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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 473330 matches for " María Elena;Orozco "
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Estudio de costo-efectividad de intervenciones para prevenir el abuso de alcohol en México
María Elena Medina-Mora,Ignacio García-Téllez,Diego Cortina,Ricardo Orozco
Salud mental , 2010,
Abstract: Introducción: Los análisis de costo-efectividad se sugieren como una herramienta esencial para gestionar e implementar políticas públicas en salud, pues permiten compararlas a fin de conocer cuál es la que obtiene mejor balance entre efectividad y viabilidad financiera. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el costo-efectividad de las intervenciones para prevenir y controlar el abuso de alcohol en México. Método: Se utilizó la metodología WHO-CHOICE de la Organización Mundial de la Salud: un análisis de costo-efectividad generalizado (vs. particular) que toma en cuenta prácticamente los costos directos o tangibles (vs. los intangibles). El procedimiento implica la obtención de información de diversas fuentes, tanto de la enfermedad o problema en cuestión como de las intervenciones preventivas o terapéuticas a evaluar. Esta información se carga entonces para su análisis en un software o programa ad hoc. Se hace un descuento estándar de 3% anual para obtener y comparar el valor presente de los insumos, y se pondera la edad de los individuos, dando más peso a las etapas jóvenes. Finalmente, los resultados se plantean en términos de costo-efectividad de las intervenciones para reducir la carga de la enfermedad, definida en a os vividos con discapacidad o disfunción (DALYs, por sus siglas en inglés: disability adjusted lifeyears). Las intervenciones que se evaluaron son...
DIVERSIDAD DE HONGOS MICORRIZóGENOS ARBUSCULARES DE UNA CRONO-SECUENCIA DE SUELOS ALUVIALES DEGRADADOS POR ACTIVIDAD MINERA EN EL BAJO CAUCA ANTIOQUE?O, COLOMBIA
Medina Sierra,Marisol; Orozco Pati?o,Francisco Hernando; Márquez Fernández,María Elena;
Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía, Medellín , 2009,
Abstract: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf) presence and diversity were evaluated in undisturbed and disturbed soils form alluvial mining processes. the soils belong to the tropic fluvaquent, typic dystropept, and typic paleudult sub-groups which corresponded to low, middle and high terraces, respectively, of the cauca river at taraza town. amf propagules were multiplied in leonard jars under glasshouse conditions using sterile substrate, modified hoagland's solution and different fractions of soil used as sources of inoculum, which corresponded to the size of the spores. a first assay was made in maize (zea mays) which allowed mycorrhizal colonization in roots but not spore production. in a second assay, in kudzú (pueraria phaseoloides) amf spores and colonized roots were obtained with the treatments corresponding to propagules obtained from high terrace and disturbed soil. these treatments presented a significant effect on kudzu yield (p≤0,001) respect to the other treatments. the amf spores of undisturbed and disturbed soils showed low infective capacity. nevertheless, propagules of amf were multiplied in trap cultures, which produced spores of four morphotypes. one of these was identified as g. microagregatum. the polymorphism obtained by rapd's made possible the differentiation of these morphotypes with the primer opa2. similitude above 38% was achieved using upgma system. the results indicated that four morphotypes belong to the genus glomus, but they possibly belong to different species. our results are promissory in the differentiation of native strains of amf with low number of spores collected from soil samples in rehabilitation processes, which normally is unknown.
Use of polymerase chain reaction for the identification of Leptospira sp. in urine of carriers
Banda Ruiz,Víctor Manuel; Orozco Vega,Laura Elena; Urrutia Velázquez,Rosa María;
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2005,
Abstract: the objectives of the present work were to detect leptospira seropositive animals. the elisa results report only igg antibodies, which could be attributable to chronic infections or else, that they are healthy carriers. all polymerase chain reaction positive animals should be considered potential sources of infection.
