;Faludi "
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Lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide inactivation in postmenopausal women
Pereira Isabela Rosier Olimpio,Bertolami Marcelo Chiara,Faludi André Arpad,Campos Maria Fernanda
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2003,
Lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide inactivation in postmenopausal women
Pereira, Isabela Rosier Olimpio;Bertolami, Marcelo Chiara;Faludi, André Arpad;Campos, Maria Fernanda;Ferderbar, Simone;Lima, Emersom Silva;Aldrighi, José Mendes;Abdalla, Dulcineia Saes Parra;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0066-782X2003000400005
Abstract: objective: to assess the effect of endogenous estrogens on the bioavailability of nitric oxide (·no) and in the formation of lipid peroxidation products in pre- and postmenopausal women. methods: nox and s-nitrosothiols were determined by gaseous phase chemiluminescence, nitrotyrosine was determined by elisa, cox (cholesterol oxides) by gas chromatography, and cholesteryl linoleate hydroperoxides (ce18:2-ooh), trilinolein (tg18:2-ooh), and phospholipids (pc-ooh) by hplc in samples of plasma. results: the concentrations of nox, nitrotyrosine, cox, ce18:2-ooh, and pc-ooh were higher in the postmenopausal period (33.8±22.3 mm; 230±130 nm; 55±19 ng/ml; 17±8.7 nm; 2775±460 nm, respectively) as compared with those in the premenopausal period (21.1±7.3 mm; 114±41 nm; 31±13 ng/ml; 6±1.4 nm; 1635±373 nm). in contrast, the concentration of s-nitrosothiols was lower in the postmenopausal period (91±55 nm) as compared with that in the premenopausal p in the premenopausal period (237±197 nm). conclusion: in the postmenopausal period, an increase in nitrotyrosine and a reduction of s-nitrosothiol formation, as well as an increase of cox, ce18:2-ooh and pc-ooh formation occurs. therefore, ?no inactivation and the increase in lipid peroxidation may contribute to endothelial dysfunction and to the greater risk for atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women.
Mecanismos de hepatotoxicidade
Bertolami, Marcelo Chiara;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0066-782X2005002400007
Abstract: liver disease following the use of hypolipidemic drugs has been reported as a cellular damage (increases in ast or alt enzymes) without cholestatic alterations (bilirubin and or alkaline phosphatase increases). six mechanisms were proposed for hepatotoxicity : 1. high energy reactions on p450 cytochrome impairing calcium homestasis with rupture of intracellular fibrils and hepatocyte lysis. 2. impairment of transporter proteins related to the bile acids flux (mechanism proposed for fibrate liver toxicity). 3. immune reactions due to the formation of metabolites linked to enzymes following liver metabolism of hypolipidemic drugs. 4. hepatotoxicity by t cells with additional inflammation mediated by neutrophils. 5. apoptosis mediated by tnf and fas (immune mediated). 6. oxidative stress due to damage of intracellular organelles. in addition, advanced age, alcohol in excess, high doses of hypolipidemic drugs, interaction with other drugs, and previous active liver disease might increase liver toxicity.
The Process Architecture of EU Territorial Cohesion Policy
Andreas Faludi
European Journal of Spatial Development , 2010,
Abstract: When preparing the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP), Member States were supported by the European Commission but denied the EU a competence in the matter. Currently, the Treaty of Lisbon identifies territorial cohesion as a competence shared between the Union and the Member States. This paper is about the process architecture of territorial cohesion policy. In the past, this architecture resembled the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) which the White Paper on European Governance praised, but only in areas where there was no EU competence. This reflected zero-sum thinking which may continue even under the Lisbon Treaty. After all, for as long as territorial cohesion was not a competence, voluntary cooperation as practiced in the ESDP process was pursued in this way. However, the practice of EU policies, even in areas where there is an EU competence, often exhibits features of the OMC. Surprisingly effective innovations hold the promise of rendering institutions of decision making comprehensible and democratically accountable. In the EU as a functioning polity decision making is thus at least part deliberative so that actors’ preferences are transformed by the force of the better argument. This brings into focus the socialisation of the deliberators into epistemic communities. Largely an informal process, this is reminiscent of European spatial planning having been characterised as a learning process.
