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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2875 matches for " Mara Pipere "
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Are children safe indoor from outdoor air pollution? A short review  [PDF]
Giovanni Ghirga, Mara Pipere
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2012.22016
Abstract: Background: Air pollution is a serious threat to children health. Given that children spend over 80% of their time indoors, understanding transport of pollutants from outdoor to indoor environments is important for assessing the impact of exposure to outdoor pollution on children health. The most common advice given during a smoke pollution episode is to stay indoors. How well this works depends on how clean the indoor air is and how pollutants from outdoor air contribute to pollutants load in indoor air. Objective: To assess the amount of outdoor air pollution coming indoors threatening children health. Methods: A Medline/EMBASE search of scientific articles was performed to evaluate the indoor-to-outdoor (I/O) concentration ratios of two main pollutants: ultrafine particles (UFP) and ozone (O3). Result: Under infiltration condition, the highest I/O ratios (0.6 - 0.9) were usually observed for larger UFP (70 - 100 nm), while the lowest I/O ratios (0.1 - 0.4) occurred typically around 10 - 20 nm. O3 I/O ratios vary according to air exchange and may be 0.6 - 0.8 for interiors having a large volume exchange with outdoor air (i.e. open windows) and 0.3 - 0.4 with conventional air conditioning systems. Conclusions: In the absence of indoor sources or activities, indoor UFP particles originate from outdoors. O3 concentration indoors may reach concentration similar to outdoors. Environmental and energy policies must also explicitly account for all the impacts of fossil fuel combustion on child health and development.
Health Inequalities: Access to Services by Immigrants in Italy  [PDF]
Mara Tognetti
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.34002
Abstract: The presence of migrants as a phenomenon of globalization forces the various world health systems to face up to the problem of inequality penalising this population. Although new to immigration, Italy has seen an increase in immigrant health inequalities. Access to health services is a critical issue here.
Recourse to Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) at Times of Economic Crisis: The Case of Italy  [PDF]
Mara Tognetti
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.57023
Abstract: The economic crisis that has invested western countries in the last years has determined a significant reduction in consumption of medication and treatments recourse, too. The Economic recession is generally accompanied by a decrease in health-related consumption, varying according to the welfare model, and especially affecting people of working age with a low income. The present paper focuses on the effects of the economic crisis on users of Complementary/Alternative Medicine treatments (from now on referred as CAM). Based on multi-purpose data analyses, this work aims to examine what kind of strategies such consumers have adopted in order not to neglect their health despite feeling the economic pinch. Our analyses are principally based on ISTAT, Italian National Institute for Recording Statistics findings. Specifically, our research is based on the survey “Health conditions and recourse to health services”. The analysed data refer to the Italian context in the period comprised from 2000 to 2013. The results of this work reveal how, in this delicate phase of the economy, traditional consumers of CAM have signally reduced their use of such treatments. In Italy, in the observed period, factors as working status, age, smoking and chronic diseases have been determinant in the decision to use CAM. The article suggests that, where health is at stake, CAM users are more strategic than the average biomedicine users. Furthermore, confirming the past trend, it shows how difficult it is to afford forms of treatment not covered by the health system as well as it underlines the lack of data for comparison with other countries.
Gratitude, or the Positive Side of the Relationship with Patients. Development and First Validation of New Instruments: A Scale of Gratitude Perceived by Operators and a Scale of Support Offered by the Gratitude Expressed by Their Patients  [PDF]
Mara Martini, Daniela Converso
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.56067

The relationship with patients/users is a crucial dimension for helping professionals. It is nevertheless mostly analyzed in its negative connotation, that’s to say as a possible cause, for example, of the burnout syndrome, while very few are research works that take into account the positive side of the relationship, as a resource more than a problem, and even fewer are the instruments to measure it. The aim of the present work is the development and the analysis of the characteristics of a scale to measure the gratitude expressed by patients perceived by operators and of a scale to measure the perception of support that gratitude by patients/customers offers to relieve the fatigue of daily commitment and return significance to their work. The two scales were developed and then integrated into a questionnaire including items regarding the negative side of the relationship (exceeding requests from patients) and the Customer-initiated support scale (Zimmermann et al., 2011). The questionnaire was filled in by 267 nurses in Piedmont, Italy. Descriptive analyses on each item, exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, analysis of variance, and bivariate correlations were conducted. Both scales show a one-factor solution. The independent sample t-tests highlighted differences between men and women and between people who have families to care for and people who do not. Bivariate correlations signalled a positive relationship between both the gratitude scales and the Customer-initiated support; no relationships are evident with the scale of exceeding request from patients. A limitation of the work is the dimension of the sample: a more extensive administration of the questionnaire is currently in progress that will also permit to more deeply investigate the factorial structure of the scales. The scales will allow filling a gap in measuring a central work issue for helping professions.