Avances en la transformación de raíces de kudzú (Pueraria phaseoloides) y zanahoria (Daucus carota var. Danvers 126) con diferentes cepas de Agrobacterium rhizogenes para multiplicación de hongos MA Advances in transforming kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides) and carrot (Daucus carota var. Danvers 126) roots with different Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains for increasing MA fungi growth
Medina Sierra Marisol,Orozco P. Francisco Hernando,Márquez F. María Elena
Revista Colombiana de Biotecnología , 2002,
Abstract: En el presente trabajo se transformaron raíces de kudzú (Pueraria phaseoloides) y de zanahoria (Daucus carota) en diferentes medios de cultivo, mediante el empleo de cinco cepas diferentes de Agrobacterium rhizogenes; de comportamiento diferente tanto en la transformación de zanahoria por las cepas de A. rhizogenes A.r.15834, A.r.8196 y A.r.2659; como en la transformación de kudzú por las cepas A.r.15834 y A.r.1724. Por otro lado, se logró la multiplicación en medio White modificado (WM) de las raíces transformadas de zanahoria, mientras que las de kudzú no se lograron multiplicar en ese medio ni tampoco en el medio MS modificado. Las raíces de zanahoria se emplearon para la multiplicación y esporulación del hongo micorrizógeno arbuscular (HMA) Glomus intrarradices, sin embargo las cepas nativas de HMA, aisladas de una de las zonas de minería del Bajo Cauca Antioque o, no crecieron en las raíces transformadas de esta especie ni aún en las de kudzú, a pesar de ser una planta que presenta alta afinidad por las cepas nativas de HMA. Los resultados se muestran como un avance en el procedimiento para el aislamiento de ADN y el mantenimiento de colecciones de HMA, requeridos para otras investigaciones. Kudzú (P. phaseoloides) and carrot (D. carota) roots were transformed in this survey into different kinds of culture medium by using five different A. rhizogenes strains. These presented different behaviour both in carrot transformation by A. rhizogenes 15834, A.r.8196 and A.r.2659 strains as well as kudzu transformation by A.r.15834 and A.r.1724 strains. Transformed carrot root growth was increased in WM culture medium, whilst transformed kudzu root growth did not increase in either the same medium or in modified MS medium. Transformed carrot roots were used for G. intrarradices increase and sporulation; however, wild AMF strains, isolated from a mining area (the lower Cauca area of Antioquia), did not grow either in roots from this specie or those from kudzu, in spite of this plant having great affinity for wild AMF strains. The results represent an advance in the procedure for DNA isolation and keeping AMF collections, required for other research.
Use of polymerase chain reaction for the identification of Leptospira sp. in urine of carriers Uso de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para la identificación de Leptospira sp. en orina de portadores
Víctor Manuel Banda Ruiz,Laura Elena Orozco Vega,Rosa María Urrutia Velázquez
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2005,
Abstract: The objectives of the present work were to detect Leptospira seropositive animals. The ELISA results report only IgG antibodies, which could be attributable to chronic infections or else, that they are healthy carriers. All polymerase chain reaction positive animals should be considered potential sources of infection. Se trazó como objetivo detectar los animales seropositivos a Leptospira. Los resultados del ELISA reportaron solo anticuerpos IgG, lo cual puede atribuirse a infecciones crónicas o bien a que sean portadores saludables. Todos los animales positivos a la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa deben considerarse fuentes potenciales de infección.