Apolipoprotein E mRNA expression in mononuclear cells from normolipidemic and hypercholesterolemic individuals treated with atorvastatin
Alvaro Cerda, Fabiana DV Genvigir, Maria AV Willrich, Simone S Arazi, Marcia MS Bernik, Egidio L Dorea, Marcelo C Bertolami, Andre A Faludi, Mario H Hirata, Rosario DC Hirata
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-10-206
Abstract: APOE ε2/ε3/ε4 and plasma lipids were evaluated in 181 normolipidemic (NL) and 181 hypercholesterolemic (HC) subjects. HC individuals with indication for lowering-cholesterol treatment (n = 141) were treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/day/4-weeks). APOE genotypes and APOE mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were analyzed by TaqMan real time PCR.HC had lower APOE expression than NL group (p < 0.05) and individuals with low APOE expression showed higher plasma total and LDL cholesterol and apoB, as well as higher apoAI (p < 0.05). Individuals carrying ε2 allele have reduced risk for hypercholesterolemia (OR: 0.27, 95% I.C.: 0.08-0.85, p < 0.05) and NL ε2 carriers had lower total and LDL cholesterol and apoB levels, and higher HDL cholesterol than non-carriers (p < 0.05). APOE genotypes did not affect APOE expression and atorvastatin response. Atorvastatin treatment do not modify APOE expression, however those individuals without LDL cholesterol goal achievement after atorvastatin treatment according to the IV Brazilian Guidelines for Dyslipidemia and Atherosclerosis Prevention had lower APOE expression than patients with desirable response after the treatment (p < 0.05).APOE expression in PBMC is modulated by hypercholesterolemia and the APOE mRNA level regulates the plasma lipid profile. Moreover the expression profile is not modulated neither by atorvastatin nor APOE genotypes. In our population, APOE ε2 allele confers protection against hypercholesterolemia and a less atherogenic lipid profile. Moreover, low APOE expression after treatment of patients with poor response suggests a possible role of APOE level in atorvastatin response.Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Research on cardiovascular diseases has leaded to a better knowledge of the molecular basis of atherosclerosis and the identification of a key role of apolipoprotein (apo) E in this process [1]. ApoE is a major constituen
Association between diet and polymorphisms in individuals with statin-controlled dyslipidaemia grouped according to oxidative stress biomarkers
Botelho, Patrícia Borges;Fioratti, Cyntia Okoshi;Rogero, Marcelo Macedo;Barroso, Lucia Pereira;Bertolami, Marcelo Chiara;Castro, Inar Alves;
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-82502012000100005
Abstract: the objective of this study was to investigate whether differences in diet and in single-nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) found in paraoxonase-1 (pon-1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase (hmgcr), cholesterol ester transfer protein (cetp) and apolipoprotein e (apoe) genes, are associated with oxidative stress biomarkers and consequently with susceptibility of low-density cholesterol (ldl) to oxidation. a multivariate approach was applied to a group of 55 patients according to three biomarkers: plasma antioxidant activity, malondialdehyde and oxidized ldl (oxldl) concentrations. individuals classified in cluster iii showed the worst prognoses in terms of antioxidant activity and oxidative status. individuals classified in cluster i presented the lowest oxidative status, while individuals grouped in cluster ii presented the highest levels of antioxidant activity. no difference in nutrient intake was observed among the clusters. significantly higher γ- and δ-tocopherol concentrations were observed in those individuals with the highest levels of antioxidant activity. no single linear regression was statistically significant, suggesting that mutant alleles of the snps selected did not contribute to the differences observed in oxidative stress response. although not statistically significant, the p value of the apo e coefficient for oxldl response was 0.096, indicating that patients who carry the tt allele of the apo e gene tend to present lower plasma oxldl concentrations. therefore, the differences in oxidative stress levels observed in this study could not be attributed to diet or to the variant alleles of pon-1, cetp, hmgcr or apo e. this data supports the influence of γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol on antioxidant activity, and highlights the need for further studies investigating apo e alleles and ldl oxidation.
Time Competition. The New Strategic Frontier  [PDF]
Chiara Demartini, Piero Mella
iBusiness (IB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2011.32020
Abstract: The acceleration of change necessitates strategies to control time, considered not only as a variable that influences the temporal evolution of phenomena but as one that directly influences phenomena itself. This study tries to present the logic of time compression and time to market, as well as the main instruments for the formulation of time-based strategies, not only by observing how the value of time is perceived as a contraction of production and distribution lead times but also by considering the choice of the most opportune moment to start a business and introduce (or withdraw) a new product. Starting from a discussion of time-based competition managerial approaches, this study develops a theoretical framework showing different time-based methodologies (JIT, MRP, OPT, FMS, PERT, HSM) that help management to adopt time-based strategies. It also puts forward a taxonomy of time-based strategies as well as a logical strategic path to time value.
