Abstract:
Several types of solid acid catalysts were prepared based on oxides like (ZrO_{2}, TiO_{2}, HfO_{2}, MCM-41 and SBA-15), using two main preparation methods: the precipitation and the sol-gel methods. Each catalyst was subjected to two types of impregnations: sulfate ions using sulfuric acid as precursor and niobium using niobium oxalate as precursor. These prepared catalysts were tested in the etherification reaction of 2-naphtol, where the catalysts showed both acidic and redox properties. The acidic character was manifested through the formation of 2-butoxynaphtalene (with moderate yields) when oxide is sulfated, and the redox character (when impregnated with niobium) manifested through the formation of the interesting product 2-ethylnaphtofuran (with low yields) and other products that were a result of oxidative coupling of two 2-naphtol molecules (binol and acetal of binol). However despite the effort, several attempts to increase the yield of 2-ethylnaphtofuran did not work. All products prepared were obtained in pure form and characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, GC and MS.

Abstract:
Several types of solid acid catalysts were prepared based on oxides like (ZrO_{2}, TiO_{2}, HfO_{2}, MCM-41 and SBA-15). Each catalyst was subjected separately to two types of impregnations: sulfate ions and niobium. The catalytic activity of these solids was tested in the oxidation reaction of 1-octanol. These catalysts showed acidic and redox characters. MCM-41 and SBA-15 materials showed higher redox catalytic activities through the formation of (octyl octanoate, peroxyacetal and octanal). Our interest was focused on obtaining the ester (octyl octanoate) with high yields.

Abstract:
We revisit the dynamics of a gene repressed by its own protein in the case where the transcription rate does not adapt instantaneously to protein concentration but is a dynamical variable. We derive analytical criteria for the appearance of sustained oscillations and find that they require degradation mechanisms much less nonlinear than for infinitely fast regulation. Deterministic predictions are also compared with stochastic simulations of this minimal genetic oscillator.

Abstract:
grasslands have to be considered not only as a mean for providing foods for domestic herbivore but also as an important biome of terrestrial biosphere. this function of grasslands as an active component of our environment requires specific studies on the role and impact of this ecosystem on soil erosion and soil quality, quality and quantity of water resources, atmosphere composition and greenhouse gas emission or sequestration, biodiversity dynamics at different scales from field plot to landscape. all these functions have to be evaluated in conjunction with the function of providing animal products for increasing human population. so multifunctionality of grasslands become a new paradigm for grassland science. environmental and biodiversity outputs require long term studies, being the long term retro-active processes within soil, vegetation and micro-organism communities in relation to changes in management programme. so grassland science needs to carry on long term integrated experimentation for studying all the environmental outputs and ecological services associated to grassland management systems.

Abstract:
I outline the development of four generations of kinetic models, starting with Chamberlain's solar breeze exospheric model. It is shown why this first kinetic model did not give apposite supersonic evaporation velocities, like early hydrodynamic models of the solar wind. When a self-consistent polarization electric potential distribution is used in the coronal plasma, instead of the Pannekoek-Rosseland's one, supersonic bulk velocities are readily obtained in the second generation of kinetic models. It is outlined how the third and fourth generations of these models have improved the agreement with observations of slow and fast speed solar wind streams.

Abstract:
Chapman's (1957) conductive model of the solar corona is characterized by a temperature varying as r**(-2/7) with heliocentric distance r. The density distribution in this non-isothermal hydrostatic model has a minimum value at 123 RS, and increases with r above that altitude. It is shown that this hydrostatic model becomes convectively unstable above r = 35 RS, where the temperature lapse rate becomes superadiabatic. Beyond this radial distance heat conduction fails to be efficient enough to keep the temperature gradient smaller than the adiabatic lapse rate. We report the results obtained by Lemaire (1968) who showed that an additional mechanism is then required to transport the energy flux away from the Sun into interplanetary space. He pointed out that this additional mechanism is advection: i.e. the stationary hydrodynamic expansion of the corona. In other words the corona is unable to stay in hydrostatic equilibrium. The hydrodynamic solar wind expansion is thus a physical consequence of the too steep (superadiabatic) temperature gradient beyond the peak of coronal temperature that can be determined from white light brightness distributions observed during solar eclipses. The thermodynamic argument for the existence of a continuous solar wind expansion which is presented here, complements Parker's classical argument based on boundary conditions imposed to the solutions of the hydrodynamic equations for the coronal expansion: i.e. the inability of the mechanical forces to hold the corona in hydrostatic equilibrium. The thermodynamic argument presented here is based on the energy transport equation. It relies on the temperature distribution which becomes super-adiabatic above a certain altitude in the inner corona.

Abstract:
We propose a new scheme for the long time approximation of a diffusion when the drift vector field is not globally Lipschitz. Under this assumption, regular explicit Euler scheme --with constant or decreasing step-- may explode and implicit Euler scheme are CPU-time expensive. The algorithm we introduce is explicit and we prove that any weak limit of the weighted empirical measures of this scheme is a stationary distribution of the stochastic differential equation. Several examples are presented including gradient dissipative systems and Hamiltonian dissipative systems.

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to study the behavior of the weighted empirical measures of the decreasing step Euler scheme of a one-dimensional diffusion process having multiple invariant measures. This situation can occur when the drift and the diffusion coefficient are vanish simultaneously. As a first step, we give a brief description of the Feller's classification of the one-dimensional process. We recall the concept of attractive and repulsive boundary point and introduce the concept of strongly repulsive point. That allows us to establish a classification of the ergodic behavior of the diffusion. We conclude this section by giving necessary and sufficient conditions on the nature of boundary points in terms of Lyapunov functions. In the second section we use this characterization to study the decreasing step Euler scheme. We give also an numerical example in higher dimension.

Abstract:
Let $F$ be a non--Archimedean locally compact field (${\rm car}(F)\geq 0$), ${\bf G}$ be a connected reductive group defined over $F$, $\theta$ be an $F$--automorphism of ${\bf G}$, and $\omega$ be a character of ${\bf G}(F)$. We fix a Haar measure $dg$ on ${\bf G}(F)$. For a smooth irreducible $(\theta,\omega)$--stable complex representation $\pi$ of ${\bf G}(F)$, that is such that $\pi\circ \theta\simeq \pi\otimes \omega$, the choice of an isomorphism $A$ from $\pi\otimes \omega$ to $\pi\circ \theta$ defines a distribution $\Theta_\pi^A$, called the \og ($A$--)twisted character of $\pi$\fg: for a compactly supported locally constant function $f$ on ${\bf G}(F)$, we put $\Theta_\pi^A(f)={\rm trace}(\pi(fdg)\circ A)$. In this paper, we study these distributions $\Theta_\pi^A$, without any restrictive hypothesis on $F$, ${\bf G}$ or $\theta$. We prove in particular that the restriction of $\Theta_\pi^A$ on the open dense subset of ${\bf G}(F)$ formed of those elements which are $\theta$--quasi--regular is given by a locally constant function, and we describe how this function behaves with respect to parabolic induction and Jacquet restriction. This leads us to take up again the Steinberg theory of automorphisms of an algebraic group, from a rationnal point of view.

Abstract:
Poissonian ensembles of Markov loops on a finite graph define a random graph process in which the addition of a loop can merge more than two connected components. We study Markov loops on the complete graph derived from a simple random walk killed at each step with a constant probability. Using a component exploration procedure, we describe the asymptotic distribution of the connected component size of a vertex at a time proportional to the number of vertices, show that the largest component size undergoes a phase transition and establish the coagulation equations associated to this random graph process.