DIVERSIDAD DE HONGOS MICORRIZóGENOS ARBUSCULARES DE UNA CRONO-SECUENCIA DE SUELOS ALUVIALES DEGRADADOS POR ACTIVIDAD MINERA EN EL BAJO CAUCA ANTIOQUE O, COLOMBIA DIVERSITY OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN A CHRONO-SEQUENCE OF ALLUVIAL AND DEGRADED SOILS DUE TO MINING PROCESSES IN BAJO CAUCA ANTIOQUE O, COLOMBIA
Marisol Medina Sierra,Francisco Hernando Orozco Pati?o,María Elena Márquez Fernández
Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía, Medellín , 2009,
Abstract: Se evaluó la presencia de hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares (HMA) en suelos de zonas alteradas y no alteradas por minería de aluvión de los subgrupos Tropic Fluvaquent, Typic Dystropept y Typic Paleudult de terrazas Baja, Media, y Alta, respectivamente, del río Cauca a la altura del municipio de Tarazá (Antioquia, Colombia). La multiplicación de propágulos de HMA se realizó en jarras de Leonard en invernadero, utilizando sustrato estéril, solución Hoagland's modificada y como inóculo diferentes fracciones de suelo correspondientes al tama o de las esporas. Se realizó un primer ensayo en maíz (Zea mays) en el cual se logró colonización de las raíces pero no esporulación; en un segundo ensayo en kudzú (Pueraria phaseoloides) se logró colonización y esporulación en los tratamientos provenientes de suelo de terraza alta y suelo disturbado y efecto significativo en el rendimiento del kudzú (P≤0,001) respecto a los demás tratamientos. Las esporas de suelos disturbados y no disturbados por minería de aluvión en el Bajo Cauca antioque o (Colombia) mostraron baja capacidad infectiva; sin embargo, en cultivos trampa fue posible multiplicar HMA que produjeron esporas de cuatro morfotipos diferentes, uno de los cuales se identificó como G. microagregatum. El polimorfismo de los morfotipos obtenidos mediante la técnica de RAPD's permitió diferenciarlos con el cebador OPA2 y el agrupamiento por UPGMA con todos los cebadores mostró similitud mayor al 38% entre ellos. Los resultados moleculares y morfológicos, permitieron ubicar los cuatro morfotipos en el género Glomus pero posiblemente pertenecen a especies diferentes. Los resultados obtenidos son promisorios en la diferenciación de cepas nativas con bajo número de esporas colectadas a partir de muestras de suelos en proceso de rehabilitación, de los cuales no se conoce su composición de HMA. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) presence and diversity were evaluated in undisturbed and disturbed soils form alluvial mining processes. The soils belong to the Tropic Fluvaquent, Typic Dystropept, and Typic Paleudult sub-groups which corresponded to Low, Middle and High terraces, respectively, of the Cauca river at Taraza town. AMF propagules were multiplied in Leonard jars under glasshouse conditions using sterile substrate, modified Hoagland's solution and different fractions of soil used as sources of inoculum, which corresponded to the size of the spores. A first assay was made in maize (Zea mays) which allowed mycorrhizal colonization in roots but not spore production. In a second assay, in kudzú (Pueraria phaseoloides)
Unmet needs for treatment of alcohol and drug use in four cities in Mexico
Guilherme Borges,María Elena Medina-Mora,Ricardo Orozco,Clara Fleiz
Salud mental , 2009,
Abstract: Aunque el consumo excesivo de alcohol sea frecuente, las consecuencias de este consumo sean comunes y haya aumentado la disponibilidad de drogas, se sabe poco de las acciones de salud pública y los tipos de tratamiento disponibles para personas con trastornos por el uso de sustancias en México. Estimaciones actuales nacionales muestran que alrededor de una de cada cinco personas con trastornos por el uso de alcohol y drogas recibió tratamiento en los últimos 12 meses. Pese a ello, hasta la fecha no disponemos de estimaciones de las tasas de tratamiento a nivel local, lo que es necesario para la planeación de políticas públicas a nivel comunitario. Este trabajo presenta datos sobre el tratamiento para el uso de sustancias y para los trastornos por el uso de sustancias en tres áreas urbanas del norte de México y una ciudad capital localizada en el centro del país. La región norte es de particular interés por su proximidad con los Estados Unidos y por la evidencia previa de que el alcohol y las drogas es dos veces más común en esta región comparada con otras de la República. Por su nivel de desarrollo, su tama o poblacional y los datos epidemiológicos básicos que aporta sobre el uso de drogas, la ciudad de Querétaro provee un punto de comparación para las ciudades del norte más apropiado que un lugar como la Ciudad de México o el promedio nacional...