Reducing seismic risk by understanding its cultural roots: Inference from an Italian case history  [PDF]
Francesco Stoppa, Chiara Berti
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.58A1010

The paper discusses how to approach the problem of the social mitigation of seismic risk, in order to reduce damage and grief consequent to earthquakes. An alert protocol, intended as a working hypothesis, is proposed based on the experience gained from analysis of the behaviour and social response to the threat before and after the great disaster of the L’Aquila earthquake on 6th April 2009. Authors propose a protocol addressing four levels of increasing alert based on signs of earthquake preparation and social concerns. In this sense, it works as an intensity scale and does not strictly relate to earthquake size (magnitude) or seismic hazard. The proposed alert protocol provides sensible measures for reducing vulnerability, which is the only factor that can be more or less efficiently controlled, based on structural and behavioural adjustments. Factors indicating the difficult relationship between politicians, scientific community and citizens are considered: 1) a serious gap between researchers and citizens; 2) measures adopted by local administrators and the National Civil Protection Service not agreed by the population; 3) misunderstanding originated from a lack of clarity of communication about scientific terminology; and 4) the lack of an alert procedure protocol. In the current situation, all these problems are crucial and contribute to the unpreparedness to face a seismic event, and thus greatly increase the risk. The adoption and implementation of an alert procedure protocol requires a preliminary assessment of the context and should be adapted to the local sensibility and culture. The application of a protocol may reduce the contrasts between preventive measures and individual responsibilities, making mitigation measures more feasible and socially acceptable. In this paper, risk evaluation is not strictly related to probabilistic or deterministic predictions. In fact, this is a result of a project that comes from the general analysis of risk and is not intended to give an alternative hazard estimate method. This paper proposes an alert protocol addressing four levels of increasing alert based on signs of earthquake generating preparation and social concerns. Finally, there is a suggestion on how to gradually communicate the threat and get citizens involved in the risk mitigation process.

Mental health literacy and the anxiety disorders  [PDF]
Adrian Furnham, Chiara Lousley
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.53A071

Context: This study set out to investigate the mental health literacy (MHL) about eight anxiety disorders (ADs), using vignette methodology. Methods: In all 317 British Adult participants completed a questionnaire with vignettes describing eight anxiety disorders including OCD, PTSD, Agoraphobia, Specific Phobias, Social Phobia, Separation Anxiety Disorder, GAD and Panic Disorder. Recognition, beliefs about treatments and perceived life adjustment (happiness, success at work) of specific people with these disorders were assessed. Results: Literacy levels varied across anxiety disorders, with high recognition of OCD (64.67%), but very poor for panic disorder (1.26%), GAD (2.84%) and separation anxiety disorder (5.99%). There were few significant effects of vignette gender on literacy levels. MHL for most anxiety disorders was relatively low; particularly panic disorder, GAD and separation anxiety disorder. Social Phobics were judged as least happy and adjusted and agoraphobics least successful at work and would benefit most from psychological help. Conclusions: Overall recognition of the anxiety disorders was poor. Beliefs about adjustment and treatment varied widely as a function of each disorder. Implications of the research for education of the public and limitations of this research are considered.

Estatinas nas síndromes coronarianas agudas
Sposito, Alexandre Russo;Aguiar Filho, Gentil Barreira de;Aar?o, Amanda Rezende;Sousa, Francisco Thiago Tomaz de;Bertolami, Marcelo Chiara;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0066-782X2011001300012
Abstract: statins are the main resource available to reduce ldl-cholesterol levels. their continuous use decreases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to atherosclerosis. the administration of these medications demonstrated to be effective in primary and secondary prevention clinical trials in low and high risk patients. specialists believe that a possible benefit of hypolipidemic therapy in preventing complications of atherosclerotic diseases is in the reduction of deposition of atherogenic lipoproteins in vulnerable areas of the vasculature. experimental studies with statins have shown an enormous variety of other effects that could extend the clinical benefit beyond the lipid profile modification itself. statinbased therapies benefit other important components of the atherothrombotic process: inflammation, oxidation, coagulation, fibrinolysis, endothelial function, vasoreactivity and platelet function. the demonstration of the effects that do not depend on cholesterol lowering or the pleiotropic effects of statins provides the theoretical basis for their potential role as adjunctive therapy in acute coronary syndromes. retrospective analyses of a variety of studies indicate the potential benefit of statins during acute coronary events. recent clinical studies have addressed this important issue in prospective controlled trials showing strong evidence for the administration of statins as adjunctive therapy in acute coronary syndromes.
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