Parabolic Partial Differential Equations with Border Conditions of Dirichlet as Inverse Moments Problem  [PDF]
Mara B. Pintarelli
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/am.2017.81002
Abstract: We considerer parabolic partial differential equations: \"\" under the conditions \"\" , on a region \"\" . We will see that an approximate solution can be found using the techniques of generalized inverse moments problem and also bounds for the error of estimated solution. First we transform the parabolic partial differential equation to the integral equation \"\" . Using the inverse moments problem techniques we obtain an approximate solution \"\" of \"\" . Then we find a numerical approximation of when solving the integral equation \"\" , because solving the previous integral equation is equivalent to solving the equation \"\" .
Voter Beliefs, Electoral Concerns and Undocumented Migration  [PDF]
Ruxanda Berlinschi, Mara Pasquamaria Squicciarini
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2013.34020

If voters underestimate the benefits that immigrants bring to their country, policy makers need to campaign for suboptimal migration levels in order to win elections. Once in power, they face a trade-off between keeping electoral promises by restricting immigration and stimulating the economy by favoring immigration. One solution to this trade-off may be maintaining high barriers to legal migration, while keeping a blind eye on undocumented migration.

“Careers” Transnational Links: The Ambivalence of Immigrant Remittances  [PDF]
Mara Tognetti Bordogna, Annalisa Ornaghi
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.21016
Abstract: Recent studies on international migration have paid special attention to the transnational perspective, a new branch of the sociology of migration studying the process through which migrants build social fields that link the countries of origin and destination. The economic transnationalism connected to the great phenomenon of remittances—financial, material or immaterial—is one relevant aspect of this field of study. Remittances are ambivalent because they can be interpreted either as a medium of consolidation of transnational ties or as a bond linking migrant women to the country of origin. Our target is, in fact, those migrant women who carry out in Italy a particular work of care: the badanti, or informal caregivers. As such, they constitute an important resource of the Italian welfare system, characterized as it is by an important family component. Any migratory phenomenon is, by nature, complex and dynamic, with different historical, economic and social characteristics. Moreover, it operates changes at many levels. The caring work done by badanti, as well as the transnational links represented by cross-border remittances, takes place and must be read within this broader dynamics. The research question for this paper is (exactly) that whether remittances are mainly bonds or mainly ties for badanti, relative to other migrant workers employed in the care sector. We use qualitative and quantitative data from the Prin 2004 research project1 concerning nationality, gender and class in new house holding work in Italy. After de
The Polyol Pathway as a Mechanism for Diabetic Retinopathy: Attractive, Elusive, and Resilient
Mara Lorenzi
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/61038
Abstract: The polyol pathway is a two-step metabolic pathway in which glucose is reduced to sorbitol, which is then converted to fructose. It is one of the most attractive candidate mechanisms to explain, at least in part, the cellular toxicity of diabetic hyperglycemia because (i) it becomes active when intracellular glucose concentrations are elevated, (ii) the two enzymes are present in human tissues and organs that are sites of diabetic complications, and (iii) the products of the pathway and the altered balance of cofactors generate the types of cellular stress that occur at the sites of diabetic complications. Inhibition (or ablation) of aldose reductase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway, reproducibly prevents diabetic retinopathy in diabetic rodent models, but the results of a major clinical trial have been disappointing. Since then, it has become evident that truly informative indicators of polyol pathway activity and/or inhibition are elusive, but are likely to be other than sorbitol levels if meant to predict accurately tissue consequences. The spectrum of abnormalities known to occur in human diabetic retinopathy has enlarged to include glial and neuronal abnormalities, which in experimental animals are mediated by the polyol pathway. The endothelial cells of human retinal vessels have been noted to have aldose reductase. Specific polymorphisms in the promoter region of the aldose reductase gene have been found associated with susceptibility or progression of diabetic retinopathy. This new knowledge has rekindled interest in a possible role of the polyol pathway in diabetic retinopathy and in methodological investigation that may prepare new clinical trials. Only new drugs that inhibit aldose reductase with higher efficacy and safety than older drugs will make possible to learn if the resilience of the polyol pathway means that it has a role in human diabetic retinopathy that should not have gone undiscovered.
Comprender las imágenes: Entre las formas simbólicas y los procesos culturales
Cuadernos del Centro de Estudios en Dise?±o y Comunicaci?3n. Ensayos , 2012,
Abstract: the processes of visual alphabetization are conformed by a multiplicity of aspects that to a great extent move away of the strictly visual. to learn to see implies to cross a process of cultural habit to which ideological conditioners are gotten up, political, historical and without a doubt aesthetic. the present work aims to track to what extent our visibility, and therefore our "way to see" are crossed by cultural drivers where sociologic processes are involved and linked to cultural anthropology and art history.
Capital humano y cambios en la estructura productiva: análisis teórico en un modelo de crecimiento
Rojas, Mara;
Papeles de población , 2012,
Abstract: this paper tries to underline the relationship between human capital formation, changes in the productive structure in a country along its growth path and economic growth. underdeveloped countries seem to be condemned to remain at low-level income equilibrium. the coexistence of large low productive sectors with small modern sectors, and the impossibility to obtain threshold levels in both human and physical capital explain, in part, this stagnation. it is introduced a theoretical growth model with productive dualities (two consumer goods sectors with unequal productivity levels), and a human capital sector, which will be the engine of the economic growth together with the physical capital accumulation.
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