Effectiveness of an Secondary Prevention Program in Chronic Kidney Disease  [PDF]
Carlos Enrique Yepes Delgado, Yanett Marcela Montoya Jaramillo, Beatriz Elena Orrego Orozco, Paulina Bernal Ramírez, Luz Denise González, José Miguel Abad Echeverri, María Patricia Arbeláez Montoya
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2013.33026
Abstract:

Background: There are many programs which focus on late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), and it is considered that further evidence needs to be generated regarding the effectiveness of the programs used before renal replacement therapy. Study Design: A cohort study. Settings & Participants: Patients over 15 years of age who had been diagnosed with CKD according to the KDOQI (Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative) guidelines and who had undergone conventional treatment (CT) or a renal protection program (RPP). These were patients of two Colombian health insurance companies. Predictors: Age, sex, marital status, comorbidities, CKD stage, and clinical indicators. Outcomes: First CKD progression, and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). Measures: Clinical marker. Results: The RPP is structurally and functionally different from the CT. It offers the interdisciplinary management of patients, a greater number of medical appointments, and patients start to receive treatment at younger ages and at earlier stages of their condition. The clinical markers of the patients following the RPP are within adequate ranges, and their renal function is less impaired, despite the differences in basal conditions. Upon finishing the study, we found that patients who received CT had a higher risk of receiving nephrotoxic drugs and not receiving nephroprotective drugs. The explanatory variables for the first progression were age, stage, history of dyslipidemia, and hemoglobin, potassium, and albumin levels. These variables, together with glycemia levels were also valid for RRT, except for history of dyslipidemia, as it was not significant. Upon adjusting for the explanatory variables, it was found that belonging to the RPP and attending more appointments had a protective effect in the process of controlling renal damage. Limitations: A possible selection bias. Conclusions: Belonging to a structured renal protection program is an effective way to keeping the clinical markers associated with renal impairment within normal ranges.

Unmet needs for treatment of alcohol and drug use in four cities in Mexico
Borges, Guilherme;Medina-Mora, María Elena;Orozco, Ricardo;Fleiz, Clara;Villatoro, Jorge;Rojas, Estela;Zemore, Sarah;
Salud mental , 2009,
Abstract: introduction even though heavy alcohol consumption is frequent, alcohol-related consequences are common, and drug use has become more common in this country, we know very little about public health response and the types of treatments available for persons with substance use disorders in mexico. current national estimates show that about one in every five persons with alcohol and substance use disorders received treatment in the last 12 months, but to date the rates of treatment for local communities are unknown; these data are needed for policy planning at community level. this study presents data on the treatment for substance use and substance use disorders in three urban areas of northern mexico and one state capital in central mexico. the northern region is of particular interest in mexico because of its proximity to the united states and previous evidence that alcohol and drug use is about twice as common in this region compared with other regions. the city of queretaro provides a more appropriate comparison for the cities in northern mexico than a place as mexico city, or the national means, due to its level of development, population size, and basic epidemiologic data on drug use. material and methods the local surveys on addictions 2005 (encuestas locales de adicciones 2005) are part of the mexican national survey on addictions (ena) series, supported by the ministry of health (conadic- national council against the addictions), state and local governments, and the national institute of psychiatry (inp), and included the cities of tijuana (baja california), ciudad juarez (chihuahua), monterrey (nuevo leon) and queretaro (queretaro), as part of a continuous effort to monitor use of illicit substances in mexico. the 12-month prevalence of health and non-health care service use for treatment of substance use was estimated. correlates of service use, including interference with role impairment, were identified in logistic regression analyses that took into accou
Traumatic life events and posttraumatic stress disorder among Mexican adolescents: results from a survey
Orozco,Ricardo; Borges,Guilherme; Benjet,Corina; Medina-Mora,María Elena; López-Carrillo,Lizbeth;
Salud Pública de México , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342008000700006
Abstract: objective: to estimate the prevalence and the association of traumatic life events (les) and posttraumatic stress disorder (ptsd) among the mexico city metropolitan area (mcma) adolescent population. material and methods: adolescents aged 12 to 17 were administered the adolescent version of the world mental health composite international diagnostic interview (n=3 005). data were collected using a stratified, multistage and probability sample. prevalence, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for les and ptsd (assessed with dsm-iv criteria) were obtained. results: the percentage of adolescents reporting at least one traumatic event in their lifetimes was 68.9%, with differences by sex. prevalence for ptsd were 1.8% (2.4% females and 1.2% males), and sexual-related traumas were the les most associated with ptsd [or=3.9 (ci95%=1.8-8.2)], adjusted by sex, education and age. conclusions: exposure to traumatic life events is not uncommon among mexico city adolescents. effort should be made to reduce child and adolescent sexual abuse, a very traumatic event highly associated with ptsd.
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